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Conventional Class

for IES-2016
It is not simply question

answer which has to be


given. I
am giving
everything related to that
question which may be
asked.

Content

1. Welding
2. Casting
3. Metrology
4. Unconventional Machining
5. Other Machine tools
6. NC, CNC, Robotics, Automation
7. Jig Fixtures
8. Theory of Metal Cutting
9. Metal forming
10. Material Science

Welding

IES 2009 Conventional


Explain the three types of oxy-acetylene
flames. Indicate with the help of sketches
the various zones, respective temperature
ranges and applications of each type of
flame.
[ 20 Marks]

Three types of flames can be obtained by


varying
the
oxygen/acetylene
(or
oxygen/fuel gas) ratio.
If the ratio is about 1 : 1 to 1.15 : 1, all
reactions are carried to completion and a
neutral flame is produced.
Most welding is done with a neutral flame. It is
chemically neutral and neither oxidizes or
carburizes the metal being welded.

Oxy-acetylene gas welding neutral flame

A higher ratio, such as 1.5 : 1, produces an

oxidizing flame, hotter than the neutral flame


(about 3300oC) but similar in appearance.
Used when welding copper and copper alloys
but harmful when welding steel because the
excess oxygen reacts with the carbon,
decarburizing the region around the weld.

Oxy-acetylene gas welding Oxidising flame

Excess fuel, on the other hand, produces a

carburizing flame. Carburizing flame can


carburize metal also.
The excess fuel decomposes to carbon and
hydrogen, and the flame temperature is not as
great (about 3000oC).
Flames of this type are used in welding Monel
(a nickel-copper alloy), high-carbon steels, and
some alloy steels, and for applying some
types of hard-facing material.

Oxy-acetylene gas welding Carburizing flame

What types of Oxyacetylene flames you


will use to weld
(i)Copper base metals
(ii)High carbon steel?

Metal

Flame

MS
High carbon steel
Grey cast iron

N
R
N, slightly oxidizing

Alloy steel
Aluminium
Brass
Copper, Bronze
Nickel alloys
Lead

N
Slightly carburizing
Slightly oxidizing
N, slightly oxidizing
Slightly carburizing
N

Always

use the special wrench or key


provided by the supplier to open and close
acetylene cylinder valves not provided with
hand wheels. Such keys should always be left
on the cylinder while in use in case of an
emergency need to shut down

Q. What are the various five gases used for gas


welding? Give their chemical compositions,
formula and specific

heat content. Indicate

also the maximum temperature reached in the


respective flames. What percentage of oxygen
is supplied by the torch in any one of the fuel
gases? Give the chemical reactions in the
various zones of the neutral flame.
[30 marks]

Five gases used for gas welding


1. Acetylene (C2H2) gives 50 MJ/Kg
2. Hydrogen (H2) 11 MJ/m3
3. Propane (Gasol) C3H8
4. Propylene (THERMOLENE) C3H6

5.

LPG

Combustion of oxygen and acetylene (C2H2) in

a welding torch produces a temp. in a two


stage reaction.
In the
C2 Hfirst
Ostage
2CO H 2
2
2
+ Heat
This reaction occurs near the tip of the torch.
In the second stage combustion of the CO and
H2 and occurs just beyond the first combustion
1
zone.
2
2CO + O2 2CO2 + Heat
H2 + O2 H2O + Heat
Oxygen for secondary reactions is obtained

IAS-2011 Main
Draw a self explanatory sketch of oxyacetylene gas cutting torch. Briefly explain
how cutting is effected.
[20-Marks]

For thicker plates with specified contour,

shearing cannot be used and oxy-fuel gas


cutting (OFC) is useful.
Gas-cutting is similar to gas welding except
torch tip.

Fig- differences in torch tips for gas welding and


gas cutting
Contd

Oxygen Torch Cutting (Gas Cutting)


Iron and steel oxidize (burn) when heated to a

temperature between 8000C to 10000C.


High-pressure oxygen jet (300 KPa) is directed
against a heated steel plate, the oxygen jet
burns the metal and blows it away causing the
cut (kerf).
For cutting metallic plates shears are used.
These are useful for straight-line cuts and also
for cuts up to 40 mm thickness.
Contd

For complete oxidation 0.287 m3 oxygen/kg of

iron is required
Due to unoxidized metal blown away the
actual requirement is much less.
Torch tip held vertically or slightly inclined in
the direction of travel.
Torch position is about 1.5 to 3 mm vertical
from plate.

Contd

The drag lines shows the characteristics of the

movement of the oxygen stream.

Drag

Fig- positioning of cutting torch in oxy- fuel gas


cutting
is the amount by which the lower edge

of

the drag line trails from the top edge.


Good cut means negligible drag.
Contd

If torch moved too rapidly, the bottom does

not get sufficient heat and produces large


drag so very rough and irregular-shaped-cut
edges.
If torch moved slowly a large amount of slag
is generated and produces irregular cut.

Contd

Gas cutting is more useful with thick plates.


For thin sheets (less than 3 mm thick) tip size

should be small. If small tips are not available


then the tip is inclined at an angle of 15 to 20
degrees.

Fig. Recommended torch position for cutting thin


steel

IFS-2011
What is meant by low -hydrogen electrode ?
[2-marks]

Low Hydrogen
Electrode
The basic coatings contain large amount of

calcium carbonate (limestone) and calcium


fluoride (fluorspar) and produce low
hydrogen.
But it can absorb moisture therefore
coated low hydrogen electrodes are backed
before use to a temperature of 200oC to
3000C and stored in an oven at 110oC to
150oC
Other types of electrode release large
amount of hydrogen, which can dissolve in

IFS-2011
What is the maximum output current that can
be drawn at 100% duty cycle from a welding
power source rated at 600A at 60% duty
cycle.
[3-Marks]

Duty Cycle
The percentage of time in a 5 min period that

a welding machine can be used at its rated


output without overloading.
Time is spent in setting up, metal chipping,

cleaning and inspection.


