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Robotics

What is an industrial
robot?
A robot is a reprogrammable, multifunctional
manipulator designed to handle material, parts,
tools or specialized devices through variable
programmed motions for the performance of a
variety of tasks.

Advantages of Robots

Robotics and automation can, in many situation, increase

productivity, safety, efficiency, quality, and consistency of


products
Robots can work in hazardous environments
Robots need no environmental comfort
Robots work continuously without any humanity needs and
illnesses
Robots have repetable precision at all times
Robots can be much more accurate than humans, they may
have mili or micro inch accuracy.
Robots and their sensors can have capabilities beyond that of
humans
Robots can process multiple stimuli or tasks simultaneously,
humans can only one.
Robots replace human workers who can create economic
problems

Disadvantages of
Robots

Robots lack capability to respond in emergencies, this can cause:


Inappropriate and wrong responses
A lack of decision-making power
A loss of power
Damage to the robot and other devices
Human injuries
Robots may have limited capabilities in

Degrees of Freedom
Dexterity
Sensors
Vision systems
Real-time Response

Robots are costly, due to


Initial cost of equipment
Installation Costs
Need for peripherals
Need for training
Need for Programming

Do?
Industrial
Robots
Material handling
Material transfer
Machine
loading
unloading
Spot welding
Continuous arc welding
Spray coating
Assembly
Inspection

and/or
Material Handling
Manipulator

Assembly
Manipulator
Spot Welding

IES-Conventional
Briefly describe some of the similarities
between a robot and an NC machine.

Asimov's three laws of


robotics
First law (Human safety):
A robot may not injure a human being, or,
through inaction, allow a human being to come to
harm.
Second law (Robots are slaves):
A robot must obey orders given it by human
beings, except where such orders would conflict
with the First Law.
Third law (Robot survival):
A robot must protect its own existence as long as
such protection does not conflict with the First or
Second Law.

All robots have the following basic


components:
1. Manipulators: the mechanical unit, often

called the "arm," that does the actual work of


the robot. It is composed of mechanical
linkages and joints with actuators to drive the
mechanism directly or indirectly through
gears, chains, or ball screws. Manipulator are
built as serial chains or parallel chains or
occasionally a combination of both. Links and
joints (revolute and prismatic) that are mostly
used in manipulators. In spatial manipulators
(open chains) adjacent axes are parallel or
perpendicular to each other.

f2. Feedback devices: transducers that


sense the positions of various linkages and
joints and transmit this information to the
controllers in either digital or analog form.
3. End effectors: the "hand" or "gripper"
portion of the robot, which attaches the end
of the arm and perform the operations of
the robot.
4. Controller: the brains of the system that
direct the movements of the manipulator.
5. Power supply

IES Conventional
Name the basic components of all robots.
Write in short about welding robot.
[5 Marks]

Wrist Configurations
Wrist assembly is attached to end-of-arm
End effector is attached to wrist assembly
Function of wrist assembly is to orient end

effector
Body-and-arm determines global position of end

effector

Two or three degrees of freedom:


Roll
Pitch
Yaw

End Effectors
The special tooling for a robot that enables

it to perform a specific task


Two types:
Grippers to grasp and manipulate objects

(e.g., parts) during work cycle


Tools to perform a process, e.g., spot
welding, spray painting

Grippers and Tools

IES 2010 Conventional


What are a manipulator, wrist and end
effectors for a robot ?

Degrees of Freedom
The degree of freedom or grip of a robotic system can

be compared to the way in which the human body


moves.
For each degree of freedom a joint is required.
The degrees of freedom located in the arm define the

configuration.
Each of the five basic motion configurations utilizes

three degrees of freedom in the arm.


Three degrees of freedom located in the wrist give the

end effector all the flexibility.

Degrees of Freedom (contd.)

A total of six degrees of freedom is needed to

locate a robots hand at any point in its work


space.
Although six degrees of freedom are needed for
maximum flexibility, most robot employee only
three to five degrees of freedom.
The more the degrees of freedom, the greater is
the complexity of motions encountered.
The three degrees of freedom located in
the arm of a robotic system are:
The rotational reverse: is the movement of
the arm assembly about a rotary axis, such as
left-and-right swivel of the robots arm about

Degrees of Freedom (contd.)

The radial traverse: is the extension and


retraction of the arm or the in-and-out motion
relative to the base.
The vertical traverse: provides the up-anddown motion of the arm of the robotic system.
The three degrees of freedom located in the
wrist, which bear the names of aeronautical
terms, are
Pitch or bend: is the up-and-down movement
of the wrist.
Yaw: is the right-and-left movement of the wrist.
Roll or swivel: is the rotation of the hand.

