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BROADCAST

ENGINEERIN
G
Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.
1

prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A.


Samaniego Jr.

Broadcasting
Definition

refers to the airborne


transmission of
electromagnetic audio signals
(radio) or audio-visual signals
(television) that are readily
accessible to general public
via standard receivers.
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

Types of BROADCASTING
STANDARD

AM
BROADCAST
FM BROADCAST
INTERNATIONAL
BROADCAST
TELEVISION BROADCAST
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

ELECTROMAGNETIC
SPECTRUM
Low

Frequency (LF) : 30 kHz 300 kHz


LF Broadcasting (Europe)
Medium Frequency (MF) : 300 kHz 3
MHz
AM radio broadcasting, (535 1605 kHz)
High Frequency (HF) : 3 MHz 30 MHz
SW (short wave) broadcasting

prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

ELECTROMAGNETIC
SPECTRUM

Very High Frequency (VHF) : 30 MHz 300


MHz

Ultra High Frequency (UHF) : 300 MHz 3


GHz

FM radio broadcasting (88 108 MHz), low-band


VHF TV broadcasting (54 72 MHz and 76 88
MHz), high-band VHF TV broadcasting (174 216
MHz).

UHF Terrestrial TV (470 890 MHz)

Super High Frequency (SHF) : 3 GHz 30


GHz

Satellite Broadcasting
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

AM BROADCAST: History
AM was the dominant method of
broadcasting during the first eighty years of the
20th century and remains widely used into the
21st.
AM radio began with the first, experimental
broadcast on Christmas Eve of 1906 by
Canadian experimenter Reginald Fessenden,
and was used for small-scale voice and music
broadcasts up until World War I. San Francisco,
California radio station KCBS claims to be the
direct descendant of KQW, founded by radio
experimenter Charles "Doc" Herrold, who made
regular weekly broadcasts in San Jose, California
as early as June of 1909. On that basis KCBS has
claimed to be the world's oldest broadcast
station and celebrated its 100th anniversary in
the summer of 2009.
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

AM BROADCAST: History

The great increase in the use of AM radio


came late in the following decade as radio
experimentation increased worldwide
following World War I. The first licensed
commercial radio services began on AM in
the 1920s. XWA of Montreal, Quebec claims
status as the first commercial broadcaster
in the world, with regular broadcasts
commencing on May 20, 1920. The first
licensed American radio station was started
by Frank Conrad, KDKA in Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania. Radio programming boomed
during the "Golden Age of Radio" (1920s
1950s). Dramas, comedy and all other forms
of entertainment were produced, as well as
broadcasts of news and music.
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

AM Broadcast: Operation

AM radio technology is simpler


than FM radio, DAB, Satellite Radio
and HD Radio.
An AM receiver
detects amplitude variations in the
radio waves at a particular frequency.
It then amplifies changes in the signal
voltage to drive a loudspeaker or
earphones. The earliest
crystal radio receivers used a crystal
diode detector with no amplification.
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

AM Broadcast: Operation
DAB

- Digital Audio Broadcasting


is a digital radio technology for
broadcasting radio stations, used in
several countries, particularly in Europe.
As of 2006, approximately 1,000
stations worldwide broadcast in the DAB
format.[2]

prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

10

AM Broadcast: Operation
Satellite

radio or subscription radio

(SR)
is a digital radio signal that is
broadcast by a communications satellite
, which covers a much wider
geographical range than terrestrial radio
signals.

prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

11

AM Broadcast: Operation
HD

Radio Technology
is a system used by AM and FM
radio stations to transmit audio and
data via a digital signal in conjunction
with their analog signals.

prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

12

Frequency Bands
AM

radio is broadcast on several


frequency bands. The allocation of these
bands is governed by the ITU's
Radio Regulations and, on the national
level, by each country's
telecommunications administration (the
FCC in the U.S., for example) subject to
international agreements.
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