For manual welding a 60% duty cycle is

suggested and for automatic welding 100%


duty cycle.

Contd

I
Required duty cycle,
Ta T
Ia

Where ,T = rated duty cycle


I = rated current at the rated duty cycle
Io = Maximum current at the rated duty
cycle

IAS-2013

Sketch the set-up for spot welding showing


details of power input and electrodes:
(i)Draw

the

force/time

and

current/time

diagrams.
(ii) Explain how heating takes place.
(iii) Indicate order of magnitude of current,
voltage and time.
(iv) How projection welding is different from spot
welding?

[10 Marks]

Fig.
The
desired
temperature
distribution across the
electrodes and the work
pieces in lap resistance
welding.

Fig.
Typical
pressure cycle
welding. The
forging and
operations.

current
and
for resistance
cycle includes
post heating

The overall resistance in the welding circuits

can be quite low, high currents are generally


required to produce a resistance weld. Power
transformers convert the high-voltage, lowcurrent line power to the high-current (up to
100,000 A) low-voltage (0.5 to 10 V)
power required for welding. While smaller
machines may utilize single-phase circuitry.
Time for a cycle will be 10 to 100 milliseconds.

Fig. The arrangement of the electrodes and the


work in spot welding, showing design for

Projection welding
Limitations of spot welding.
1. Electrode condition must be maintained

continually, and only one spot weld at a


time.
2. For additional strength multiple welds
needed.
Projection welding (RPW) overcomes above
limitations.

Contd

Dimples are embossed on work pieces at the

weld locations and then placed between largearea electrodes, and pressure and current
applied like spot welding.
Current flows through the dimples and heats
them and pressure causes the dimples to
flatten and form a weld.

Fig. Principle of
projection welding,
(a) prior to
application of current
and pressure
(b) and after
formation of weldsContd

Projections are press-formed in any shape.


Multiple welds at a time.
No indentation mark on the surface.
Bolts and nuts can be attached to other metal

parts.

IES 2007
What is the principle of resistance welding?
Indicate where the resistance is maximum
in spot welding operation.
[ 2 marks]

Write the advantages, applications, current


and power input that may be required in
flash welding. Why flashing is essential?
[5 marks]

Flash Welding
It is similar to upset welding except the arc

rather than resistance heating.


One pieces is clamped with cam controlled

movable platen and other with is fixed platen.

Contd

Two pieces are brought together and the power

supply is switched on. Momentarily the two pieces


are separated to create the arc to melt the ends of
the two pieces. Then again the pieces are brought
together and the power switched off while the two
ends are fused under force. Most of the metal
melted would flash out through the joint and forms
like a fin around the joint.
Faster than upset welding.

Advantages
1. Butt welding is possible
2. Impurities and contaminants are squeezed out
during this operations so good quality welding
.Applications

For Butt joint only


.Current and Voltage
1. Current very low (1 to 10 A)
2. Voltage very high ( 10 kV to 1500 kV)

Heat is generated from the are as the ends of

the two members begin to make contact. An


axial force is applied at a control rate then
weld

is

formed

by

plastic

deformation

(Upsetting) of the joint, so flash is needed.

IES 2007 Conventional

Two steel sheets of thickness one mm are


welded by resistance projection welding
technique. A current of 30,000 A for 0005
second is made to flow. The effective
resistance of joint can be taken as 100
micro ohms. The joint can be considered as
a cylinder of diameter 5 mm and height 15
mm. The density of steel is 000786
gm/mm3. The heat needed for welding
steel is 10 J/mm3. Calculate the efficiency
of welding.
[20 marks]

Heat Produced I 2 Rt (30000 A) 2 100 10 6 0.005 s 450 J


52
J
3
Required Heat =
1.5 mm 10
294.52 J
3
4
mm

294.52
Efficiency
100 % 65.45%
450

IFS-2011
Discuss with figure the various steps
required for friction welding, mentioning at
least two methods of control.
[5-marks]

Friction Welding
Heat is obtained by the friction between the

ends of the two parts to be joined.


One part is rotated at a high speed and other

part is axially aligned and pressed tightly


against it.
Friction raises the temperature of both the

ends.

Then rotation is stopped abruptly and

the pressure is increased to join.

Contd

Machine is similar to a centre lathe.


Power requirements 25 kVA to 175 kVA.
The axial pressure depends on the strength

and hardness of the metals being joined.


Pressure 40 MPa for low-carbon steels to as

high as 450 MPa for alloy steels.

Contd

Very efficient.
Wide variety of metals or combinations

of
metals can be joined such as aluminium to steel.
Grain size is refined
Strength is same as base metal.
Only round bars or tubes of the same size, or
connecting bars or tubes to flat surfaces can join.
One of the components must be ductile.
Friction welding is a solid state welding.
A low contact pressure may be applied initially to
permit cleaning of the surfaces by a burnishing
action.

Contd

Fig- friction welding process

IAS-2014, IES-2015 Conv.


Explain with neat sketches the Plasma Arc
Welding

(PAW)

process

applications and limitations.


Marks]

and

discuss

its
[20

Plasma Arc Weld (PAW)


Similar to GTAW except the plasma caused by the

arc is constricted by a water-cooled orifice


Uses ionized gas jet (plasma) to cut materials
resistant to oxy-fuel cutting,
High velocity electrons generated by the arc impact
gas molecules, and ionize them.
The ionized gas is forced through nozzle, and the jet
heats the metal, and blasts the molten metal away.
Capable of high welding speeds where size permits
Argon is used as the shielding gas.

