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Computers in a Networked

World

Alter Information Systems 4th


ed.

Chapter Objectives
Typical measures of performance for Information
Technology
Basic components of a computer system
Different types of computers
Organizational approaches to computing
Computers as data processors
Input/output peripherals
Storage devices

Alter Information

Opening Case: Napster

An overnight sensation, and a serious


threat to the recording industry
Legal and ethical issues
Blurring the boundary between the
computer and the network to which the
computer is connected

Alter Information

Napster

Used a central point to organize peer to


peer sharing
Central point closed by court order
Peer to peer doesnt need a central point

Alter Information

Performance Variable for IT

Functional capabilities and limitations

Ease of use
Compatibility

The extent to which various related


technologies fit together

Maintainability

Price-performance ratio

Scalability the ability to change capacity


without major disruptions
Alter Information

PC Cost vs Time
120
100
80
60

Relative Cost

40
20
0
1955

1958

1962

1965

1968

1971

1974

Alter Information

Quotes

If cars had improved as much as


computers over the last 20 years, a Ford
would now cost Dh 100 and get 1,000,000
miles to the gallon.

TJ Watson

But would you want a car that crashed


several times a day?
Henry

Ford
Alter Information

PC Cost vs Time
120
100
80
60

Relative Cost

40
20
0
1984

1987

1990

1993

1996

1999

2002

Alter Information

Quotes

If cars had improved as much as


computers over the last 20 years, an
Acura would cost Dh 10 and get
1,000,000 miles to the gallon.

Bill Gates

But would you want a car that crashed


several times a day?
Ichiban

Kamasabi-san
Alter Information

Moores Law

10

The number of transistors on a chip


doubles every 18 months
Corollary: Costs per unit of memory fall by
1/2 every 18 months
Corollary: Software requirement for
memory doubles every 18 months

Alter Information

Moores Law

11

18 months ago, laptop cost Dh 6000


Today, laptop costs Dh 6000
Todays laptop has 2x memory, 2x faster
Software is 2x larger, 2x slower
Wait or buy???

Alter Information

Units of Measure for Technology


Operation

Measuring Amounts of Data

12

Bit, byte
Kilobyte (KB) 103 bytes
Megabyte (MB) 106 bytes
Gigabyte (GB) 109 bytes
Terabyte (TB) 1012 bytes

Alter Information

Measuring time

Measuring the rate of data transfer

13

Millisecond = 10-3 second


Microsecond = 10-6 second
Nanosecond = 10-9 second
Picosecond = 10-12 second
Bits per second (bps), Kbps, Mbps, Gbps
Alter Information

Measuring clock speed and transmission


frequency

14

Hertz (Hz) measures cycles per second


Current typical values for the internal clock of
PCs are between ??? MHz and ??? GHz

Alter Information

Measuring the speed of executing


instructions

MIPS million of instructions per second


FLOPS floating point operations per second
Better measure than MIPS for computers used for
scientific computations
Megaflops, gigaflops, teraflops

15

Alter Information

Overview of Computer
Systems

16

Alter Information Systems 4th


ed.

17

Computer = device that can execute


previously stored instructions
Program = a set of instructions for
performing a particular task
Hardware = the physical devices in a
computer system
Software = the programs
Alter Information

Basic Model of a Computer


System

Microprocessor or Central Processing Unit


(CPU) -executes the instructions
Random access memory (RAM) stores
the instructions and data the processor
works with
Peripherals:

18

Input devices
Output devices
Storage devices
Alter Information

Figure 8.1

19

Alter Information

Types of Computers

20

Personal computer (PC) a single-user


computer
Laptop and notebook computers
portable PCs
Personal digital assistant (PDA) and
palmtop computers handheld devices
Workstation powerful single-user
computer
Alter Information

21

Midrange computers multi-user computers,


typically shared by a department
Mainframes powerful computers, typically
linked to hundreds or thousands of terminals
Supercomputers the most powerful
computers at a given time. Used for both
scientific and business applications

Alter Information

22

Servers specialized computers,


performing specific tasks for other
computers in a network

Alter Information

Four Approaches to
Computing in Organizations
Centralized Computing
Personal Computing
Distributed Computing
Network Computing???

23

Alter Information Systems 4th


ed.

Centralized Computing
(1950s-80s)

A single mainframe or midrange computer


that performs the processing for multiple
users
Shortcomings:

24

Inefficient, since the computer must also


control each online user
Total reliance on the central computer
Must balance the workload, to avoid peak-load
problems

Alter Information

Centralized Computing

25

All users share data, applications, e-mail


Single source of control (system
administrator)
Password controlled
Communication expensive
Most employees had no direct access

Alter Information

Personal Computing
(1980s-90s)

26

Computers available as a personal tool at


any time
Graphical user interface (GUI) provides a
user friendly interface
Modern PCs can support several activities
at the same time
PCs not connected; data must be
replicated, no communication
Alter Information

Distributed Computing

27

Individual computers are linked through a


network
sharing of information and
computer resources
Needs controls and administration to coordinate
the sharing of resources
A more restricted, but also more effective
environment than personal computing
Windows NT/2000 allows centralized control
Alter Information

Network Computing???

Attempts to combine the traditional


benefits of centralization with the flexibility
& responsiveness of distributed computing
Based on stripped down PCs called
network computers or thin clients

28

Contain no hard disk


Data and programs are stored on centralized
servers
Alter Information

Network Computing???

29

In theory, cheap way to return to


centralized model
In practice, need massive computing
power/local storage to run network
applications because network applications
have massive anti-copy overhead
Require massive change in software
Cost savings unclear
Alter Information

Client server computing

30

Alter Information Systems 4th


ed.

