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# CHAPTER 3

SUPER STRUCTURE

Definition
- physical or conceptual structure extended or developed from a basic form.
- The part of a building or other structure above the foundation

SUPER STRUCTURE

2.2 Building
2.2.1 Ground Floor
2.2.2 Column
2.2.3 Upper Floor
2.2.4 Staircase
2.2.5 Roof
2.2.6 Finishing
2.2.7 Mechanical & Electrical Services
2.2.8 External Works Attached to Building

SUPER STRUCTURE

2.3 Infrastructure
2.3.2 Drainage System
2.3.3 Retaining Wall
2.3.4 Landscape
2.3.5 M&E Works
2.4 Specializes Construction
2.4.1 Bridges
2.4.2 Box Culvert
2.4.3 Dam
2.4.4 Air Port
2.4.5 High Rise Building
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2.1

- must consider not only what loading conditions might effect a structure, but
also how those loads are transferred from their point of origin through the
structure to the ground.
- design decisions concerning the structural framing system will dictate this
flow of forces
- Normally base on load from
- Roof truss roof beam column foundation
- Wall beam column foundation
- Slab beam column foundation

2.1

## The load at the midspan of the joint

of the frame is illustrated as a large
arrow pointing down. This load is
split into two parts, with a proportional
part going to each end of the beam.
This in turn becomes a point load at
the midspan of the smaller beams.
They transfer the load to the earth.
The load on each column in this case
is only one quarter of the initial load.
This is one method of distributing a load.

2.1

## The second drawing illustrates

a wooden floor of thick planks that
span between two beams. Each
of the four squares of the flat
surfaces is the tributary area
of the beam below it.
A tributary area of a structural
element (such as a joist, beam,
column, or wall) is the area that
contributes to the loading of that specific element. In this case, the plans
transfer their loads and pass them on to the two beams. These beams
can only transfer their loads equally to the two columns which support them.
Thus, the tributary area can be drawn by determining the supporting
characteristics of the horizontally spanning members.
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2.1

## This is again illustrated

below for a simple frame
gathered by each
structural element and
passed on to that
element's supporting
elements. These
supports in turn pass
supporting element until
been transferred all the
way to the earth.

2.1

can have a direct effect upon the size of the elements. Load
members. This may or may not be indicated by the designed form of
that element.

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2.2

Building

2.2.1 Ground Floor (Non Suspended Floor : Setting Out, Lean Concrete,
Ground Beam, Ground Slab, Starter bars, Water Proofing, Plastic
Sheet, Suspended Floor)
2.2.2 Column
2.2.3 Upper Floor
2.2.4 Staircase
2.2.5 Roof
2.2.6 Finishing
2.2.7 Mechanical & Electrical Services
2.2.8 External Works Attached to Building

## This is typical step of building construction, it may have some

various when it came to real practices.. Good luck
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2.2.1

Ground Floor
(Non Suspended Floor : Setting Out, Lean
Concrete, Ground Beam, Ground Slab, Starter bars, Water
Proofing, Plastic Sheet, Suspended Floor)

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2.2.1

Ground Floor
(Non Suspended Floor : Setting Out, Lean
Concrete, Ground Beam, Ground Slab, Starter bars, Water
Proofing, Plastic Sheet, Suspended Floor)

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2.2.1

Ground Floor
(Non Suspended Floor : Setting Out, Lean
Concrete, Ground Beam, Ground Slab, Starter bars, Water
Proofing, Plastic Sheet, Suspended Floor)

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2.2.1

Ground Floor
(Non Suspended Floor : Setting Out, Lean
Concrete, Ground Beam, Ground Slab, Starter bars, Water
Proofing, Plastic Sheet, Suspended Floor)

- Provide a level surface that is capable of supporting all the live and dead
-Critical with moisture
-need water proofing (chemical product, liquid or powder)
-sometime, plastic sheet is just enough
-depend with site condition normally mention in drawing or document
contract
-Lean concrete
-Construct base on setting out
-shape, point, corner, drop, construction joint
-Define structure level
-check with all drawing, such as shop drawing, construction drawing of
C&S and Architect)
-Always refer with general detail drawing

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2.2.1

## -Ground floor include

-Ground beam
-Backfill inside ground beam
-Lean concrete
-Anti-termite protection
-Damp proof membrane
-Install rebar
-Thickness normally around 150mm to 200mm (can be more)
-Density depend on specification (25N/mm2, 30N/mm2 or more)
-Construct base on setting out
-shape, point, corner, drop, gradient, construction joint
-Define structure level
-check with all drawing, such as shop drawing, construction drawing
of C&S and Architect)
-Always refer with general detail drawing
-Always provide starter bars for next structure (slab or column)

