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# Tools of Research

## Collection of data is an important research activity, the

necessary direction for data collection is provided by the
central problem chosen to conduct research.
A number of research tools may be employed by the
researcher to find the facts, some of these are:

Library
Measurement
Statistics
Computer

## Library as a Tool of Research

Knowledge of library aspects such as the following is useful
to the researcher:
Physical Layout
Card Catalogue
Dewey Decimal Classification System
It has 10 major categories: 000-General Works, 100Philosophy, 200-Religion, 300-Social Sciences, 400Language, 500-Pure Science, 600-Technology, 700-The Arts,
800-Literature, 900-History, Biography
Each category is divided into 10 more categories and these
into yet another 10 ending with 999.
Useful References

## Measurement as a Tool of Research

Measurement involves quantification of the phenomenon on
hand and comparison with a standard
Quantification
It is a mathematical value given by researcher to an
observation e.g., dimensions of a room, scales, scores on
opinions
Unit of Measurement
Standard of measurement in terms of appropriate unit is
important

## Measurement as a Tool of Research Continued

Nominal Level of Measurement
Nominal means name e.g., boy or girl, bar charts can be used to
represent nominal data
Ordinal Level of Measurement
Ordinal means comparisons like >, < or =, e.g., student classification
as a number of statistics like mode, median, % or percentile rank can
be used
Interval Level of Measurement
Interval uses terms like meter, foot or mile, it employs a scale or scale
values, interval is standard, i.e. an inch is an inch, or points on CGPA
are fixed
Ratio Level of Measurement
Ratio scale has has true zero point, on interval scale zero can be
arbitrary, e.g., foot-rule is ratio scale, Celsius is interval scale

Scales Summary
Nominal Scale: measures in terms of designations or
discrete units, e.g., mode, %, or chi-square
Ordinal Scale: measures in terms of values as > or <, but
size of interval is not specified, e.g., mode, %, chi-square,
median, percentile rank
Interval Scale: measures in terms of equal intervals or
degrees of difference, zero point is arbitrary, e.g., mode,
median, S.D., t-test, F-test, product moment r
Ratio Scale: measures in terms of equal intervals and an
absolute point of origin, e.g, geometric mean, % variation
and all other statistics

## Statistics as a Tool of Research

Linear sequence
Statistical array
Average
Central point of data: mode, median, mean
Spread of data: normal/Gaussian curve, range, deviation from mean, standard
deviation
Existence of relationship: coefficient of correlation, variables and constants,
types of relationships
Regression lines
Interpretation of correlation coefficient
(0.00-0.20/Negligible, 0.20-0.40/Low, 0.40-0.60/Moderate, 0.600.80/Substantial, 0.80-1.00/High or Very High)
Testing the degree to which the data confirm to or depart from the expected
operation of the law of chance, normal theory, usefulness of normal curve

## Computer as a Tool of Research

MS Word
MS Excel
MS Project
Internet Explorer
Floppy Backup
CD Backup
Dot Matrix / Laser Printers
Computer Hardware / Software

Lesson-3: Exercise
Do this exercise in your library
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## Find out the system of classification used

Note down the Dewey Decimal Classification numbers
Copy the contents of any five cards from the card index
Label each item of information on the card as
Classification of the book in terms of subject matter
Call number
Number of pages in the book
Categories under which the book is catalogued, in addition
to the ways in which it has been catalogued
9. If such information is not available, create your own cards
on any subject