Advantage
Plasma arc has directional Stability, work to
torch distance is not critical and arc length can
vary.
Lower heat input and lower filler metal needed
No edge preparation needed
Limitation
Expensive equipment
Restricted to flat and horizontal positions only
Maximum thickness limited 25 mm
Large amount of ultraviolet and infrared rays are
emitted.

Application
Stainless steel
Nickel based alloy
Suitable for refractory metal coating like
alumina on graphite nozzles for rockets.

Name the defects that may develop in arc


welding of steel parts.

[4 Marks]

Welding design and defect


Welding Problem
Cracking of weld metal
Cracking of base metal
Spatter
Distortion
Slag inclusion
Porosity

Lamellar Tearing

Causes
High joint rigidity
Excessive stresses
Arc blow
Poor joint selection
Improper cleaning in multipass welding
Excessive H2, O2, N2, in the

welding atmosphere or Damp


electrodes
inclusions such as Mn Fe
and S in the base metal

Write two causes of cold cracks in welded joints.


Write the carbon equivalent formula and describe
its

importance

in

welding.

Why

preheat

is

required in welding? A machine rated at 100 A at


60% duty cycle is accelerated to 160 A. Find the
percentage reduction of the output cycle.
[10 Marks]

Cracks occur when localized stresses exceed

the ultimate tensile strength of material.


These stresses are developed due to shrinkage
during solidification of weld metal.
Cracks may be developed due to poor ductility
of base metal, high sulphur and carbon
contents, high arc travel speeds i.e. fast
cooling rates, too concave or convex weld bead
and high hydrogen contents in the weld metal

Cold-cracking in steel weldments depends

on
1.
2.
3.
3.

Carbon equivalent
Heat input
Effective thickness
Hydrogen content in weld pool

Carbon equivalent
Several

formulations exist to compute carbon


equivalent, the simplest being the percentage of
carbon plus one-third the percentage of silicon.
carbon equivalent = wt % carbon + (1/3) wt %
silicon
2

I
160
Ta T 60
T T 23.4375
100
I a
PREHEATING is done to prevent hot cracking.

IES 2011 Conventional


Enumerate four defects caused due to residual

stresses in welded joints.


[2 Marks]
Ans.
1. Distortion
2. Cracking in the base metal
3. Lamellar Tearing
4. Reduction of fatigue strength

What are the advantages and disadvantages


of a- c welding machine?

Advantages:
1.Welding transformer and its controller is very
much cheaper as compared to D.C set.
2.No rotating parts so less of wear and tear.
3.Troublesome magnetic fields causing arc
blow is eliminated.
4.Efficiency is slightly more than DC setup.

Disadvantages:
1.Covered electrodes must be used. The AC arc
cannot be used satisfactorily for bare wire or
lightly coated rods as the DC arc.
2.Higher voltage is to be used , consequently risk
of shock is also more as compared to DC
Welding.
3.AC welding machines have moderate
penetration.
4.More diameter is required to have more AC
current to get more filler material deposit rates
and faster welding speeds.
5.Welding of cast iron, bronze and aluminium

Draw

neat

sketches

of

different

Oxy-

acetylene flames, label them and describe


the

two

stages

of

combustion

in

gas

welding. Show graphically the effects of


current, pressure and time on the weld
strength in resistance welding. What are
the

consequences

insufficient
welding?

pressure

of

excessive

during

or

resistance

Insufficient Pressure
If the pressure is not applied properly or
insufficient pressure is applied then porosity
may develop at the center of the nugget or
cracks may be formed.
Stuck welds may be formed i.e. welds with
unacceptable low bond strength.

Excessive Pressure
If excessive pressure is applied then results in
Weld expulsion
Welds with low structural strength and low

Discuss the effect of welding speed on grain


structure and properties of weld metals.
[5 Marks]

Effect of welding speed on grain structure:

Low speed tend to allow growing

columnar

grain to follow the arc, curving in behind the


moving heat source also has grain refining
effect.

High speed welds tend to produce solidification


pattern in which columnar crystals grow in
parallel, straight rows to the weld centreline.
This grain structure tends to be weaker under
stress.

Discuss

the

process

capabilities

and

applications of Gas Metal Arc Welding.


Gas Tungsten Arc welding, and Diffusion
Bonding processes.
[15 Marks]

Gas Metal Arc Welding (MIG)


A consumable electrode in a gas shield.
Arc is between workpiece and an automatically
fed bare-wire electrode.
Argon, helium, and mixtures of the two can be
used.
Any metal can be welded but are used
primarily with the non-ferrous metals.
When welding steel, some O2 or CO2 is usually
added to improve the arc stability and reduce
weld spatter.
Fast and economical.
A reverse-polarity dc arc is generally used
because of its deep penetration, spray transfer,

Applications of MIG Welding


Suitable for welding a variety of ferrous

and non ferrous metals.


Used extensively in the metal fabrication

industry.

TIG
Arc is established between a non-consumable
tungsten electrode and the workpiece.
Tungsten is alloyed with thorium or zirconium
for better current-carrying and electronemission characteristics.
Arc length is constant, arc is stable and easy to
maintain. With or without filler.
Very clean welds.
Straight polarity is used.
Weld voltage 20 to 40 V and weld current 125
A for RPDC to 1000 A for SPDC.
Shielded Gas: Argon
Torch is water or air cooled

Applications of TIG
All metals and alloys can be welded. (Al,

Mg also)

Diffusion welding

It is a solid state welding process which


produces

coalescence

of

the

faying

surfaces by the application of pressure


and elevated temperatures (about 50 to
80% of absolute melting point of the
parent materials) for a time ranging from a
couple of minutes to a few hours.

Produces high quality bonds with good

Applications of Diffusion
Welding
Can join very dissimilar materials.
A solid filler metal may or may not be

inserted.
Materials welded for aircraft and rocket

industry:

Boron,

Titanium,

Aluminium,

Ceramic, Composite, Graphite, Magnesium


etc.