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2.2.1

## -only use side formwork to form shape of the ground floor

-define M&E and services piping or ducting location and level before place
concrete
-Install chairs for spacer
-Set up joint inspection, joint survey (architect, engineer, surveyor)
-check with all drawing, such as shop drawing, construction drawing
of C&S and Architect)
-Set up machineries, manpower, tools, equipment, materials, logistic,
weather forces before proceed with concreting
-Always plan for back up (during concreting)
-Pouring concrete can be done by using concrete bucket and crane or
concrete pump
-Side formwork can be removed after 1 days (depend on size of the
structure)

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2.2.1

## Ground Floor (Non Suspended)

Function of floor
- The provision of a uniform, level surface
- Sufficient strength and stability
- Durability
- Sound Insulation
- Thermal insulation
-Fire Protection
- Life Load such as furniture, equipment or machinery, people and
etc.

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2.2.2

Column
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2.2.2

Column

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2.2.2

Column

## - starter bars, check on numbers, size, location, lap length

-many shape,
-square, round, diamond, triangle, combination of any shape
-alignment and orientation of column
-vertical or arch
-height of column depend on structure and architect drawing (calculate or
stated)
-Set numbers of formwork (recycle concept, save time and cost)
-Install vertical bars with sufficient number of link and check
-Lap length (bottom and top)
-Spacer block
-Install M&E piping or ducting
-Install formwork base from setting out and check verticality of the
formwork

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2.2.2

Column

## - process of concreting almost same with ground floor

but vertical drop of concrete cannot be more than 1.5
meter high why???
-Require opening on one side of the vertical formwork
which is not exceed 1.5 m high how???
-concrete chute is an alternative
-How to support formwork
-How to do plum on the formwork

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2.2.2

Column

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2.2.2

Column

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2.2.2

Column

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2.2.2

Column

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2.2.3

Upper Floor

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2.2. 3

Upper Floor

## Normally suspended floor

- Beam and slab cast together
- Continue from starter bars from column
Construction process
- conventional or traditional method (cast in-situ)
- modern or industrialized method (precast, system formwork)
Typical method of construction from first floor up to roof beam
Provide a level surface that is capable of supporting all the live
Provide area under need for M&E services

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2.2. 3

Upper Floor

## - Conventional or traditional method

- Setting out
- Install soffit formwork for beam
- Install side formwork for beam
- Install formwork for slab
- Install rebar for beam & slab
- Install any starter bars required
- Install spacer block and chairs
- Install ducting or conduit for M&E
- Construct any required opening
- Make sure location of drop
- Joint inspection (surveyor, engineer, architect, M&E)
- concreting
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2.2. 3

## Upper Floor (conventional method)

- Well known
- Economy for low cost project
- Material, easy to get
- Easy to modify base on drawing

- Time constrain
- no working area under the floor
- for concrete to cure

## Required skill workers

Not so systematic (base on experience)
Do not allow for cold joint
Very congested
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2.2. 3

## - modern or industrialized method

- Setting out
- Normally using system formwork (beam & slab)
- Install rebar for beam & slab at fabrication yard
- Cast slab or beam at fabrication yard (pre-stress structure)
- Install beam or slab
- Install ducting or conduit for M&E
- Construct any required opening
- Make sure location of drop
- Joint inspection (surveyor, engineer, architect, M&E)
- Concreting (topping up)

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2.2. 3

## Advantage of modern or industrialized method

- Fast track project
- Economy for high cost project
- Sectional slab and beam re-design by consultant or design by
consultant at early stage
- Easy to construct and maintain cleanliness
- Systematic
- Reduce +/- 50% of concrete volume (hollow section)
- Reduce +/- 25% of reinforcement weight
- Reduce +/- 10% of foundation size
Disadvantage of modern or industrialized method
- Required skill workers
- Cannot simply cut for opening
- Take time to study and plan for the system
- Not every contractor can afford cost and ability to construct
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2.2. 3

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2.2. 3

## Upper Floor (Pre-cast Floor)

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2.2. 4

Staircase

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Stairs
Terminology:
Stairwell: the space in which the stairs and
landings are housed.
Stairs: a set of steps inside the building going
from one level to another.
Tread: the upper surface of a step on which the
foot is placed.

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Handrail

Riser
Flight

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Stairs
Nosing: the exposed edge of a tread, usually
projecting with a square, rounded of splayed
edge.
Riser: the vertical member between two
Flight: a series of steps without a landing.

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Stairs
Newel: post forming the junction of flights of
stairs with landings.
Strings: the members receiving the ends of steps
which are generally housed to the string; called
wall or outer strings according to their position.

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Stairs
Handrail: protecting member usually parallel to
the string and spanning between newels.
Baluster: the vertical infill member between a
string and handrail.