Types of Robot
Cartesian or Gantry

robot:
It's a robot whose arm
has
three
prismatic
joints, whose axes are
coincident
with
a
Cartesian coordinator.
Used for pick and place
work, application of
sealant,
assembly
operations,
handling
machine tools and arc
welding.

Types of Robot
Cylindrical robot:
It's a robot whose

axes
form
a
cylindrical
coordinate system.
Used for assembly
operations,
handling at machine
tools, spot welding,
and handling at die
casting machines.

Types of Robot
Spherical or Polar

robot:
It's a robot whose
axes form a polar
coordinate system.
Used for handling at
machine tools, spot
welding, diecasting,
fettling
machines,
gas welding and arc
welding.

Types of Robot
Articulated

or

Revolute Robot:
It's a robot whose
arm has at least
three rotary joints.
Used for assembly
operations,
die
casting,
fettling
machines,
gas
welding, arc welding
and spray painting.

Types of Robot
SCARA robot
TheSCARAacronym

stands
forSelective
Compliant
Assembly
Robot
ArmorSelective
Compliant
Articulated Robot Arm.
It's a robot which has two
parallel rotary joints to provide
compliance in a plane
Used for pick and place work,
application
of
sealant,
assembly
operations
and

Types of Robot
Parallel robot

One use is a mobile


platform handling
cockpit
flight
simulators. It's a
robot whose arms
have
concurrent
prismatic or rotary
joints.

IES - Conventional
What are the five different types of robot
systems?
Answer:
1. Cartesian or Gantry robot
2. Cylindrical robot
3. Spherical or Polar robot
4. Articulated or Revolute Robot
5. SCARA robot

IES - 2012
The configuration of a robot using a telescoping
arm that can be raised or lowered on a
horizontal pivot mounted on a rotating base is
called
(a) Polar
(b) Cylindrical
(c) Cartesian coordinate
(d) Jointed arm

Joint Drive Systems

Electric
Uses electric motors to actuate individual joints
Preferred drive system in today's robots
Hydraulic
Uses hydraulic pistons and rotary vane actuators
Noted for their high power and lift capacity
Pneumatic
Typically limited to smaller robots and simple
material transfer applications

Robot Control Systems

Limited sequence control pick-and-

place operations using mechanical stops to


set positions
Playback with point-to-point control
records work cycle as a sequence of points,
then plays back the sequence during
program execution
Playback with continuous path control
greater memory capacity and/or
interpolation capability to execute paths (in
addition to points)
Intelligent control exhibits behavior
that makes it seem intelligent, e.g.,

Robot Control System

Joint
Joint 1
1

Joint
Joint 2
2

Cell
Cell
Supervisor
Supervisor

Level 2

Controller
Controller
&
& Program
Program

Level 1

Joint
Joint 3
3

Joint
Joint 4
4

Joint
Joint 5
5

Joint
Joint 6
6

Sensors
Sensors

Level 0

Working Envelope

Robotic Arc-Welding
Cell
Robot

performs fluxcored arc


welding
(FCAW)
operation at
one
workstation
while fitter
changes parts
at the other
workstation

Robot Programming

On line programming: Here the robot arm

itself is used during the direct programming


operation.
Teach by lead through
teach by pendent

Off line Programming: It involves creating

the program for a robot task, without the need


to be connected physically to the robot or even
to be anywhere near its physical presence. We
may coupled it with simulation. Program is
prepared at a remote computer terminal and
downloaded to robot controller for execution.

Teach by lead through or Lead


through programming
Work cycle is taught to robot by moving the

manipulator through the required motion


cycle and simultaneously entering the
program into controller memory for later
playback.
This is used for programming continuous path

operations path operations such as are found


in spray painting.

Lead through Programming


1. Powered lead

through
Common for point-

to-point robots
Uses teach pendant

2. Manual lead through


Convenient for
continuous path
control robots
Human programmer
physical moves
manipulator

Lead through Programming


Advantages
Advantages:
Easily learned by shop

personnel
Logical way to teach a
robot
No computer
programming
Disadvantages:
Downtime during
programming
Limited programming
logic capability
Not compatible with
supervisory control

Teach by Pendant

For work that requires point to point, and

point to point with coordinated path,


movements this is the normal method of
programming.
It involves the programmer using a hand-held
pendant which transmits commands though a
cable to the robot controller, the robot then
responds to these commands.
In this way the programmer can lead the
robot through a task.
Tech pendants have as many different
configurations as there robot models.
Essentially they all contain sufficient controls

Teach by Pendant

The robot arm is programmed by moving the

end effectors to a desired position using the


joystick, and once the arm is at the required
position and orientation a key in the keyboard
is pressed to record the point in memory.
On a six axis robot this will be recorded as a
six coordinate location x, y, z, , , .
In this way all the points to which the robot is
desired to go will be recorded in memory
within a point file.
An instruction file is then created using the
keyboard command. This file contains the
instructions as to what the robot should do

Teach by Pendant

point 2 at a speed of 200 mm/s. At point 2 it


may be instructed to open its gripper, operate
a spot welding gun, or open a valve to allow
adhesive to be dispensed.
Thus two files will be constructed, one with
the desired end effector locations, and one
with the instructions connecting the robot
operation and sequence and speed of
movements.
We may use a computer for on line
programming, this makes more complex
programs easier to create.

