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Essential Question:

What were the terms of the


Treaty of Versailles that ended
World War I?
Warm Up Question:

Creating a Treaty of Versailles, 1919


Students will be assigned to won of 3
groups including Britain, France, & United
States and will create a Treaty of
Versailles to end the war
In your groups, review the things that
are most important to you & develop a
plan
Break into treaty groups & negotiate a
treaty with the 2 other nations
After you have created your treaty, add
up your points and see which nation
won

Topic

Brita Fran USA


in
ce

War Guilt
Should this clause be included in the treaty?

Yes/No

Germany is responsible for all the damage


of the war
Army
How many troops will Germany be allowed
to maintain?

Number

How many airplanes should Germany be


allowed to keep?
Navy
How many battleships will Germany be
allowed to keep?

Number

How many submarines should Germany be


allowed to keep?
Rhineland--The area between France and
Germany (Choose one)
Germany split up into many tiny states.

Number

Number

Check one box

Rhineland made an independent state free


of Germany control
Germany is not allowed to keep its military
in the Rhineland
Reparations
How much money should Germany be
forced to pay?
League of Nations
Should a League of Nations be created to
maintain peace in the world after World War
I?
New Territories
Alsace Lorraine (land taken by Germany in
1871) should be returned to France

How many
billion dollars
Yes/No

Yes/No
Yes/No

Recognize the Polish people and create a


nation of Poland from lands taken from
Germany and Russia

Yes/No

German overseas colonies should be taken


from them and made into mandates
overseen by European powers.

Yes/No

Austria-Hungary should be split into two


smaller, weaker nations: Hungary and
Austria
Recognize the Czech people and create
Czechoslovakia from land taken from
Austria-Hungary and Germany
Given independence to former Russian
territories of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia
Recognize Slavic nationalism and give the
Slavic territories of Bosnia and Herzegovina
to Serbia

Yes/No
Yes/No
Yes/No

World War I was


On November 11,
fought between
1918, the Germany
the Allies &
government agreed to
Central Powers
an armistice & World
from 1914 to 1918 War I came to an end

World War I was


the largest, most
deadly,
& most
destructive war
the world had yet
seen

8.5 million soldiers


&
13 million civilians
died
as a result of the
war

World War I was


the largest, most
deadly,
& most
destructive war
the world had yet
seen

21 million soldiers
were wounded
during the war

World War I was


Homes, farms, towns
the largest, most
were destroyed; The
deadly,
war cost $338 billion &
& most
most national
destructive war
treasuries were empty
the world had yet
seen

In 1919,
The conference
representatives
was led by the
from 32 nations
Big Four:
attended the Paris
Britain, France,
PeaceNeither
Conference
to nor any
Italy,
&the
the
Germany
of
U.S. to end
French
writeCentral
a treaty
United
States
Powers
were
allowed
to
President
Premier
the
war
attendRussia
could
not
attend
Woodrow
George
Italian Prime
British Prime
because
they already quit
WorldDavid
War I
Wilson
Clemenceau
Minister
Minister
Vittorio Orlando

Lloyd George

Britain
Creating
& France
a treaty would
Britain
not be
& France
easy
wanted
because
to the major
wanted
powers
Germany
had
to
weaken Germany
different agendas
accept full blame,
so it could never
pay reparations, &
go to war again
lose all overseas
colonies

U.S. President Woodrow


Wilson disagreed the
British
Prime
these
harsh
punishmentsFrench
Minister
David
Premier
for
Germany
President
Wilson
Lloyd
George
George
Italianpresented
Prime
U.S.
Clemenceau
Minister
President
his own peace proposal

esident Woodrow Wilsons Fourteen Points, 19

oints 1-5: Wilson hoped to eliminate the cause


of WWI & called for an end to secret treaties
(alliances), freedom of the seas, eliminating
mperial colonies, & reducing national militarie

oints 6-13: Wilson suggested changing nationa


boundaries, creating new nations, & allowing
self-determination so that the people of each
tion could decide their own form of governme

Point 14: Wilson wanted a League of Nations

that would give


all nations an
opportunity to
work out their
grievances without
resorting to war
Wilson hoped that
a League of
Nations could
peacefully
negotiate solutions
to future conflicts

Britain & France


disagreed with many
of the Fourteen
Points so Woodrow

These compromises
led to an agreement
known as the Treaty

The major provisions of the Versailles


A League of Treaty
Nationsincluded:
The League
that would serve as an
covenant included
international
an agreement that
organization
all member
to keep
peace
among
The League also
nations would
nations
included an Court of
work together to
International Justice to stop future acts of
settle disagreements
aggression

The terms of the treaty severely punished


Germanywas forced to sign
Germany had Germany
to give up
the war guilt clause
land in Europe accepting all blame for the
& all of its
war & pay $33 billion in
overseas
reparations
the Allies
The German military
was to
reduced
colonies
to 100,000 troops, 6 warships, no
submarines, & could not
manufacture war equipment

In
addition,
the
Treaty
of Versailles
Land
was taken
fromOttoman
Germany
Empire
Central
Europe
was
redrew
the
map
of
Europe
&
the
to
create
Poland;
The
Germanwas
divided;
Britain
redrawn to reduce
the
Middle
East
nations
French
border
was were
demilitarized
& France gained
power
ofNew
the
Austrocreated
to avoid
a future invasion
mandates in the
Hungarian
Empire
from territories that
Middle East
Russia gave up when it
left the war early

The mandates gave


Europe & the Middle
Britain
East

On June 28, 1919, Germany & the


major
Allied Powers signed the Treaty of
Versailles and World War I officially
came to an end

Most nations
celebrated the
official end of
World War I

But, Germans protested


the harsh terms &
resented their govt for
signing
Down
with the treaty
the brutal
peace!

In the United States,


reactions to the Treaty of
Versailles
were mixed
According to
the
U.S. Constitution,
only the Senate
can approve
treaties
Many
Senators
feared that
signing the treaty
& joining the
League would
force America to Members of the League of Nations
become
involved
(in black)
As a result,
the
in future
wars
USA
never signed the
treaty or joined

World War I was the largest war the world


had yet seen & it changed the way future
wars were fought
Nations used total
war tactics to
commit all their
resources to
winning, drafted
soldiers, rationed,
war
usedNew
propaganda
technologies
increased the rates
of
death & destruction
The
war changed
to
unprecedented
expectations
levels for
women & led to
voting rights for

World War I was the largest war the world


had yet seen & it changed the way future
wars were fought
22 million soldiers
& civilians died in
the war; An entire
generation of
Europeans was
Manykilled
places in
Europe were
destroyed
The war
devastated the
economies of
European nations
who had little
money to rebuild &

The terms of the Versailles Treaty caused


problems & bitterness in many nations,
especially Germany
The Treaty of
Versailles
was said to be a
peace built on
Thequicksand
treaty did not
address the M.A.I.N.
causes of WWI
The League of Nations
did not include the
USA & its leaders
would do anything to
avoid
another war &
High
unemployment
desire for revenge
would lead to
aggressive dictators