IAS-2011
(i)Compare the process capabilities of Shielded
metal arc welding (SMAW) and Submerged Arc
Welding (SAW) processes.

[15

Marks]
(ii) How thick jobs ( > 20 mm) may be welded by
SMAW process?

[5 marks]

Submerged Arc welding (SAW)


A thick layer of granular flux is deposited just

ahead of a bare wire consumable electrode,


and an arc is maintained beneath the blanket
of flux with only a few small flames being
visible.
A portion of the flux melts. Molten flux and

flux provides thermal insulation, slows cooling


rate and produce soft, ductile welds.

Contd

Most suitable for flat butt or fillet welds

in low carbon steel (< 0.3% carbon).


The process is not recommended for

high-carbon

steels,

tool

steels,

aluminum, magnesium, titanium, lead, or


zinc.

Characteristic of submerged arc welding


High speeds,
High deposition rates,
Deep penetration,
High cleanliness (due to the flux action).

Advantages
Wire electrodes are inexpensive.
No weld spatter.
Nearly 100% deposition efficiency.
Lesser electrode consumption.

Limitations
Extensive flux handling,
Contamination of the flux by moisture.
Large-grain-size structures.
Welding is restricted to the horizontal position.
Chemical control is important

Q. How thick jobs ( > 20 mm) may be welded


by SMAW process?
Ans.
Multiple pass must be used and with larger
systems with multiple electrodes.

IES-2010
How do zirconium and thorium affect the
tungsten electrode in the GTAW

process?

What is weld decay in Ni Cr steels ?

The tungsten electrode which is often alloyed


with thorium or zirconium to provide better
current-carrying

and

electron-emission

characteristics .
Weld Decay

During

welding

of

steel

formation

of

chromium carbide along the grain boundaries


may take place.

This results in the depletion of chromium


percentage

in the adjoining region of grain

boundary.

If this depletion of Chromium percentage is


more than 12% which is needed to maintain a
passive

layer

susceptible

to

then

the

corrosion,

region

will

be

resulting

in

intergranular attack.

Intergrannular corrosion causes loss of metal


in the region that parallels the weld deposit.

IES-2010
Is it possible to weld tantalum to steel, if yes,
by which method ? Explain the term hot
cracks in welding and write four important
causes.

Yes, tantalum can be welded to steel by using


explosive welding.
Weld Cracking
Cracks in weld, or in the vicinity of a weld may
occur. The cracking is the result of solidification,
cooling, and the stress that develop due to weld
shrinkage. Weld cracking occurs close to the time
of fabrication, which does occur can be one of
two types: hot cracks and cold cracks.

Hot cracks are caused by


1. Joint design
2. Restraint imposed on weld
3. Hot cracks are also caused by low melting
constituents ,that extend the temperature
range of low hot strength and low ductility to
temperatures below that of the alloy. Eg, in
steel presence of phosphates and sulfides and
copper can segregate grain boundaries and
cause cracking.
4. Weld beads with high depth to width ratio can
promote the build up of low melting phases at
pool centerline and thus cause hot cracking.

Explosion Welding
Done at room temperature in air, water or vacuum.
Surface contaminants tend to be blown off the

surface.
Typical impact pressures are millions of psi.
Well suited to metals that is prone to brittle joints

when heat welded, such as,


Aluminum on steel
Titanium on steel

Contd

Important factors are,


Critical velocity
Critical angle
The cladding plate can be supported with tack
welded supports at the edges, or the metal
inserts.

Typically the detonation velocity should not

exceed 120% of the sonic velocity in the


metal.

Contd

High velocity explosives, 4572-7620 m/s.


TNT
RDX
PETN
Composition B
Composition C4
Datasheet
Primacord
Medium velocity explosives, 1524-4572 m/s
Ammonium nitrate
Ammonium perchlorate
Amatol
Nitroguonidine
Dynamites
diluted PETN

Contd

Advantages,
Can
bond
many
dissimilar,
normally
unweldable metals
The lack of heating preserves metal treatment
The process is compact, portable, and easy to
contain
Inexpensive
No need for surface preparation

Contd

Disadvantages,
The metals must have high enough impact
resistance, and ductility (at least 5%)
The cladding plate cannot be too large.
Noise and blast can require worker protection,
vacuum chambers, buried in sand/water.

Contd

Typical applications:
Very large plates can be cladded.
Joins dissimilar metals.

(titanium to steel, Al to steel, Al to Cu etc.)


Join tube to tube sheets of large heat

exchangers.

Contd

IES-2010
Discuss short circuiting metal transfer in
GMAW mentioning its suitability. Also define
the term transition current, with figure.

Fig (a) shows the initiation of arc. Under the


intense heat of arc electrode tip melts away and
forms a globule of molten metal at the tip.
Fig(b) As the electrode wire is fed towards the
work piece, the molten tip touches the weld metal

Fig (c) when the tip touches the metal pool short
circuiting takes place, that short circuits electrode
to the workpiece. This reduces Voltage across the
arc.
Fig (d) The metal tip gets pinched by the surface
tension of the weld metal pool as well as the
magnetic force due to current flow. Finally the
metal is pinched away and the arc gets ignited
again, and the cycle is repeated all over again.

Transition Current:
At a current above the
critical value called the
transition current transfer
higlhly directed stream of
discrete droplets of metal
in the form of spray
occurs.
Below transition current
transfer mode becomes
globular
and
above
tansition current it is spray
transfer.
Spray Transfer is achieved

Welding of Plastics

Welding can be used to produce bonded joints

with mechanical properties that approach those


of the parent material.
Only the thermoplastic polymers can be
welded, since these materials can be melted or
softened by heat without degradation.
The thermosetting polymers do not soften with
heat but tend only to char or burn.
Because the thermoplastics soften at such low
temperatures, the heat required to weld these
materials is significantly less than that required
in the welding of metals.