Figure 8.5

31

Alter Information

Figure 8.6

32

Alter Information

Client/Server and Beyond

Client/server architecture different


processes on the network act as either
client or servers

A programming model

33

Clients send requests for services


The client and server programs may or may
not run on the same physical machine

Modularity
Alter Information

Advantages

Disadvantages:

34

User convenience
Technical scalability
Greater ability to maintain hardware & software from
different vendors
Computing power spread between client and server
Increased data and system administration efforts
Requires more total computing power
Alter Information

Middleware

35

The software tools that allow clients to


communicate with servers
Perform the necessary translation so that
the clients request can be understood by
the server

Alter Information

Peer-to-Peer

36

An alternative to the client/server


architecture for small networks
Each computer can play the role of server
for the other computers in the network
Appropriate when the network users
mostly do their own work, but occasionally
need to exchange data
Alter Information

How Computers Manipulate


Data

37

Alter Information Systems 4th


ed.

Converting Any Type of


Information to Bits- Figure 8.7

Binary representation of numbers

Computers perform calculations using base 2 (binary)


numbers

38

0s and 1s

Alter Information

Binary representation of text


Binary coding schemes
ASCII:

Uses 8 bits (= one byte) for each character


Enough for 256 different combinations

UNICODE:
A superset of ASCII
Uses 2 bytes for each character
Enough for 65,536 different combinations

39

Alter Information

Numerical representation of sounds and


pictures
Digitizing the process of creating a digital
representation of an image or sound

Pixel = picture element

Representations of this type are always

approximations
40

Alter Information

Figure 8.9

41

Alter Information

Data Compression

Digitizing images and video generates a


very large number of bits
Data compression uses computational
techniques to code the data by removing

redundancies

42

LOSLESS compression - used for business


data and text
LOSSY compression used for audio, video,
and some images
Alter Information

Data Encryption

43

The process of coding the data to make


them meaningless to any unauthorized
user
Authorized users can use a special
decoding process to convert the data back
to their original form

Alter Information

Machine Language

44

The computers internal programming


language
Specific to each family of microprocessors

Alter Information

Impact of Miniaturization and


Integration on Performance

Faster and more powerful processors

45

Integrated circuit an entire electronic circuit


is embedded on a single piece of silicon
called a chip
Miniaturization and integration reduce power
consumption and increase the power of
circuits

Alter Information

Other Approaches for Improving


Performance

Improved instruction set

Specialized processor

A task is divided into smaller tasks that are processed


simultaneously by different processors in the same computer

Grid computing

46

ASIC (application specific integrated circuits)


DSP (digital signal processor)

Parallel processing

RISC vs. CISC

A task is performed by different computers linked together

Alter Information

Data Input: Capturing Data

Keyboards and pointing devices


Optical character recognition (OCR)

47

Magnetic ink character recognition (MICR)

Capturing pictures, sounds, and video

Alter Information

Storing and Retrieving Data

48

Paper and micrographics


Magnetic tapes and disks
Optical disks
Flash memory
Smart cards

Alter Information

Data Output: Displaying Data

49

Screen outputs
Paper outputs
Audio outputs

Alter Information

Discussion Topic 1

50

The chapter mentioned information


technology performance variables in four
areas: functional capabilities and
limitations, ease of use, compatibility, and
maintainability. Assume you have a 5 year
old PC and are considering buying a new
one. Explain how each group of
performance variables is or is not
pertinent to your buying decision.
Alter Information

All four areas of information technology performance


are pertinent to the decision of buying a new
personal computer:

Functional capabilities:

51

Capacity: the new size of the hard disk and other storage devices to support
current applications.
Speed: the processor speed to execute current application programs.
Reliability: how long the new personal computer can remain operational
without the need to reboot it.
Operating conditions: do I have the necessary space and electricity for the
personal computer to operate?

Ease of use: is the new user interface intuitive to learn?


Compatibility: will I be able to connect my old peripheral devices,
such as modems and printers? Will I be able to run older software
programs?
Maintainability: will I be able to easily upgrade the capabilities of the
personal computer?

Alter Information

Case: Transmeta Corporation

52

1. Why might portable computing and


desktop computing call for different types
of microprocessors?

Alter Information

53

Portable computers need microprocessors


that do not consume much power, thereby
alleviating the need for heavy power
supplies. Desktop computers are not
intended to be portable and therefore can
afford having processors that may require
heavy power supplies.
Alter Information

Case: Transmeta Corporation

54

2. Review the performance variables in


Table 8.1. In which areas did the
Transmeta chip try to excel?

Alter Information

55

According to table 8.1, the Transmeta chip


tried to excel on operating conditions:
requiring less power, and therefore
requiring power supplies of less weight.

Alter Information

Case: Transmeta Corporation

56

3. Review the approaches mentioned in


the chapter for attaining higher levels of
computer performance. Which
approaches did Transmeta apply in its
Crusoe chip?

Alter Information

57

The Crusoe chip tried to attain higher level


of computer performance by separating
the Code Morphing software from the
actual implementation of the hardware.

Alter Information

Case: Transmeta Corporation

58

4. Look at Transmetas Web site. To what


extent is it possible for a manager to
evaluate the real benefits of Transmetas
product?

Alter Information

59

By checking Transmetas web site (


http://www.transmeta.com/), a nonengineer can get an idea, in non-technical
terms, of the benefits of the Crusoe chip in
terms of its performance, compatibility and
power consumption.

Alter Information