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# Csci 136 Computer Architecture II

## Constructing An Arithmetic Logic Unit

Xiuzhen Cheng
cheng@gwu.edu

Announcement
Homework assignment #4: Due on Feb 22, before
class
Readings: Sections 3.2, 3.3, B.5, B.6
Problems: 3.7, 3.9, 3.10, 3.12, 3.18-3.22

## Project #1 is due on 11:59PM, Feb 13.

Project #2 is due on 11:59PM, March 10.

## What Are We Going To Do?

Implementing the MIPS ISA architecture!
Must support the arithmetic/logic operations
Tradeoffs of cost and speed based on frequency of occurrence,
hardware budget.
operation

a
32

ALU
result
32

b
32

## Review on Two's Complement Operations

Negating a two's complement number: invert all
bits and add 1
remember: negate and invert are quite different!

## Converting n bit numbers into numbers with more

than n bits:
MIPS 16 bit immediate gets converted to 32 bits for arithmetic
copy the most significant bit (the sign bit) into the other bits
0010

1010

## Review on Addition & Subtraction

Just like in grade school (carry/borrow 1s)
0111
0111
0110
+ 0110
- 0110
- 0101
Two's complement operations easy
subtraction using addition of negative numbers
0111
+ 1010

## Overflow (result too large or too small for finite

computer word):
Example: -8 <= 4-bit binary number <=7

Detecting Overflow
No overflow when adding a positive and a negative
number
No overflow when signs are the same for
subtraction
Overflow occurs when the value affects the sign:
overflow when adding two positives yields a negative
or, adding two negatives gives a positive
or, subtract a negative from a positive and get a negative
or, subtract a positive from a negative and get a positive

Effects of Overflow
An exception (interrupt) occurs
Control jumps to predefined address for exception
Interrupted address is saved for possible resumption

## Details based on software system / language

Don't always want to detect overflow
subu
note: addiu still sign-extends!
note: sltu, sltiu for unsigned comparisons

## Different Implementations for ALU

Not easy to decide the best way to build something
Don't want too many inputs to a single gate
Dont want to have to go through too many gates
For our purposes, ease of comprehension is important

## Let's look at a 1-bit ALU for addition:

Building blocks: AND, OR, Inverter, MUX, etc.
CarryIn

a
Sum

## cout = a b + a cin + b cin

sum = a xor b xor cin

CarryOut

How could we build a 1-bit ALU for add, and, and or?
How could we build a 32-bit ALU?

A 1-bit ALU
AND and OR
A logic unit performing logic
AND and OR.

A 1-bit Full Adder ((3,2)
Implementation of a 1-bit

## A 1-bit ALU that performs

AND, OR, and addition
Figure B.5.6

## A 32-bit ALU for AND,

OR and ADD operation:
connecting 32 1-bit ALUs

## What About Subtraction

Invert each bit (by inverter) of b and add 1
How do we implement?
A very clever solution: a + (-b) = a + (b +1)

## What About NOR Operation?

Explore existing
hardware in the ALU
NOR (a,b) = not (a or b) =
not(a) and not(b)
Only need to add an
inverter for input a

## 32-Bit ALU for AND, OR, ADD, SUB, NOR

Binvert
Ainvert

In-Class Question
Prove that you can detect overflow by
CarryIn31 xor CarryOut31
that is, an overflow occurs if the CarryIN to the most
significant bit is not the same as the CarryOut of the
most significant bit

## Set on Less Than Operation

Idea: For
slt \$t0, \$s1, \$s2
Check \$s1-\$s2. If negative,
then set the LSB of \$t0 to 1,
set all other bits of \$t0 to 0;
otherwise, set all bits of \$t0 to
0.
How to set these bits? Less
input line

Implementation: Connect
Result31 to Less
Overflow detection

## Set on Less Than Operation

Question:
In figure B.5.11, Set connects
directly to Less0.
Can you find out any problem
in this implementation?
How to fix it?

Conditional Branch
MIPS Instruction:
beq \$S1, \$s2, label
Idea:
Test \$s1-\$s2. Use
an OR gate to test
whether the result is
0 or not. It \$s1=\$s2,
set a zero detector.

## A Final 32-bit ALU

Operations supported: and, or, nor, add, sub, slt, beq/bnq
ALU Control lines: 2 operation control signal for and, or, add,
and slt, 2 control line for sub, nor, and slt

Function

0000

And

0001

Or

0010

0110

Sub

0111
1100

Slt
NOR

## SPEED of the 32-bit Ripple Carry Adder

CarryOut, Result
The critical path
Path traversed by CARRY: contains 32 and gates, 32 or gates.
We must sequentially evaluate all 1-bit adders.
Ripple-carry is too low to be used in time-critical hardware
Speedup: anticipate the carry!
needs more hardware for parallel operation

## An extreme case sum of products

Infinite hardware through two-level logic
An example implementation too expensive!
the number of gates grows exponentially!
How many gates are needed to compute
c1:
c2:
c3:
c4:

The concept of propagate and generate
c(i+1) = (ai . bi) + (ai . ci) + (bi . ci) = (ai . bi) + ((ai+bi).ci)
pi = ai + bi;
gi = ai . bi

Why fast?

## First Level of abstraction: pi, gi

Still too expensive! Why?
still large number of gates
How many gates are needed to compute
c1:
c2:
c3:
c4:

CarryOut is 1 if
some earlier
a carry and all
intermediary
the carry.

## Build Bigger Adders

Cant build a 16-bit adder with carry lookahead!
Could use ripple carry of 4-bit adder
Use carry lookahead at higher levels

## Super Propagate Pi vs. Super Generate Gi

Group concept, 4-bit adder as a building block
Super Propagate/Generate definition
c4 = g3 + (p3.g2) + (p3.p2.g1) + (p3.p2.p1.g0) +
(p3.p2.p1.p0.c0) = C1

## Super Propagate and Generate

A super propagate is
true only if all propagates
in the same group is true
P0= P1= P2= P3=
A super generate is
true only if at least one
generate in its group is
true and all the
propagates downstream
from that generate are
true.
G0= G1= G2= G3=

Give the equations for
C1, C2, C3, C4?
Better: use the CLA
principle again!
Second-level of
abstraction!

An Example
Determine gi, pi, Gi, Pi, and C1, C2, C3, C4 for the
following two 16-bit numbers:
a:
0010 1001 0011 0010
b:
1101 0101 1110 1011
Do it yourself

## Speed of Ripple Carry vs. Carry Lookahead

Example: Assume each AND and OR gate take the
same time. Gate Delay is defined to be the number of
gates along the critical path. Compare the gate delays
of three 16-bit adder, one using ripple carry, one using
first-level carry lookahead, and one using two-level

Summary
Traditional ALU can be built from a multiplexor plus a
few gates that are replicated 32 times
To tailor to MIPS ISA, we expand the traditional ALU
with hardware for slt, beq, and overflow detection
Carry lookahead is much faster than ripple carry!
CLA principle can be applied multiple times!

Questions?