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Histology of Bone

Tissue

Histology of Bone Tissue


It contains an abundant extracellular
matrix that surrounds widely separated
cells.
The extracellular matrix contains:
15 % water
30 % collagen fibers
55 % crystallized mineral salts

Four types of cells are present in


bone tissue:
Osteogenic cells
Osteoblasts
Osteocytes
Osteoclasts

Cells in Bone Tissue


Osteogenic cells
Are bone stem cells
the only bone cells to undergo cell division
They form osteoblasts
They are found in:
inner portion of the periosteum
endosteum
canals within bone that contain blood vessels

Cells in Bone Tissue


Osteoblasts
They are bone-building cells
Functions:
Synthesis of collagen fibers and other organic
components needed to build ECM
Initiating calcification

As they surround themselves with ECM,


they become osteocytes.

Cells in Bone Tissue


Osteocytes
mature bone cells
Are the main cells in bone tissue
Their function is to maintain bone
tissues metabolism
Like osteoblasts, osteocytes do not
undergo cell division.

Cells in Bone Tissue


Osteoclasts
Huge cells derived from the
fusion of as many as 50
monocytes
They are concentrated in
the endosteum.

Cells in Bone Tissue


Osteoclasts
Ruffled border:
deeply folded plasma membrane.
Here the cell releases powerful
lysosomal enzymes and acids that
results in resorption

Cells in Bone Tissue


Osteoclasts
help regulate blood calcium level in
response to certain hormones.
They are also the target cells for drug
therapy used to treat osteoporosis.

Cells in Bone Tissue


Osteoclasts
Resorption
Digestion of protein and mineral
components of the ECM of bone.
It is part of the normal development,
growth, maintenance, and repair of bone

Compact Bone Tissue


Also referred to as cortical or dense bone
Is the type of bone tissue observed at the surface of a
bone
It makes up the bulk of the diaphyses of long bones
It is porous, with an abundance of microscopic
spaces and canals.
It provides protection and support and resists the
stresses produced by weight and movement.

Compact Bone Tissue


Osteons/haversian systems
repeating structural units that
composes of compact bone
Each osteon consists of concentric
lamellae arranged around a central
(haversian) canal.

Compact Bone Tissue


Osteons/haversian systems
Concentric lamellae
are circular plates of mineralized ECM of
increasing diameter
surrounds a small network of blood
vessels, lymphatics, and nerves located
in the central canal

Compact Bone Tissue


Osteons/haversian systems
Lacunae
are small spaces between the concentric
lamellae
They contain osteocytes

Compact Bone Tissue


Osteons/haversian systems
Canaliculi
are tiny small channels Radiating in all
directions from the lacunae
They are filled with extracellular fluid
slender fingerlike processes of
osteocytes are inside it

Compact Bone Tissue


Osteons/haversian systems
Canaliculi
They connect lacunae with one another and
with the central canals
Forming miniature system of interconnected

canals throughout the bone.

This system provides blood circulation to the


osteocytes

Compact Bone Tissue


Osteons/haversian systems
Osteons of long bone are aligned in
the direction parallel to the length of
the diaphysis
Long bone resists bending or fracturing
even when considerable force is applied
from either end.

Compact Bone Tissue


Osteons/haversian systems
Interstitial lamellae
The lamellae that are contained in the areas

between neighboring osteons


It also have lacunae with osteocytes and

canaliculi.
They are fragments of older osteons that have

been partially destroyed during bone growth.

Compact Bone Tissue


Osteons/haversian systems
Perforating canals/Volkmanns
canals
Transverse canals through which neurovasculatures from the periosteum
penetrate the compact bone
Their neuro-vasculatures connect with
those of the medullary cavity, periosteum
and central canals.

Compact Bone Tissue


Osteons/haversian systems
Circumferential lamellae
lamellae that are arranged around the
entire outer and inner circumference of
the shaft of a long bone

Compact Bone Tissue


Osteons/haversian systems
Outer circumferential lamellae
circumferential lamellae directly deep to the
periosteum.
They are connected to the periosteum by
Sharpeys fibers.

Inner circumferential lamellae


circumferential lamellae that line the medullary
cavity

Spongy Bone Tissue


Also referred to as trabecular or
cancellous bone tissue
They does not contain osteons
It is always covered by a layer of
compact bone for protection.
It consists of trabeculae

Spongy Bone Tissue


Trabeculae
Are lamellae that are arranged in an irregular

pattern in the spongy bone


Between them there are spaces that are filled

with red bone marrow /yellow bone marrow


Each of them consists of concentric lamellae,

osteocytes and canaliculi

Spongy Bone Tissue


Makes up the interior bone tissue of
short, flat, sesamoid, and irregularly
shaped bones.
In long bones it forms
core of the epiphyses
narrow rim bordering the medullary cavity of
the diaphysis.

Spongy Bone Tissue


Spongy bone is different from
compact bone in two respects.
1. Spongy bone tissue is light
allows the bone to move more readily when
pulled by a skeletal muscle.

2. Their trabeculae support and protect

the red bone marrow.