13

Frequency Bands

Long wave is 148.5 kHz283.5 kHz, with 9


kHz channel spacing generally used. Long
wave is used for radio broadcasting in
Europe, Africa and parts of Asia (ITU region
1), and is not allocated in the Western
Hemisphere. In the United States and
Canada, Bermuda and U.S. territories this
band is mainly reserved for aeronautics
navigational aids, though a small section of
the band could theoretically be used for
microbroadcasting. Due to the propagation
characteristics of long wave signals, the
frequencies are used most effectively in
latitudes north of 50.
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

14

Frequency Bands
Medium

wave is 520 kHz1,610 kHz. In


the Americas (ITU region 2) 10 kHz
spacing is used; elsewhere it is 9 kHz.
ITU region 2 also authorizes the
Extended AM broadcast band between
1610 kHz and 1710 kHz. Medium wave
is by far the most heavily used band for
commercial broadcasting. This is the
"AM radio" that most people are familiar
with.
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

15

Frequency Bands

Short wave is 1.711 MHz30.0 MHz, divided


into 15 broadcast bands. Shortwave
broadcasts generally use a narrow 5 kHz
channel spacing. Short wave is used by audio
services intended to be heard at great
distances from the transmitting station. The
long range of short wave broadcasts comes at
the expense of lower audio fidelity. The mode
of propagation for short wave is different (see
high frequency). AM is used mostly by
broadcast services other shortwave users
may use a modified version of AM such as SSB
or an AM-compatible version of SSB such as
SSB with carrier reinserted.
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

16

The Standard AM
Uses

amplitude modulation technique


and operates in the 535 1605 kHz with
107 channels, starting from 531 kHz
onward with 9 kHz spacing

prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

17

Amplitude

modulation (AM) is a
technique used in electronic
communication, most commonly for
transmitting information via a radio
carrier wave. AM works by varying
the strength of the transmitted signal
in relation to the information being
sent. For example, changes in the
signal strength can be used to reflect
the sounds to be reproduced by a
speaker, or to specify the light
intensity of television pixels.
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

18

COMPONENTS OF AN AM RADIO
BROADCAST
studio
studio-to-transmitter link (STL)
radio transmitter
transmission line
antenna

prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

19

Studio
A

studio is an artist's or worker's


workroom, or an artist and his or her
employees who work within that
studio. This can be for the purpose
of architecture, painting, pottery (
ceramics), sculpture,scrapbooking,
photography, graphic design,
cinematography, animation, radio or
television broadcasting or the
making of music.
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

20

Studio Requirements of a
Broadcast Station
Microphones
Turn

tables
Compact discs, VCD, DVD
Cartridges, DigiCart (digital cartridge)
Cassette tapes (open reel)
Audio mixer control
Automatic Program Level Amplifier
Monitor Receiver
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

21

STUDIO-TO-TRANSMITTER LINK

is a fixed station that broadcasts program


material from studio to transmitter by radio
link.
Operates at UHF
Uses directional antenna
STL transmitter is on the studio site
STL receiver is on the transmitter site.

prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

22

STL Frequency Band


Band
A
B
C

Operating Freq.
300 315 MHz
734 752 MHz
942 952 MHz

Max. Power
15 W
15 W
15 W

prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

23

AM RADIO TRANSMITTER
Amplifies the audio signal
Amplitude modulates the audio signal
with a carrier
Feeds the modulated signal to the
transmission line
Ensures that the station does not generate
spurious radiation or causes interference
Ensures that it meets the standards set by
the government
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

24

Types of Broadcast
Main Transmitter
Transmitter
Alternate

Transmitter
Auxiliary Transmitter
Note:
main and alternate transmitter must
be co-located, similar power and
frequency.
Auxiliary may be co-located with main
transmitter, power gain may be less.
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

25

TRANSMISSION LINE

Delivers the modulated signal to the


antenna
Should introduce least attenuation as
possible to the signal
Should minimize radiation
Should provide proper shielding to the
signal from external interference

prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

26

AM Antenna System
Antenna

Site Considerations
1. location in relation to the population
to be served and to other installations
and airport.
2. conductivity of the soil at and
immediately adjacent to the site.
3. conductivity of the path between the
site and the target area.

prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

27

Service Area of a Standard AM Station


PRIMARY SERVICE AREA
If there is no fading and interference of the
signal
SECONDARY SERVICE AREA
If there is fading but no objectionable cochannel interference
INTERMITTENT SERVICE AREA
If the signal is subject to some
interference and fading
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

28

BROADCAST DAY
DAYTIME : refers to a broadcast from local
sunrise to local sunset.
NIGHT TIME : refers to a broadcast from
local sunset to local sunrise
EXPERIMENTAL PERIOD : maintenance
are done from midnight to local
sunrise
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

29

AMPLITUDE MODULATION STANDARDS


Parameters
Occupied Spectrum
Allocated BW
BW per Station
# of Stations
Spacing bet. Stations
CF Tolerance
Guardband
Intermediate Freq. (IF)
Modulation Scheme
Type of Emission
Receiver Characteristic
Audio Frequency

535-1605 kHz
1160 kHz
9 kHz
107 Stations
36 kHz
+ 20 Hz
+ 500 Hz
455 kHz
AM
A3E
Superheterodyne
50-15,000 Hz

30

The FM Broadcast
FM

broadcasting is a
broadcast technology
invented by
Edwin Howard Armstrong that
uses frequency modulation
(FM) to provide high-fidelity
sound over broadcast radio.
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

31

The FM Broadcast
In

telecommunications, Frequency
modulation (FM) conveys information
over a carrier wave by varying its
frequency (contrast this with amplitude
modulation, in which the amplitude of
the carrier is varied while its frequency
remains constant). In analog
applications, the instantaneous
frequency of the carrier is directly
proportional to the instantaneous value
of the input signal.
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

32

FM Broadcast Bands
Throughout

the world, the broadcast


band falls within the VHF part of the
radio spectrum. Usually 87.5 - 108.0
MHz is used, or some portion thereof,
with few exceptions:
In the former Soviet republics, and
some former Eastern Bloc countries,
the older 65-74 MHz band is also
used. Assigned frequencies are at
intervals of 30 kHz. In those countries
the 87.5-108.0 band is referred to as
the CCIR band.
In Japan, the band 76 - 90 MHz is
used.
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

33

The FM BROADCAST
Uses frequency modulation technique
and operates in the 88 108 MHz band with
100 channels, each 200 kHz wide starting at
88.1 MHz.
Class
A
B
C
D

Service Authorized Power


Comm
10 25 kW
Comm
1 10 kW
Non-Comm
1 kW
Educational
10 W

ERP
125 kW
30 kW

AHAAT
2000 ft
500 ft

prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

34

CENTER FREQUENCY OF nth


BROADCAST STATION
FMn = FM1 + .2(n 1)

prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

35

REMOTE PICK UP BROADCAST STATION


Band

Frequency

A
B
C

315-325 MHz
450-451 MHz
455-456 MHz

Power
35W
35W
35W

prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

36

Important
Frequency Swing - refers to the
Terminologies

instantaneous departure of the


frequency of the emitted wave from
the center frequency resulting from
modulation.
Antenna Height Above Average
Terrain (AHAAT) - refers to the
height of the radiation center of the
antenna above the terrain 3 to 16 km
from the antenna
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

37

Important
Antenna Field Gain Terminologies

refers to the
ratio of the effective free space field
intensity produced at 1.6 km in the
horizontal plane expressed in mV/m
for 1 kW antenna input power to
137.6 mV/m.
Antenna Power Gain - refers to
the square of the ratio of rms free
space field strength produce at 1.6
km in the horizontal plane expressed
in mV/m for 1 Kw antenna input
power to 137.6 mV/m.
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

38

FM BROADCAST STANDARDS
Parameter

Technical Standards

Occupied Spectrum
Allocated BW
BW per Station
Spacing bet. Station
Tolerance
Freq. Deviation
Guardband
Intermediate Freq. (IF)
Receiver Characteristic
Audio Frequency