Welding of plastics can be divided into two

groups:
(1) those that utilize mechanical movement and

friction to generate heat, such as ultrasonic


welding, friction welding, and vibration welding,
and
(2) those that involve external heat sources,

such as hot-plate welding, hot-gas welding, and


resistive and inductive implant welding.

Ultrasonic Welding of Plastics

It uses high-frequency mechanical vibrations to

create the bond.


Parts are held together and are subjected to
ultrasonic vibrations (20 to 40 kH) perpendicular
to the area of contact.
The high-frequency stresses generate heat at
the joint interface sufficient to produce a highquality weld in a period of 0.5 to 1.5 seconds.
Tools are quite expensive and large production
runs are required.
Welding is restricted to small components with
weld lengths not to exceed a few centimetres.

Friction welding of plastics (spin welding)


It is mostly the same as the friction welding of
metals, but melting now occurs at the joint
interface.
High quality welds are produced with good
reproducibility, and little end preparation is
required.
The major limitation is that at least one of the
components must exhibit circular symmetry,
and the axis of rotation must be perpendicular
to the mating surface.
Weld strengths vary from 50 to 95% of the
parent material in bonds of the same plastic.

Vibration Welding

In this method frictional heat is generated by

relative movement between the two parts, but


the direction of movement is now parallel to the
interface and the frequencies are of 100 to 240
Hz.
Molten material is produced, the vibration is
stopped, parts are aligned, and the weld region
cools and solidifies. The entire process takes
about 1 to 5 seconds.
Long-length, complex joints can be produced at
rather high production rates. Nearly all
thermoplastics can be joined, independent of

IES-2015 Conventional
Differentiate

between

principles of Friction Stir

the

working

welding and

Friction welding.
[ 10 Marks]

Friction Stir Welding.

Butt welds have been made between plates of

plastic (as well as plates of aluminium) using a


friction process known as friction stir welding.
The frictional heating is generated by a nonconsumable
probe
that
is
rotated
or
reciprocated between prepared edges which are
being held together.
The friction creates a plasticized region around
the probe, which coalesces to form a solid-state
bond as the probe traverses the joint.
No filler material is required, distortion is low,
and the process requires access to only one side

Fig. Friction stir welding using rotary and reciprocal


motions to produce welds in plastics. The shoulder on
the rotating probe provides additional friction heating
to the top surface and prevents expulsion of the

Hot Plate Welding

This technique is used to weld larger parts, or

parts that have a complex weld joint geometry.


The two parts to be welded are placed in the
tooling attached to the two opposing platens of
a press.
A hot plate, with a shape that matches the weld

joint geometry of the parts to be welded, is


moved in position between the two parts.
The two opposing platens move the parts into

contact with the hot plate until the heat softens


the interfaces to the melting point of the plastic.

The holding fixtures then close, forcing the two

parts together until hard-stops on the holding


fixtures come into contact with one another.

This process is used to weld automotive under

hood

components,

components,

automotive

medical

interior

filtration

trim

devices,

consumer appliance components, and other car


interior components.

Hot-gas Welding of Plastics

The is similar to the oxyacetylene welding of

metals.
Compressed air, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, or
carbon dioxide is heated by an electric coil as it
passes through a welding gun, the hot-gas
stream emerges from the gun at 200 to 300C
and impinges on the joint area and selected
filler material.
V-groove or fillet welds are the most common
joint configurations used with this process.
Because the plastic does not melt and flow,
filler material usually has to be added.

Implant welding of plastic


In the implant welding of plastics, metal inserts

are placed between the parts to be joined and


are then heated by means of induction or
resistance heating.

Casting

IES 2010
In metal casting define the terms chaplet and

resin binder. Write the merits and demerits of


shell moulding process.

Chaplet: Chaplets are used to support cores inside

the mould cavity to take care of its own weight and


overcome the metallostatic forces. Since some of
this metal will melt during the operation. Since they
ultimately become part of the final casting, chaplets
must be made from the same alloy as that being
cast.
Resin binder : Resign binder is a thermosetting

phenolic resin (phenol formaldehyde) which acts as a


binder. When heated pattern is come in contact with
fine sand and resign mixture a shell is produced.

Merits
Good dimensions tolerance
Good surface finishing
High production rate.
Demerits
Part size limited
Expensive pattern and equipment required.

IES-2010
Explain why the strength to weight ratio of die
cast parts increases with decreasing wall
thickness.

Density

is

another

property

engineers

may

considers especially for compact, high efficiency


and light weight application. Material strength helps
determine if a design made out of die cast
metal can be slimmed down for weight saving, and
hence

when

decrease

as

thickness

Strength to weight ratio of die cast part.

increase.

IES-2010
Explain the term stack molding.

Stack moulding are high production plastic

injection moulds with multiple parting line,


with stack moulding we can produce multiple
injection
moulded
plastic
parts
more
economically over a large production run,
stack moulding uses small machines that
stack vertically take up less space, reduce
run cost.
Advantage of stack moulding
Increase output efficiency
Fewer machines requires

IAS2011
Sketch a mould for two hollow components
to be cast. On the diagram, indicate runner,
gate, riser, core, cope, sprue, pouring basin,
sprue well, drag, parting line.
[10-Marks]

Q. What is the shape of a runner for making


a sand mould?

On what considerations is

this shape selected?

Runner: A runner is commonly a horizontal

channel which connects the sprue with gates,


thus allowing the molten metal to enter the
mould cavity. The runners are of larger crosssection and often streamlined to slow down and
smooth out the flow, and are designed to
provide approximately uniform flow rates to the
various parts of the mould cavity. Runners are
commonly made trapezoidal in cross-section.