IES-Conventional

Discuss some important aspects of pendant


programming in robotics.

Robot programming languages


Textual

programming language to enter


commands into robot controller.
When using on-line programming methods,
instructions can be given to the robot by using
control switches, knobs and buttons in
conjunction with simple coded commands.
This method allows simple programs to be
constructed.
For more complex programs a robot language
must be used and for off-line working a
programming language is essential.
Commercial robot languages are all termed
explicit languages. Each robot manufacturer

IES 2011

Trajectory of a robot mean :


(a) Path traced by the end effectors
(b) Kinematics of Robot
(c) Robot joints
(d) Robot programming

IES 2010
Consider the following statements:
Good dynamic performance is usually difficult to
achieve in robots which contain a rotary base
because
1. Position, speed and acceleration of the other joints
cause variations in the reflected torque and moment
of inertia.
2. The moment of inertia reflected at the base depends
upon the weight of the object being carried.
3. The moment of inertia reflected at the base also
depends upon the distance between the base axis
and the manipulated object.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?

IES - 2006
Which one of the following is the third
basic component of robots besides power
supply and control (memory) console?
(a) Software
(b) Coaxial cable
(c) Mechanical unit arm (d) Microcomputer

IES - 2000
Consider the following characteristics of a robot:
1. The tip of the robot arm moves from one point to
another with its in-between path not being defined.
2. It can be used for drilling holes at difference points
in a workpiece.
3. It can be used for V butt joint welding between two
points.
4. The memory capacity required for its control unit is
low.
Which of these are the characteristics associated with
a point to point robot?
(a) 1 and 2(b) 1, 3 and 4
(c) 1, 2 and 4(d) 2, 3 and 4

CAD

Computer Aided Design (CAD): Used for


creating the product database

Geometric Modeling

Engineering Analysis

Design Review and Evaluation

Automated Drafting

GATE-2013
In a CAD package, mirror image of a 2D
point P(5,10) is to be obtained about a line
which

passes

through

the

origin

and

makes an angle of 45o counterclockwise


with the X-axis. The coordinates of the
transformed point will be
(a) (7.5, 5)
-5)

(b) (10, 5)

(c) (7.5, -5)

(d) (10,

GATE-2014
A robot arm PQ with end coordinates P(0, 0) and
Q(2, 5) rotates counter clockwise about P in the
XY plane by 90o. The new coordinate pair of the
end point Q is
(a) (2, 5)

(b) (5, 2)

(c) (5, 2)

(d) (2, 5)

GATE-2016

A point P(1, 3, -5) is translated by 2 + 3 - 4k


and then rotated counter clockwise by 90o
about the z-axis. The new position of the
point is
(a) (-6, 3, -9)
(b) (-6, -3, -9)
(c) (6, 3, -9)
(d) (6, 3, 9)

GATE-2016
The figure below represents a triangle PQR with initial
coordinates of the vertices as P(1,3), Q(4,5) and R(5,3.5).
The triangle is rotated in the X-Y plane about the vertex P
by angle in clockwise direction. If sin = 0.6 and cos =
0.8, the new coordinates of the vertex Q are

(a)(4.6, 2.8)
(b) (3.2, 4.6)
(c) (7.9, 5.5)
(d)(5.5, 7.9)

CAM

Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM):


Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP)
Computerized material Resource Planning (MRP)
NC part programming
Robot Programming
Computerized Scheduling
Computerized process control
Computerized Manufacturing Control by FMS
Shop floor control
Computer Aided Quality Control (CAQC)
Computer Aided Inspection

IES - 2006
Which item best describes a CAM
technology?
(a) Geometric modeling (b) Documentation
(c) Drafting
(d) Numerical control

ISRO-2011
In CAM, " Part programming" refers to
(a) Generation of cutter location data
(b) On-line Inspection
(c) Machine Selection
(d) Tool Selection

Automation

Automation is the process of following a predetermined

sequence of operations with little or no human intervention,


using specialized equipment and devices that perform and
control the manufacturing process.
Why go for Automation?
1. Increased productivity
2. Reduced cost of labour
3. Improved quality
4. Reduced in-process inventory
5. Reduce Manufacturing time
6. Increased safety
There are three types of Automation
1. Fixed Automation
2. Flexible Automation
3. Programmable Automation

Fixed Automation or Hard


automation

Used to produce a standardized product, High

initial
investment
equipment

for

custom-engineered

Used for very large quantity production of one or

few marginally different components. Relatively


inflexible in accommodating product variety.
Highly

specialized tools, devices, equipment,


special purpose machine tools, are utilized to
produce a product.

