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PARTS OF SPEECH

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NOUNS and PRONOUNS


NOUNS: Jon, Mary, table, book, universe...
Saxon genitive: Marys book, Jons father...
Norman genitive: the leg of the table...

PRONOUNS:
PERSONAL (I, you, he, she, it, we, they,
objective case me, you, him, her, it, us,
them)
POSSESSIVE (mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours,
theirs)
REFLEXIVE (myself, yourself, himself, herself,
itself, ourselves, themselves)

NOUNS and PRONOUNS


INDEFINITE (somebody, someone,
something)
UNIVERSAL (everybody, everyone,
everything)
NEGATIVE (nobody, no one, nothing)
INTERROGATIVE (who, what)
RELATIVE (who, which, that)
DEMONSTRATIVE (this, that, these, those)

Possessive pronouns and


adjectives!
Possessive pronouns: mine, yours, his,
hers, its, ours, theirs
Possessive adjectives: my, your, his, her,
its, our, their
The book is mine. The boyfriend is hers
(possessive PRONOUNS)
my book, my boyfriend, your letter, his
lunch
(possessive ADJECTIVES)

ADJECTIVES
Comparison of adjectives
positiv comparat superlati
e
ive
ve
Synthet
the
smart
smarter
ic
smartest
Analyti beautif more
the most
c
ul
beautiful
beautiful
Irregula
good
better
the best
r

VERBS

Verbs: jump, run, swim, love, hate


Auxiliary verbs: be, do, have
Voice: passive/active
Modal verbs: will, shall, would, should,
can, could, may, might, must
Modal verb + bare infinitive
Infinitive: full and bare, present and
past, progressive, active and passive

Infinitives
Infinitives

Full

Bare

Passive

Present

to love

love

(to) be loved

Progressive

to be loving

be loving

Perfective/Past

to have loved

have loved

(to) have been


loved

Perfective
progressive

to have been
loving

have been
loving

TENSES
Present Simple (I work/he works, do, does)
Present Continuous (I am working/he is working/they
are working)
Past Simple (worked/saw, did)
Past Continuous (was/were working)
Present Perfect Simple (have/has worked/seen)
Present Perfect Continuous (have/has been working)
Past Perfect Simple (had worked/seen)
Past Perfect Continuous (had been working)
Future Simple (will work)
Future Continuous (will be working)

-ING forms
Gerunds (like nouns): dancing shoes
(shoes used for dancing)
Present participles (like verbs): dancing
bear (a bear which is dancing)
I like swimming. Swimming is nice. I am
never tired of swimming. (gerund)
He is swimming. The swimming contestant
is good. To be swimming for your national
team is an honor. (present participle)

ADVERBS
Adverbs: slowly, nicely, well
Adverbs of frequency: never, ever,
always, usually, sometimes, often
Adjectives and adverbs: friendly,
hard, wrong

ADVERBS
Comparison of adverbs
positiv
e
Analyti
c

compara superlati
tive
ve

more
beautifu
beautifull
lly
y

Irregula
well
r

better

most
beautifull
y
best

CLAUSES and SENTENCES


Time clauses: When I was I child, I spent the
summers at my grandparents.
Relative defining clauses: The man who was looking
for you is here again.
Relative non-defining clauses: This is Jon, who gave
me the money.
Co-ordinate clauses: Jon gave me the money, which
was really nice.
1st cond.: If you ask him, he will help you.
2nd cond.: If you asked him, he would help you.
3rd cond.: If you had asked him, he would have helped
you.

OTHER
Numbers: one, two, three (cardinal);
first, second, third (ordinal)
Prepositions: at, in, on, by, between,
among, with, under, over
Conjunctions: and, or, but, if
Articles:
Indefinite: a/an
Definite: the

THE END