Liquid shrinkage and solid


shrinkage
Liquid

shrinkage refers to the reduction in


volume when the metal changes temperature from
pouring to solidus temperature in liquid state. To
account for this, risers are provided in the moulds.
Solidification shrinkage refers to the reduction
in volume when metal changes from liquid to solid
state at the solidus temperature. To account for
this, risers are provided in the moulds.
Solid shrinkage is the reduction in volume
caused, when a metal loses temperature in the
solid state. The shrinkage allowance is provided to
take care of this reduction.

Gray CI with a carbon equivalent of 4.3%

has negative shrinkage, that is, it actually


expands upto 2.5% because of graphite
precipitation. So, for this, no riser is
needed.

Q. Write the reasons which result the


metals to shrink during solidification and
cooling in metal casting. What are hot
tears and cold shut?
[4 Marks]

During

solidification

nucleation

event

produces a crystal or grain and latent heat


removed.
During cooling thermal vibrations reduces.

Metallurgical defects
Hot tears or hot cracking, cause of this defect is

that stresses and strains built up during solidification


are too high compared to the actual strength of the
semisolid material. This type of defects occurs in the
lower part of the solidification range, close to the
solidus, when the alloy has a wide solidification
temperature range and a small amount of liquid, when
the solid fraction is more than 0.9, the hot tearing is
easy to occur. Proper mould design prevents this type
of defect.

The mis-run and cold shut defects are caused

either by a lower fluidity of the mold or when


the section thickness of the casting is very
small. Fluidity can be improved by changing
the composition of the metal and by increasing
the pouring temperature of the metal.

Q. State the principles of Riser Design and


discuss the factors affecting riser efficiency.
[10 Marks]

Principle of riser design


Riser size, shape and location, as well as the type of

connection between the riser and casting.


Riser Size: Freezing time or riser or casting depends

upon the amount of heat in a casting (Directly) and


depends inversely upon the surface area of the
casting. Based on this facts many relations have been
suggested by different scientists. The riser should also
be designed to conserve the metal.

Riser Shape: Riser should tall enough so that any

shrinkage cavity in the riser ( pipe formation ) does


not penetrate into the castings. The shrinkage cavity
must lie above the neck. The neck should be as short
as possible and also solidify longer than the casting.
Riser

location:

It

should

be

located

so

that

directional solidification occurs from the extremities of


the mould cavity back towards riser. Since the thickest
regions of a casting will be last to freeze, the riser
should be feed directly into these locations.

IES 2011 Conventional

A round casting is 20 mm in diameter and 50 mm in

length. Another casting of the same metal is


elliptical in cross section, with a major to minor axis
ratio of 2, and has the same length and crosssectional area as the round casting. Both pieces are
cast under the same conditions. What is the
difference in the solidification times of the two
castings ? [10 Marks]

Area of ellipse ab
Circumference 3 a b

3a b a 3b

b2 / 2

(approx.)

Answer

d 2 202
Cross section area

mm 2 314.16 mm 2
4
4
For Elliptical area ab .2b.b 314.16 mm 2
d2
d
20
Now
ab .2b.b or b

7.0711 mm
4
8
8
or a 2b 2 7.0711 14.142 mm

d2
Surface area of round bar dh 2
4
202
20 50 2
3769.9 mm 2
4
d2
202
Volume both
h
50 15708 mm3
4
4
According to Chvorinov's rule

Totalsolidification time of round bar ts c B

15708
17.36 B unit
3769.9

a 2 b 2
Periphery of an ellipse L 2
Approx.
2

7.07112 14.142 2
2
70.25 mm
2

Surface area of an ellipse Lh 2 ab


70.25 50 2 314.16 4140.7 mm 2
According to Chvorinov's rule
2

15708
Totalsolidification time of elliptical bar ts e B
14.391B unit
4140.7
Differencein solidification time 17.36 B 14.391B 2.969 B unit
17.36 B
and Ratio of solidification time
1.206
14.361B

Conventional Question
ESE 2003
Compare the solidification time of two optimum
side risers of the same volume with one has
cylindrical shape and other is parallopiped.
[30 Marks]

Modulus Method
It has been empirically established that if the

modulus of the riser exceeds the modulus of the


casting by a factor of 1.2, the feeding during
solidification would be satisfactory.
MR = 1.2 Mc
Modulus = volume/Surface area
In steel castings, it is generally preferable to

choose a riser with a height-to-diameter ratio of 1.


Contd

D2
D2
4

Conventional Question IES-2008


Calculate the size of a cylindrical riser (height and

diameter equal) necessary to feed a steel slab


casting of dimensions 30 x 30 x 6 cm with a side
riser, casting poured horizontally into the mould.
[Use Modulus Method]
[10 - Marks]

GATE-2016

A cylindrical job with diameter of 200 mm


and height of 100 mm is to be cast using
modulus method of riser design. Assume
that the bottom surface of cylindrical riser
does not contribute as cooling surface. If
the diameter of the riser is equal to its
height, then the height of the riser (in mm)
is
(a) 150

(b) 200

(c) 100

(d) 125

Answer:

2002
Volume of casting Vc
100 3141592.65 mm3
4
2002
Surface area of casting Ac
2 200 100
4
125663.71 mm2
Vc
3141592.65
Modulus of casting M c

25 mm
Ac
125663.71
D2
D2
D3
Volume of riser Vr
H
D
4
4
4
D2
5 D 2
Surface area of riser Ar
DH
4
4

[As the bottom surface of cylindrical


riser does not contribute as cooling surface]

D3
Vr
D
4
Modulus of riser M r

2
Ar
5
5 D
4
According to modulus Method, M r 1.2 M c
D
or
1.2 25 or D 150 mm
5

Caines Method
Freezing ratio = ratio of cooling characteristics of
casting to the riser.A

V
X
AV

Casting

Riser

The riser should solidify last so x > 1


According to Caine
Y = Vriser

Vcasting

a
X = c
Yb

and a, b, c are constant.