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2.2. 4

Staircase

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2.2. 4

Staircase

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2.2. 4

Staircase

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2.2. 4

Staircase

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2.2. 4

Staircase

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2.2. 4

Staircase

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2.2. 4

Staircase

-Purpose
-Provide access between various level with in building
-Also use for escape in case of fire (designer have to comply with
regulation or act regarding materials, position, size and safety)
- types of staircase
-In-situ Single straight stairway (simply support, landing to landing)
- in-situ Staircase with landing between bottom and upper floor (popular)
-Inclined slab
-String beam
-Cranked or continuous
-cantilever
-Spiral staircase (in-situ or pre-cast)
-Pre-cast concrete staircase
-Single straight
-Cranked
-Open riser
-Metal staircase
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2.2. 4

Staircase

## -In-situ Single straight flight stairway

-Simple design and construction
-simply support
-landing to landing
-Space occupies

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2.2. 4

Staircase

- in-situ Staircase with landing between bottom and upper floor (popular)
-Inclined slab (fig: 12.1.3)
-Landing usually at mid point of the rise
-Equal flight span
-Reduce effective span and bending moment
-Tension lab is required at top and bottom of each flight to overcome
the tension
-Give better visual from the underside

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2.2. 4

Staircase

- in-situ Staircase with landing between bottom and upper floor (popular)
- string beam stairs (fig: 12.1.4)
-An alternative design
-A string or edge beam is used to span from landing to landing
-A string results in a thinner waist dimension and overall saving in the
concrete volume
-Required extra formwork for string beam

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2.2. 4

Staircase

- in-situ Staircase with landing between bottom and upper floor (popular)
- cranked slab stairs (fig: 12.1.5)
-Very often used, because the half space landing has no visible
support
-Design as cantilever slab (half space landing )
-Required more reinforcement at slab area
-Create problem for concreting process (massy rebar)

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2.2. 4

Staircase

- in-situ Staircase with landing between bottom and upper floor (popular)
- cantilever stairs (fig: 12.1.6)
-Sometime called spine wall stairs
-Consist a vertical RC wall between flight to half space landing
-Because of cantilever, rebar is place in the top of the flight slab and
landing slab (for negative bending moment)
-Can be single strait flight or two equal flight with intermediate half
space landing

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2.2. 4

Staircase (Pre-cast)

## - Pre-cast concrete staircase

-better quality control of the finish product
-saving site space (no storage for fw and fabrication)
-stairway enclosing shaft can be utilized as a space for hoisting or
-lifting materials during the major construction period
-can be positioned and fixed by semi skilled operative
- Pre-cast concrete staircase have
-Single flight stairs
-Cranked slab stairs
-Open riser stairs
-Spiral stairs

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2.2.5

Roof

Include
- RC roof beam
- Roof truss (timber, aluminium, metal)
- Roof tiles (clay, cement, PVC)
How to construct roof beam
- Setting out
- Install soffit beam and follow by side formwork
- Install rebar
- Inspection and concreting
Install services
Install trusses, heat insulation and roof tiles
Finally, install ceiling
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2.2.5

Roof

Function of roof
- To keep out rain, wind, snow and dust
- To prevent excessive heat loss in winter
- To keep the interior of the building cool in the summer
- To accommodate all stress encountered
- To accept movement due to changes in temperature and moisture
content

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Roofs
Functions :

## Provide resistance to heat loss to the internal environment

Type of roofs :

Flat roofs

: 0 10o

Pitched roofs

: > 10o

Material of roofs :

## Steel structure + tiling or sheet covering

Concrete structure

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Roofs
Stability
Maintenance
Thermal
properties

## Exclusion of wind &

rain
Functional
Requirements
For Roof

Provide
Natural daylight Strength

Durability
Aesthetically
Fire
Resistance

Degree of
Sound insulation
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RIDGE
BOARDS
COMMON
RAFTER
S

VALLEY JACK
VALLEYRAFTERS
RAFTER
HIP
RAFTERS

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Roofs Member

## Ridge: the spine of the roof; the apex line of the

sloping roof; the apex of the angle formed by the
termination of the inclined surfaces at the top of a
slope.
Common Rafters: the main loadbearing members of
a roof; the span is between a wall plate at eaves level
and the ridge.

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Roofs Member
Hip: it is the ridge formed by the intersection of two
sloping surfaces.
Hipped End: it is the sloped triangular surface formed at
the end of a roof

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Roofs Member
Jack Rafters: these fulfil the same functions as
common rafters but span from ridge to valley
rafter or from hip rafter to wall plate.
Hip Rafters: similar to a ridge but forming the
spine of an external angle and similar to a rafter
spanning from ridge to wall plate.

