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CURRENT TRENDS

IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

A BRIEF TIMELINE
2000 BC: COMPOSTING ALREADY PART OF LIFE IN CHINA
1500 BC: IN KNOSSOS, MINOANS CREATED LANDFILL SITES
500 BC: ATHENIANS INSTITUTIONALIZED PROPER WASTE DISPOSAL
1ST CENTURY AD: SHEOL WAS A BURNED DUMP SITE OUTSIDE JERUSALEM
200 AD: ROMANS DEVELOPED FIRST SANITATION FORCE
250 AD: MAYAN INDIANS OF CENTRAL AMERICA ALSO USED BURNED DUMPS
1297: BRITAIN PASSED A LAW PROHIBITING GARBAGE DISPOSAL ON THE STREETS
1340: BLACK PLAGUE KILLS (75 MILLION PEOPLE) 30-60% OF EUROPES POPULATION
1354: KING EDWARD III ORDERS REGULAR RAKING OF EXCRETA FROM GUTTERS
1388: ENGLISH PARLIAMENT BANS DUMPING OF WASTES IN WATERWAYS
1407: BRITISH GOV'T RULED TO KEEP HOUSEHOLD WASTES INDOORS UNTIL COLLECTED
1588: ELIZABETH I GRANTED PRIVELEDGES FOR COLLECTION OF RAGS FOR PAPERMAKING

A BRIEF TIMELINE
1800: CHARLES GOODYEAR DISCOVERED VULCANIZATION
1839: POLYSTYRENE (PS) WAS DISCOVERED BY EDUARD SIMON
1856: ALEXANDER PARKES CREATED FIRST MAN-MADE PLASTIC PARKESINE
1872: POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) WAS CREATED BY EUGENE BAUMANN
1907: BAKELITE WAS INVENTED BY LEO HENDRIK BAEKLAND
1908: CELLOPHANE WAS CREATED BY JACQUES BRANDENBERGER
1941: POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE (PET) WAS CREATED BY WHINFIELD AND DICKSON
1955: THE THROWAWAY CONCEPT WAS INTRODUCED TO THE CONSUMERS
1959: FIRST WARNING LABELS WERE PRINTED UNTO PLASTIC BAGS
1961: INDUSTRY SHIFTS RESPONSIBILITY TO CONSUMERS KNOWN AS LITTER BUGS
1977: PAPER OR PLASTIC WARS BEGIN
1982: PLASTIC BAG MARKET GROWS FROM 4% TO 50%

A BRIEF TIMELINE
1988: PLASTIC BAG BAN PROPOSED IN NEW YORK
1990: PLASTIC INDUSTRIES WORKED TOGETHER AND OVERTURNED PLASTIC BAG LAW
1996: 80% OF GROCERY BAGS USED ARE MADE OF PLASTIC
1997: GREAT PACIFIC GARBAGE PATCH DISCOVERED BY ALGALITA MARINE RESEARCH
1998: GEORGE A. MAKRAUER WARNS INDUSTRIES OF PLASTICS BAGS ADVERSE EFFECTS
2005: CHICOBAG, A REUSABLE BAG WAS INTRODUCED BY ANDY KELLER IN CALIFORNIA
2007: SAN FRANCISCO BANS PLASTIC BAGS. OAKLAND AND FAIRFAX (CALIF.) FOLLOWED
2009: 5 GYRES INSTITUTE WAS FOUNDED; SUBTROPICAL GYRES WERE CIRCUMNAVIGATED
2009: RETAIL GIANT WALMART STARTS TO BAN THE BAG FOLLOWING COSTCO & TARGET
2010: REUSABLE BAG VS. SINGLE-USE BAG. MORE CITIES BAN PLASTIC BAGS.
2011: USLS MEE STUDENTS ORGANIZED THE ECOLOGY FORUM: THE PLASTIC BAG REGULATION ORDINANCE =)

EMERGING GLOBAL PROBLEMS


+MORE PEOPLE 9,000 MILLION BY 2050
+MORE CONSUMPTION
+MORE WASTE GENERATION 13,100 MILLION TONS

+MORE POLLUTION
-LESS LAND FOR LANDFILL
-DEPLETING RESOURCES

EMERGING GLOBAL PROBLEMS


50% OF THE WORLD POPULATION LIVE IN CITIES
IT IS EXPECTED TO INCREASE 70% BY 2050
50% OF TOTAL URBAN POPULATION LIVE IN ASIA

THE THROWAWAY CULTURE

PLASTICS: MADE TO LAST FOREVER,


DESIGNED TO BE THROWN AWAY.

EMERGING TRENDS IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

MEANWHILE IN THE
PHILIPPINES

Current Trends in Solid Waste Management


in the Philippines
In 2000, Republic Act 9003 or the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of the Philippines
Was enacted to provide framework for managing the growing problem of solid waste in the country.

SWMB Solid Waste Management Board was Created.


In 2004, a total of 103 cities representing 94% of the total 109 had organized their SWMB.
Only 49 cities or 44% have an effective SWMB.
Formulation of the SWMP Solid Waste Management Plan
91 cities or 85% of the 107 urban centers formulated their 10-year SWMPs.
Only 67 cities had their SWMPs in accordance with RA 9003, 15 cities are below benchmark capacities.

25 cities demonstrated high performance levels in formulating quality SWMPs..

Current Trends in Solid Waste Management


in the Philippines
Barangay and City level MRFs were established.
Household level waste segregation was encouraged.
Composting of Biodegradable wastes were to be used as fertilizers or soil conditioners.
Innovative ways of Recycling Non-biodegradable wastes were introduced.
Innovative ways of waste collection using dump trucks, tricycles, pedicabs and pushcarts.
Closure of hazardous open dump pits.
Construction of Sanitary and Controlled Landfills
Only 2% of the cities in the entire country can afford to establish sanitary landfills

THANK YOU !