Table: Constants in Caines Method

Conventional Question IES-2007

Calculate the size of a cylindrical riser

(height and diameter equal) necessary to


feed a steel slab casting of dimensions 25 x
25 x 5 cm with a side riser, casting poured
horizontally into the mould.
[Use Caines Method]
[ For steel a = 0.10, b = 0.03 and c = 1.00 ]

Naval Research Laboratory Method

This method is a simplification of Caine's


method. In this method, freezing ratio is
replaced by Shape Factor.
The shape factor is defined as
Shape
Factor=
(Length+Width)/Thickness
The
underlying
argument
is
that
calculating volumes and surface areas is
too
complicated
and
therefore
simplification would be desirable. The
length, width and thicknesses are

Procedure for getting riser size


is as
follows:
1.Calculate the shape factor for the given casting.
2.Obtain riser volume to casting volume ratio
from the graph . (or the table provided in
questions)
3.Calculate riser volume Vr .
4.For cylindrical riser (h=D), Vr = (.D3 )/4
5.Obtain the diameter.
.For circular plates, the length and width are
same as that of the diameter.
.But for cylinders, the width and thickness are
same as the diameter for calculating the shape

The other shape of interest is hollow cylindrical


shape. In these the heat removal is restricted , a
correction factor k, needs to be applied to get the
effective plate thickness. If T is the true wall
thickness
Core
0.5T T
2T
4T
diameter
Correctio 1.17 1.14 1.02 1.00
n factor
Shape Factor = (Length+ width)/
(k.T)

Example

Calculate the height of cylindrical


riser(height=diameter) necessary to feed the
steel slab casting 25 x 25 x 5 with a side riser,
casting poured horizontally into the mold.
Solution:
Shape Factor = (25+25)/5 = 10
From graph at shape factor 10 (riser volume/casting
volume) is 0.47.
Riser Volume(Vr ) = (riser volume/casting volume) x
casting volume
Riser Volume = 0.47 x 25 x 25x 5 =1468.75 cm 3
For cylindrical riser of height = diameter
Vr = (.D3 )/4
1468.75= (.D3 )/4

GATE-2015
The dimensions of a cylindrical side
riser(height = diameter) for a 25 cm x
15 cm x 5 cm steel casting are to be
determined. For the tabulated shape
factor
values
given
below,
the
diameter of the riser (in cm)________
Shape Factor
2
4
6
8
10 12
Riser volume /
Casting Volume

1.0 0.70 0.5 0.5 0.4


5
0
0

0.3
5

length width 25 15
Shape Factor =

8
thickness
5
From the given table, for shape factor of 8,
ratio of Riser volume to casting volume is 0.5,
Volume of riser =0.5 x casting volume
0.5 x 25 x 15 x 5 =937.5 cm
For a cylindrical riser with height =diameter

gD3
V
4
gD
937.5
D 10.60 cm
4
3

Normally the risers are located at the heaviest sections and they
themselves act as feeders for thin sections. But when smaller
sections are connected to thicker sections, the riser should have
larger volume to cater this appendage.
The total volume of the casting is taken as the volume of the main
section plus the effective percentageGRAPHof the appendage volume,
called the parasitic volume.
2

Example

Calculate the risering requirement for the


casting shown in fig.

First neglect the branch and calculate shape factor


for main plate ;
Shape Factor = (25+12.5)/5 = 7.5
From graph at shape factor 7.5 (riser
volume/casting volume) is 0.575
Riser Volume(Vr ) = (riser volume/casting volume) x
casting volume
Riser Volume = 0.575 x 25 x 12.5x 5 =898.437 cm 3
The branch Volume=2.5 x 2.5 x 10 =62.5cm 3
This is plate feeding the bar with thickness ratio
(2.5/5) of 0.5.
From the graph we get parasitic volume of 30%
Hence, riser volume = 0.3 x 62.5 +
3

Q.

Determine

the

dimensions

of

an

optimum cylindrical riser attached to the


side

of

steel

plate

casting

having

dimensions 25cm x 12.5 cm x 5 cm. The


volume

shrinkage

of

steel

during

solidification is 3% and the volume of riser


is

times

that

of

dictated

by

the

shrinkage consideration alone.


[10 marks]

Q. Name the various tests to be performed


for moulding sand. Draw a top gate and
write its advantages. What is a misrun and
how is it caused? Write some advantages of
cupola.
[10 marks]

Grain fineness test


Permeability test
Sand mould strength test
Moisture Content test
Clay content test
hardness test

Types of Gate or In-gate


Top gate: Causes turbulence in the mould cavity, it
is prone to form dross, favourable temperature
gradient towards the gate, only for ferrous alloys.
Bottom gate: No mould erosion, used for very
deep

moulds,

higher

pouring

time,

Causes

unfavourable temperature gradients.


Parting Gate: most widely used gate, easiest and
most economical in preparation.
Step Gate: Used for heavy and large castings, size
of ingates are normally increased from top to

Pouring Metal Defects


The likely defects in this category are
Mis-runs and
Cold shuts
A mis-run is caused when the metal is

unable to fill the mold cavity completely and


thus leaves unfilled cavities.
A cold shut is caused when two streams
while meeting in the mold cavity, do not fuse
together properly thus forming a discontinuity
in the casting.
Contd

The mis-run and cold shut defects are caused

either by a lower fluidity of the mold or when


the section thickness of the casting is very
small. Fluidity can be improved by changing
the composition of the metal and by increasing
the pouring temperature of the metal.