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Roofs Member
Valley Rafters: as hip rafter but forming an
internal angle.
Wall Plate: these provide the bearing and fixing
medium for the various roof members and
distribute the loads evenly over the supporting
walls; they are bedded in cement mortar on top
of the walls.

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Roofs Member
Ceiling Joists: these fulfill the dual function of
acting as ties to the feet of pairs of the rafters
and providing support for the ceiling boards on
the underside and any cisterns housed within
the roof void.
Purlins: these are horizontal wooden or steel
members, used to support common rafters of
a roof when span is large.
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Roofs Member
Struts: these are compression members which
transfer the load of a purlin to a suitable
loadbearing support within the span of the roof.
Collars: these are extra ties to give additional
strength and are placed at purlin level.

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Roofs Member
Eaves: the lowest edge which overhangs the
wall thus giving the wall a degree protection;
also fixing medium for the rainwater gutter.
Two types:
Open eaves
Closed eaves

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Roofs Member
Verge: the edge of a gable, running between
the eaves and ridge.
Eaves board or fascia board: wooden board
fixed to the common rafters at the eaves.
Barge board: timber board used to hold
common rafter forming verge.

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Truss Construction
A truss is a framed or jointed structure.
Jointed together with the aid of
galvanised mild steel nail plate
connectors.
The truss comprises rafters, struts, ties
and ceiling joist (often called a ceiling
tie).
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Truss Construction
Much faster and more economical to use
prefabricated trusses in place of rafters
and joists.
It takes significantly less labour than stick
framing.
A truss will span a greater distance
without a bearing wall.
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2.2.6

## Floor, Wall and ceiling

Doors, door frames
Windows, window frames
Partitions
Ironmongery
Painting and decorating
Interial design
Water supply
Sanitary fitting

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2.4.5

## A high-rise is a tall building or structure. Normally, the function of the

building is added, for example high-rise apartment building or high-rise
offices
High rise = 491 feet (150 m) high (about 6 floor)
Skyscraper = taller than 492 feet (150 m)
the structural system of high-rise buildings are reinforced concrete and steel
design challenges for structural and geotechnical engineers
Needs : building systems like the building standpipe system, HVAC systems
(Heating, Ventilation and Air conditioning), fire sprinkler system and other
things like stairwell and elevator evacuations pose significant problems

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2.4.5

## Need a proper plan and study

Need a QA & QC to control the quality
Safety factor are important for pre-stage, during construction and after
completion
Require specialties and equipment
Skill workers
Proper method of construction (plan and do trial mock up)
No mistake at all
High end engineering construction and technology

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Taipei 101

Petronas
Towers

City:

Taipei

Kuala Lumpur

Country:

Taiwan

Malaysia

Status:

built

Finished
:
Floors:

Name:

Use:

CITIC Plaza

Shun Hing
Square

Hong Kong HK

Guangzhou
GD

China

China

built

1974

88
office

Sears Tow
er

## Jin Mao Towe

r

2 International Financ
e Centre

Chicago
IL

Shanghai
SH

built

United Sta
tes
built

2004

1998

101
mixed use

Antenna
:

lding

Central Plaz
a

Shenzhen
GD

NY

Hong Kong
HK

China

China

United States

China

built

built

built

built

built

1998

2003

1997

1996

1931

1992

108

93

90

80

69

102

78

office

mixed use

office

office

office

office

office

527.3 m

Spire:

508 m

Roof:

448 m

452 m

415.8 m
420.5 m

442.3 m

448.7 m

413.8 m

391.1 m

384 m

406.9 m

321.9 m

324.8 m

374 m
381 m

309 m

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Name:

Singer B
uilding

Met Life To
wer

Woolworth B
uilding

New York
City
NY

New York Ci
ty
NY

y
NY

Countr
y:

United
States

United
States

Status:

destroye
d

Finish
ed:
Floors:

City:

Use:

Petronas
Towers

Taipei 101

Chicago
IL

Kuala
Lumpur

Taipei

United States

United
States

Malaysia

Taiwan

built

destroyed

built

built

built

1930

1931

1972

1974

1998

2004

71

77

102

110

108

88

101

office

office

office

office

office

office

mixed use

448.7 m

526.3 m

527.3 m
452 m

508 m

Trump Build
ing

Chrysler Bui
lding

New York
City NY

New York
City NY

New York
City NY

New York
City NY

United
States

United
States

United
States

United States

built

built

built

built

1908

1909

1913

1930

47

50

57

office

office

office

Antenn
a:
Spire:
Roof:

Empire State
Building

Center

Sears T
ower

318.9 m
186.6 m

213.4 m

241.4 m

282.5 m

282 m

381 m

417 m

442.3 m

448 m

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