88 108 MHz
20 MHz
200 kHz
800 kHz
+2 kHz
+75 kHz
+25 kHz
10.7 MHz
Superheterodyne
50-15,000 Hz

prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

39

Shortwave International Broadcast


refers to a broadcast or transmission of
signals to the general public in foreign target areas.
Band A: 5.95 6.20 MHz
Band B: 9.50 9.77 MHz
Band C: 11.7 11.97 MHz
Band D: 15.1 15.45 MHz
Band E: 17.7 17.9 MHz
Band F: 21.45 21.75 MHz
Band G: 25.6 26.1 MHz

prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

40

Shortwave Broadcast
SW

receivers are capable of receiving


shortwave transmissions (2,000 to
30,000kHz or 2 to 30MHz). Depending
on time of day, season of year, solar
weather and Earth's geomagnetic field,
a signal might reach around the world.

prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

41

SW Broadcast Transmitter
Output Power
1950s:
1960s:

100kW
200kW, early 1960s (2 x
100kW 'twinned')
1970s: 300kW, but many 250kW
transmitters sold
1980s: 500kW sometimes
transmitters were "doubled up" to
produce 1000 Kw output
1980s-Present: 600kW single,
1200kW from twinned transmitters.
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

42

Important
Operating Frequency Terminologies

refers to the
frequency at any particular time.
Authorized Frequency - refers to the
carrier frequency authorized by the
authority.
Operating Power - refers to the
transmitter output power.

prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

43

Important
Terminologies
Maximum Rated Carrier Power refers to the maximum power at which
transmitter can be operated
satisfactorily and is determined by the
design of the transmitter.
Authorized Operating Power - refers
to the power authorized by the
authority.

prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

44

Broadcast Station Test


Equipment Test : test which are done for the
transmitting equipment after the transmitter has
been installed
Equipment Performance Test : test made on
all audio equipment, this is done by getting the
response of the transmitter to AF.
Proof-of-Performance Test : test used to
determine antenna radiation pattern of any
directional array, on this, antenna field strength
are measured
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

45

Emergency Broadcast System


Is a system wherein a broadcast
station, in case of a national, state, or local
emergency provides broadcast to the general
public. This is done by transmission of a
simultaneous two-tone attention signal (853
and 960 Hz for 23 sec), followed by an
announcement of the details of the
emergency.

prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

46

Logs : is a listing of the date and time of


events, programs, equipment parameters,
tests, malfunctions, corrections, etc.
Types:
Program Log
Operator Log
Maintenance Log

prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

47

Stereo a means of making music or the sound


two dimensional to listeners.
For AM:
KAHN system
In this technique , it independently modulates the
sideband signals of the AM carrier, one for the right
and the other for the left channel, to provide the
stereo effect.
CQUAM (compatible quadrature amplitude
modulation
Under this method, the system transmit the stereo
sum signal in the usual manner, and places the
stereo difference signal on a phase modulate subchannel. Decoder circuit in the receiver reconstruct
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.
the stereo signals.

48

FM Stereo Broadcast
FM Stereo a means of transmission by which
separate L and R signals can be made to frequency
modulate a single radio carrier.

prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

49

FM Stereo Broadcast
Two

audio channels (L and R) are mixed


to provide two new signals. The first is
the sum of the two input channels
(L+R), and the second is the difference
of the two (L-R).
The sum channel (L+R) is modulated
directly in the baseband assignment
between 50 and 15 kHz.

prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

50

FM Stereo Broadcast
The

difference signal (L-R) is DSBSC


modulated in the 23 to 53 kHz slot
about a stereophonic subcarrier of 38
kHz.
Some FM stations are frequency
division multiplexing an additional
channel on their carrier for the
purpose of providing background
music for public buildings, a system
licensed as Subsidiary
Communications Authorization (SCA)
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

51

TELEVISION SYSTEM
Definition

is defined as a system for


transmitting images and sound by
converting them into electrical or radio
waves which are converted back into
images and sound by a receiver.

prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

52

HISTORICAL
PERSPECTIVE
1878

- William Crookes in England


invented the Crookes tube which
produce cathode rays.
1884 - Paul Nipkow in germany
built a mechanical scanning device,
the NIpkow disc.
1897 - Karl Ferdinand Braun also
in Germany modified the Crookes
tube to produce the ancestor of the
modern TV receiver picture tube.
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

53

HISTORICAL
PERSPECTIVE
1906

- Boris Rosing in Russia began


experimenting with the Nipkow disc and
cathode-ray tube eventually succeeding
in transmitting some TV pictures.
1923 - Vladimir Zworykin in the USA
invented the first electronic camera
tube, the ICONOSCOPE.

prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

54

HISTORICAL
PERSPECTIVE
1926

- John Logie Baird


demonstrated a workable TV system (30
lines/frame, 5 frames/sec) using
mechanical by Nipkow disc.
1928 - Baird demonstrated color TV
1929 - BBC began regular
broadcasting using Baird system (405
lines/frame, 25 frmaes/sec)
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

55

HISTORICAL
PERSPECTIVE
1975

- Sony introduced their video


cassette tape recorder system.
BETAMAX for domestic viewers.
1979 - Matsushita in Japan developed
a pocket sized flat screen using liquid
crystal display (LCD)

prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

56

TV Broadcast
Distribution
Terrestrial

Distribution
TV programming is distributed by
terrestrial microwave systems.
The principal advantage in its
infrastructure that provided many
routing alternatives.
the primary disadvantage was the
poor performance of long repeater
cascades as compared to satellite
transmission circuits.
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

57

TV Broadcast
Distribution
Satellite

Program Distribution
space stations in the Domestic
satellite service are being used
extensively for distribution of television
programming.
it has vastly improved performance
over terrestrial networks provided that
carrie-to-noise limitations can be
overcome.
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

58

TV Broadcast
Distribution
DBS

(Direct Broadcast Satellite)


a way of broadcasting directly to the
public or intended for direct home
reception.
alloted bands are 12.2 to 12.7 GHz
(downlink) and 17.3 to 17.8 GHz (uplink)

prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

59

TELEVISION CHANNEL ALLOCATION


Channel Number
(MHz)
24
56
7 13
14 83

Frequency Band
54 72
76 88
174 216
470 890

prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

60

TV BROADCAST STANDARDS
Parameter
Lines/frame
Lines/sec (Hz)
Vertical Freq.(Hz)
Frames/sec
Channel BW (MHz)
Video BW (MHz)
Type of Aural Carrier
Transmission Polarity
Color System
Color Subcarrier (MHz)

FCC
525
15,750
60
30
6
4.2
FM
Negative
NTSC
3.58

European
625
15,625
50
25
7 or 8
5 or 6
AM or FM
Negative
PAL/SECAM
4.43

NTSC National Television Standards Committee


PAL - Phase Alternate/Alternation by Line
SECAM Sequential Color Avec memory
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

61

Y, I, Q MATRIX WEIGHTING
Luminance - contains all information required to construct a black
and white picture from the signal.
In-Phase/Quadrature
Y = 0.30R + 0.59G + 0.11B
I = 0.60R - 0.28G - 0.32B
Q = 0.21R - 0.52G + 0.31B
Primary Color Signals
R = 0.62Q + 0.95I + Y
G = -0.64Q 0.28I + Y
B = 1.73Q 1.11I + Y
where: Y luminance signal
; R red signal
I - In phase signal
; G green signal
Q Quadrature signal
; B blue signal
Chrominance - chrominance is a combination of both hue and
saturation
CM = (I2 + Q2)1/2 - magnitude
Cp = 33o (tan-1 Q/I) phase angle
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