Very efficient, high production rate , low unit cost.


e.g., single spindle and multispindle lathes

Flexible Automation

It is also known as FMS, and uses CAD/CAM


High investment for a custom-engineered

system
Produce different products on the same
equipment in any order or mix. Continuous
production of variable mixtures of products
Medium Production Rates
Flexibility to deal with product design variations
e.g., CNC milling machine

Programmable Automation

Can change the design of the product or even

change the product by changing the program.


Used for the low quantity production of large

number of different components.


Equipment

are designed to be flexible or

programmable.

High

investment

in

general

purpose equipment
Most suitable for batch production
Lower production rates than fixed automation

IES - 2012
Programmable automation is suitable for
(a) Low production volume and large varieties of
parts
(b) Low production volume and small varieties of
parts
(c) High production volume and small varieties of
parts
(d) High production volume and large varieties of
parts

What is an FMS?

flexible manufacturing system


(FMS) is a manufacturing system in which
there is some amount of flexibility that
allows the system to react in the case of
changes.
Two categories of flexibility
Machine

flexibility, covers the system's


ability to be changed to produce new product
types, and ability to change the order of
operations executed on a part.
Routing flexibility, which consists of the
ability to use multiple machines to perform

FMS Components
Most FMS systems comprise of three

main systems
Work machines (typically automated
CNC machines) that perform a series of
operations;
An
integrated
material
transport
system and a computer that controls
the flow of materials, tools, and
information (e.g. machining data and
machine malfunctions) throughout the
system;
Auxiliary work stations for loading and

FMS Goals

Reduction in manufacturing cost by lowering

direct labor cost and minimizing scrap, re-work,


and material wastage.
Less skilled labor required.
Reduction in work-in-process inventory by
eliminating the need for batch processing.
Reduction in production lead time permitting
manufacturers to respond more quickly to the
variability of market demand.
Better process control resulting in consistent
quality.

Advantages of FMS
Faster, lower- cost changes from one part to

another which will improve capital utilization


Lower direct labor cost, due to the reduction in
number of workers
Reduced inventory, due to the planning and
programming precision
Consistent and better quality, due to the
automated control
Lower cost/unit of output, due to the greater
productivity using the same number of workers
Savings from the indirect labor, from reduced
errors, rework, repairs and rejects

Disadvantages of FMS
Limited ability to adapt to changes in product or

product mix (e.g., machines are of limited


capacity and the tooling necessary for products,
even of the same family, is not always feasible
in a given FMS)
Substantial pre-planning activity
Expensive, costing millions of dollars
Technological problems of exact component
positioning and precise timing necessary to
process a component
Sophisticated manufacturing systems

IES - 1996
Which of the following pairs are correctly
matched?
1. CNC machine Post processor
2. Machining centre.Tool magazine
3. DNC. FMS
(a) 1, 2 and 3(b) 1 and 2
(c) 1 and 3(d) 2 and 3

IES - 2006
Flexible manufacturing allows for:
(a) Tool design and production
(b) Automated design
(c) Quick and inexpensive product change
(d) Quality control

IES - 2004
Consider the following characteristics:
1. Single machine tool
2. Manual materials handling system
3. Computer control
4. Random sequencing of parts to machines
Which of the above characteristics are
associated with flexible manufacturing system?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1 and 2
(c) 3 and 4 (d) 2, 3 and 4

IES - 2012
Rank order clustering as applied to
manufacturing automation is
(a) A technique of identifying process sequence
in production of a component
(b) A just in time (JIT) method
(c) An approach of grouping the machines into
cells in an FMS system
(d) A tool to generate bill of materials

Types of Material Handling Devices


Industrial truck
Automated Guided Vehicles (AVGs)
Conveyors
Cranes and Hoists

IES-2010
Conv.

Automated Guided Vehicles (AVGs)


These

are battery-powered, driverless vehicles for


automatic transport of parts and tooling on the shop floor.
These moves on fixed paths laid underneath the factory
floor, and transport materials from the workstation to
storage locations, load stations, etc.
Though the path of travel is laid underneath the factory
floor, it is made of segments which allow the AVG to have
a flexible path. These are one of the first choices for
automating the material movement.
A class of AVGs called rail-guided vehicles (RVGs) have
fixed rails on which they move. This is far more restricted
in terms of the path the RVG can take and service only a
few workstations.

FMC-Flexible machining cell


An

arrangement

with

more

than

one

machining centre with integrated material


handling arrangement is called as FMC.

IAS-2011
What is the difference between FMS and FMC?