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Methods and Strategies

in Teaching the Arts

In the teaching process both questions

"What?" and "How?" should be considered.

knowledge about
contemporary art
contemporary art

methods make
that make
leaning effective

Methodology helps to systematically fulfill learning

objectives, is coherent with the subject and considers
working styles of both students and teachers.
Variability of learning methods help to make learning more
effective, but it should be kept in mind that a method itself
does not provide effective learning (Kidron, 1999).
Selection and use of methods are influenced by teacher,
student, subject and situation (Conti & Kolody, 1998).

Learner-centered methods are suitable techniques

in teaching contemporary arts.
Example of which are: brainstorming, seminar,
project method, role playing, study trips,
workshops, experiential learning, practice, selfreflection, & others.
Learning is made more effective by increasing
learners activity and considering different
learning styles.
This method help to develop critical thinking, can
involve students in their own learning and selfevaluation, share responsibility, and be more
(Roucher & Lovano-Kerr, 1995).

The Process-Concept Structure

Approach to Drama
of Geraldine B. Siks
This is based on drama principles that are
fundamental to learning the
related roles of:




The students primarily explore concepts

found in the role of the player:
1. Relaxation
2. Body Movement (nonlocomotor, shape,
3. The sense of sight
4. Imagining & improvising action in a
relationship between two persons in an
imagined environment.

The drama experience can only be

successful if the students have acquired
some basic drama skills and have
learned how to use the dramatic process
with confidence & understanding.
Basic Drama Skills
1. Concentration
2. Relaxation
3. Control of the body
4. Emotions
improvised action & speech

Strategies & Procedures

Major Strategies
1. Concept Learning evolves directly from
the process-content structure & forms
stable framework. Its aim is to involve
students in experiencing & learning the
basic concepts of the drama elements. It
provides a basis for the teachers
experiences for the students.

Strategies & Procedures

Major Strategies
2. Process Involvement is used to explore
& create drama. It aims to establish
within each student a firm basis for
involvement in the total creative process.
In this strategy the processes of
perceiving, responding, imagining, &

Workshop Procedures
Experiences are designed to involve
students in working to solve problems or
to reach a goal. It is an active-participant
procedure & should be interrelated.
1. Directed Procedure. The teacher gives
students directions to follow.
2. Problem-Solving
teachers introduces a concept & then
presents a problem in terms of task to be

3. Exploratory Procedures. It allows the

students to explore independently to
discover concepts & to Improve skills.
4. Competency-Based Procedure. This
motivates self-directed learning.

Facilitating the Teaching-Learning

Planning a Lesson Process
a. Assess the developmental needs & interest
of the individuals in the group.
b. Lists concepts & processes to be introduced
or reinforced.
c. State goals in terms of expected outcomes
d. List instructional materials & arrangements
of the physical environment
e. Design & describe briefly the learning
experiences in order of presentation
f. List evaluating procedures

Sequential Flexible Teaching Pattern

The teachers way of teaching is governed in part
by personality, teaching style, experience, &
The teacher aims to influence the conditions of
learning by using a flexible teaching pattern
that evolves in four broadly sequential patterns
which are:
1. Orientation
2. Presentation
3. Guidance
4. Evaluation

Establishing a Learning Environment

The teacher is the key person responsible for
planning & establishing a learning environment
for drama experiencing.
Some suggested materials:
1. Space
2. Lighting Equipment (optional)
3. Costume Materials
4. Sound Exploration Materials