Cupola

Cupola has been the most widely used furnace

for melting cast iron.


In hot blast cupola, the flue gases are used to
preheat the air blast to the cupola so that the
temperature in the furnace is considerably higher
than that in a conventional cupola. Coke is fuel
and Lime stone (CaCO3) is mostly used flux.
Cost of melting low.
Main disadvantages of cupola is that it is not
possible to produce iron below 2.8% carbon.
Steel can be also prepared in cupola by
employing duplexing and triplexing operations.

IES 2007
What is permeability? Permeability is more
important in the basic process of sand casting
than porosity. Give one important reason for
this feature.
[2 marks]

Permeability:

Gases evolving from the


molten metal and generated from the mould
may have to go through the core to escape
out of the mould. Hence cores are required to
have higher permeability.

Permeability Number: The rate of flow of air

passing through a standard specimen under a


standard pressure is termed as permeability
number.
The standard permeability test is to measure

time taken by a 2000 cu cm of air at a


pressure typically of 980 Pa (10 g/cm2), to
pass through a standard sand specimen

Then, the permeability number, R is obtained


VH
by
R
pAT

Where V= volume of air = 2000 cm3


H = height of the sand specimen = 5.08 cm
p = air pressure, g/cm2
A = cross sectional area of sand specimen =
20.268 cm2
T = time in minutes for the complete air to pass
through
501.28
R
Inserting the above standard
values into
p.T
the expression, we get

Calculate the permeability number of sand if it

takes 1 min 25 s to pass 2000 cm3 of air at a


pressure of5 g/cm2 through the standard sample.

p 5.0 g / cm 2
T 1min 25 s 1.417 min
501.28
R
70.75
5 1.417

Collapsibility: At the time of cooling, casting

shrinks, and unless the core has good collapsibility


(ability to decrease in size) it is likely to provide
resistance against shrinkage and thus can cause
hot tears.
Friability: The ability to crumble should be a very

important consideration at the time of removal.

Carbon Dioxide
Moulding
Sodium silicate (water glass, SiO2:Na2O) is used as

a binder. This is essentially a quick process of core


or mould preparation.
The mould is prepared with a mixture of sodium
silicate and sand and then treated with carbon
dioxide for two to three minutes such that a dry
compressive strength of over 1.4 MPa is arrived.
The carbon dioxide is expected to form a weak
acid, which hydrolyses the sodium silicate resulting
in amorphous silica, which forms the bond.
The introduction of CO2 gas starts the reaction by
forming hydrated sodium carbonate (Na 2CO3 +
Contd

The compressive strength of the bond increases

with standing time due to dehydration.


Because of the high strength of the bond, the core

need

not

be

provided

with

any

other

reinforcements.
It does not involve any distortions due to baking

and

also

better

dimensional

accuracies

are

achieved.
The sand mixture does not have good shelf life

Q. In metal casting write the purpose and


types of muller. Why distortion allowance is
provided on patterns?
[5 Marks]

Purpose

Muller's are normally used in foundries to mix


the sands.
Type
1. Batch muller for small foundries
2. Continuous muller for large scale

productions

Distortion Allowance
A metal when it has just solidified is very weak

and therefore is likely to be distortion prone.


This is particularly so for weaker sections such

as long flat portions, V, U sections or in a


complicated casting which may have thin and
long sections which are connected to thick
sections.
The foundry practice should be to make extra

material provision for reducing the distortion.

Q. What is achieved by

using a metallic

single crystal casting? Give one application


of a single crystal casting made of wasp
alloy.

Single Crystal Casting


The process is effectively:
1. Prepare a mold so that one end is a heated
oven, and the other end chilled. The part
should be oriented so that the cooling
happens over the longest distance.
2. Cast metal into the mold
3. Solidification will begin at the chill plate.
These dendrites will grow towards the heated
end of the part as long dendritic crystals. The
part is slowly pulled out of the oven, past the
chill plate.
4. Remove the solidified part.

Creep and thermal shock resistance

properties.

IES-2015 Conventional
Explain

expendable

pattern

casting

process with schematic illustration and


applications.
[10 Marks]

Q. In investment casting process two


types of ceramic slurries are used.
Why do we use them and in what
sequence are they applied?

Investment Casting
Investment casting process or lost wax process
Basic steps:
1. Produce expendable wax, plastic, or polystyrene
patterns.
2. Assemble these patterns onto a gating system
3. Investing or covering the pattern assembly with
refractory slurry
4. Melting the pattern assembly to remove the
pattern material
5. Firing the mould to remove the last traces of the
pattern material
6. Pouring molten metal
7. Knockout, cutoff and finishing.

Fig. Investment flask-casting

Ceramic Shell Investment


Casting
In ceramic shell investment casting a ceramic

shell

is

built

repeatedly

around

dipping

tree

pattern

assembly
into

by

slurry

(refractory material such as zircon with binder).


After each dipping and stuccoing is completed,

the assembly is allowed to thoroughly dry before


the next coating is applied.

Advantages
Tight dimensional tolerances
Excellent surface finish (1.2 to 3.0 m )
Machining can be reduced or completely

eliminated
High melting point alloy can be cast,

almost any metal can be cast


Almost unlimited intricacy

Limitations
Costly patterns and moulds
Labour costs can be high
Limited size

Applications
Aerospace and rocket components.
Vanes and blades for gas turbines.
Surgical instruments

Slush Casting
Slush casting is a variation of the permanent

mold process in which the metal is permitted to


remain in the mold only until a shell of the
desired thickness has formed.
The mold is then inverted and the remaining
liquid is poured out.
When the mold halves are separated, the
resulting casting is a hollow shape with good
surface detail but variable wall thickness.
Frequently used to cast low-melting-temperature
metals into ornamental objects such as
candlesticks, lamp bases, and statuary.