62

ADDITION OF COLORS

prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

63

prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

64

VECTOR SCOPE

prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

65

PICTURE QUALITIES
Brightness the overall or average intensity, which
determines the background level in the reproduced picture.
Contrast - the difference in intensity between black and
white parts of the reproduced picture.
Color Level or Saturation - the color information
superimposed on a monochrome picture that depends on
the amplitude of the 3.58 MHz chrominance signal
Hue - the color of an object that depends on the phase
angle of the 3.58 MHz chrominance signal.
Aspect Ratio - the ratio of width to height of the picture
frame
Details - the quality of details, which is also called
resolution or definition, depends on the number of picture
elements that can be reproduced.

prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

66

Picture Definitions:
Parameter
Width of line
Aspect ratio
# of pixels in vertical

Equation
w = V/N
a = H/V = NH/NV
NV = N - N S
Nv = 0.7(N Ns)

# of pixels in horizontal

NH = a x Nv
NH = BWVID x 2Ttrace

Tot. # of pixels/hor. Line

NL = NH/0.835
NL = N H

Tot. # of pixels in a frame

Np = NL x Nv
Np = NH x Nv

Video BW

Time to scan a pixel


Time to scan N pixels

BW = (NL x H)/2
= Nv/80
= 0.35NL x H
t = 53.5 usec/NH
tN = (#of pixels) x t

prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

67

Interlaced Scanning
is

a technique of improving the


picture quality of a video signal
primarily on CRT devices without
consuming extra bandwidth.
Interlaced scan refers to one of two
common methods for "painting" a
video image on an electronic display
screen (the second is progressive
scan) by scanning or displaying each
line or row of pixels.
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

68

Progressive Scanning
is

a method for displaying, storing or


transmitting moving images in which
all the lines of each frame are drawn
in sequence.
This is in contrast to the interlacing
used in traditional television systems
where only the odd lines, then the
even lines of each frame (each
image now called a field) are drawn
alternatively.
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

69

TYPES OF CAMERA TUBES


o Image Orthicon - consist of three main sections; the
image section, scanning section, and the electron
amplifier.
o Vidicon - consist of a glass envelope with an optically
flat faceplate at the end to receive the light input. In
this basic camera tube, the photosensitive target, or
image plate, is made of antimony trisulfide
o Plumbicon - Trademark of Phillips. The camera tube
is similar to the basic vidicon, but the image plate of
plumbicon is made of lead oxide ( PbO ).
o Saticon - Trademark of Hitachi. Image plate is made
of selenium, arsenic, and tellurium.
o Silicon Dioxide Vidicon - a silicon semiconductor
junction is used for the target material in the silicon
vidicon.
o Chainicon trademark of Toshiba Electric Co. Ltd.
The target is complex multilayer arrangement
consisting of tin oxide, cadmium selenide, and arsenic
trisulfide.
o Newvicon - Trademark of Matsushita. The target is
made of an amorphous zinc-selenium layer barked by
antimony trisulfide.
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

70

Details of Horizontal
Blanking
Period
Total Line (H)
H Bl;anking
H Sync Pulse

Time (uS)
63.5
9.5 to 11.5 (typically 10.5)
4.75 + 0.5

Front Porch

1.27

back Porch

3.81

Visible Line Time

52 to 54
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

71

Details of Vertical Blanking


Period
Total Field (V)

Time
16.7 ms

V Blanking

0.05V to 0.08V

V sync Pulse

0.5H = 31.76 us

Total of six V sync Pulses

3H = 190.5 us

Each Equalizing Pulse

0.04H = 2.54 us

Each Serration Pulse

0.04H = 2.54 us

Visible Field Time

0.92 to 0.95
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

72

Raster Distortion
INCORRECT ASPECT RATIO:
- this is due to insufficient output from
the signal or vertical deflection circuit
a. insufficient width
b. insufficient height
PINCUSHION AND BARREL
DISTORTION
- if the deflection is not uniform at the
edges
of the raster, compared with its center,
the raster will not have straight edges.
TRAPEZOIDAL DISTORTION
- caused by non-symmetrical deflection,
either left or right, or top to bottom due to
defective deflection yoke
prepared by: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.