Sie sind auf Seite 1von 30

PILES.

DEFINITION:
A pile is a structural member & used to transmit
the load of a structure through a fluid or stratum
of low bearing value.
It protect bridge foundations from possible
score by flash floods, anchor structure s against
up lift, over turning & effects of earthquake
stresses.

PILE
DRIVING
EQUIPMENTS

HAMMERS.

External
Combustion
Hammers.

DRIVING
ACCESSORIES.

Internal
Combustion
Hammers

RIGS.

SPECIALIZED
DRIVING
EQUIPMENTS.

External Combustion
Hammers.

PRINCIPLE:
Burn the fuel that provides the energy for
the operation of the hammer outside of the
hammer itself.
External power sourcesthe crane itself, steam boilers, air
compressors,
and/or hydraulic power
packs to provide the energy to move the ram
upward, and in some hammers, downward
as well.

External
Combustion
Hammers.

Drop
Hammers.

Single-Acting Double-Acting
Air/Steam
Air/Steam
Hammers.
Hammers.

DifferentialActing
Air/Steam
Hammers.

Hydraulic
Impact
Hammers.

Vibratory
Drivers

Drop Hammers.

Principle: based on act


of gravity.

Oldest & simple type


hammer.
Made of a block of cast
iron of weight 1 to 3
tonnes.
External source of
power is not required.
Suitable for light piles.

Single-Acting Air/Steam
Hammers
Principle:
ram of hammer is raised
by the steam or
compressed air.

1.
2.

3.

Description:
number of blows 60
weight of hammer is 1 to
10 tonnes.
driving operation is lesser
than drop hammer.
Suitable where:
1.underwater
2. very fast driving of
lighter piles .

WORKING OF SINGLE ACTING HAMMER

1.
2.

3.

Working cycle:
Ram reaches to top by compressed steam .
Then pressure of steam is released so that
hammer fall down with gravity on anvil of pile.
This cycle is going on till completion of
operation.

Double-Acting Air/Steam
Hammers

PRINCIPLE:
Steam acts on both
side of piston.
Steam below piston,
rises ram on top &
then steam on piston
drives it down.
DESCRIPTION:
Speed of ram is 100
blows per minute.

Working of double acting


air/steam hammer

1.

2.
3.

In operation, the motive fluid first enters the inlet port and flows
through the lower opening of the valve to the underside of the
piston.
The top opening of the valve completes a path from the topside
of the piston to the exhaust port. As the fluid lifts the piston,
The ram then falls, its velocity increased by the fluid pressure on

Differential-Acting
Air/Steam Hammers.

PRINCIPLE OF: Differential-Acting


Air/Steam Hammers
These are similar to double-acting hammers
except that the air or steam is constantly
pressurized under the piston.

DESCRIPTION:
Weight of hammer is 1 to 20 tonnes.
Speed of hammer is 100 to 130 blows per
minute.

SUITABLE FOR:
Only where piling work involves widely varying
conditions of driving

Working of Differential acting


air hammer

Hydraulic Impact
Hammers.
PRINCIPLE:
PRINCIPLE:

Based on
principle of
differential
hammer but
utilizes
hydraulic fluid
in place of
steam or
compressed
air.

Hydraulic Impact Hammers.

1.

2.

3.

ADVANTAGES:
Maximum driving efficiency.
Reduces air pollution, noise & vibration
level.
Three key operating parameters (stroke,
blow rate & dwell on pile cap) are
automatically controlled.

4.

Lower set up, lower expenditure in shifting.

5.

Fast work & low energy consumption.

VIBRATING HAMMER

PRINCIPLE
Hammer blows are
struck on the pile
head with certain
frequency of
vibration.
Vibratory unit is
used to produce
vibration.
Vibrations are
generated by
electric motors.

VIBRATING HAMMER

1.

ADVANTAGES:
Speed of driving is high as four
times Double acting hammer.

2.

Low noise level, used in busy


location.

3.

Latest development is SONIC


HAMMER

INTERNAL COMBUSTION
HAMMERS

INTERNAL
COMBUSTION
HAMMERS

Open-end
Diesel
Hammers.

Closed-end
Diesel
Hammers.

1.Open-end Diesel
Hammers.

Parts

(1) Upper Cylinder


(2) Piston
(3) Fuel Tank
(4) Fuel Pump
(5) Lower Cylinder Lubrication
(6) Anvil Block
(7) Oil Hose for Anvil Block
Lubrication
(8) Water Tank:
(9) Oil Pump

(10) Oil Tank


(11) Starting Device or Crab
(12) Staring Device or Crab Guide
(13) Oil Hose for Ram Rings
(14) Filling Throat Plug
(15) Drain Throat Plug

WORKING

Stages in Cycle:
I. Ram up (start), scavenging
II. Termination of scavenging, fuel feed
III. Termination of compression stroke, blow
deliveries on anvil block, fuel combustion
IV. Termination of fuel combustion, exhaust,
beginning of scavenging.

Closed-end Diesel
Hammers. A. Lifting Line
from Crane
E. Anvil
B. Ram
F.
Exhaust Ports
C. Starting
Device
G.
Fuel Pump
Lever Rope
D. Fuel Pump
X.
Compression
Chamber

ADVANTAGES OF DIESEL
HAMMER

1.

2.

3.

4.

Does not required any external power


source.
Hammer is lighter in weight (1 to 30
tonnes).
Economical.
Suitable for medium hard driving
condition.

DRIVING ACCESSORIES:

PRINCIPLE:
It is not possible for the striking end of the
ram of an impact hammer to directly
adapt itself to all shapes of piles; therefore,
it is necessary to have driving accessories
of various types to be inserted between the
bottom of the hammer and the pile to both
mate the two geometrically and transmit
the force of impact from hammer to pile.

DRIVING
ACCESSORIES

Hammer
Cushion.

Anvil.

Pile Cushion.

Helmet.

Mandrel.

PRINCIPLE:

RIGS:

All pile drivers require some kind of rig to lift hammer


and pile and to guide the system into the ground

CRANE:

(1) Cranes for Impact Hammers:


It must have three lifting lines, one for the
hammer, one for the pile, and one for the leaders (if
swinging leaders are used; if not, two will suffice).
(2) Boom Point Connection:
Inadequate or poorly designed and
manufactured boom point connections can lead to
accidents
(3) Cranes for Vibratory Hammers:
It is important that cranes for vibratory
hammers have adequate capacity to both lift the hammer
and pile for driving and any possible extraction load that
might be needed to pull piles out of the ground.

Power Systems :
All external combustion hammers and the vast
majority of vibratory hammers require some kind of power
source to operate the equipment. This power source depends
upon the nature of the hammer.
Leaders:
Leaders are essential for properly guiding the impact
hammer and pile downward during driving

LEADERS

Fixed
Leaders.

Swinging
Leaders.

SPECIALIZED DRIVING
EQUIPMENTS :
1

Jetting equipments:
(a) Fixed Jets
(b) Movable Jets

Underwater Driving equipments.

Preboring equipments.

Pile Driving Analyzer. (PDA).

PROBABLE QUESTIONS
1.

LIST OUT THE DIFFERENT EQUIPMENTS USED IN


PILE DRIVING.

2.

GIVE ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF


DIFFERENTIAL & HYDRAULIC IMPACT HAMMER.

3.

EXPLAIN WORKING OF DIESEL HAMMER.

4.

EXPLAIN WORKING OF SINGLE ACTING &


DOUBLE ACTING HAMMER.

5.

WRITE SHORT NOTE ON DROP HAMMER.