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Intermediate Microeconomics (Production Functions)

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You are on page 1of 59

Andreea CHIRITESCU

Eastern Illinois University

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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Marginal Productivity

The firms production function

For a particular good (q)

Shows the maximum amount of the good

that can be produced

Using alternative combinations of capital

(k) and labor (l)

q = f(k,l)

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Marginal physical product

The additional output that can be

produced

By employing one more unit of that input

Holding other inputs constant

q

marginal physical product of capital MPk

fk

k

q

marginal physical product of labor MPl

fl

l

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Marginal physical product

Depends on how much of that input is

used

MPk f

2 f kk f11 0

k

k

2

MPl f

2 f ll f 22 0

l

l

2

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Changes in the marginal productivity of

labor

Also depend on changes in other inputs

such as capital

We need to consider flk which is often > 0

MPl

f lk

k

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Labor productivity

Often means average productivity

output

q f (k , l )

APl

labor input l

l

APl also depends on the amount of capital

employed

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9.1

flyswatters can be represented by

q = f(k,l) = 600k 2l2 - k 3l3

To construct MPl and APl, we must assume a

value for k

Let k = 10

q = 60,000l2 - 1000l3

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9.1

MPl = q/l = 120,000l - 3000l2

Which diminishes as l increases

This implies that q has a maximum value:

120,000l - 3000l2 = 0

40l = l2

l = 40

Labor input beyond l = 40 reduces output

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9.1

and solve

APl = q/l = 60,000l - 1000l2

APl reaches its maximum where

APl/l = 60,000 - 2000l = 0

l = 30

When l = 30, APl = MPl = 900,000

When APl is at its maximum, APl and MPl are

equal

2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as

permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Isoquant Maps

Isoquant map

To illustrate the possible substitution of

one input for another

An isoquant

Shows those combinations of k and l that

can produce a given level of output (q0)

f(k,l) = q0

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10

9.1

An Isoquant Map

k per period

q = 30

kA

kB

q = 20

q = 10

lA

lB

l per period

produce a given level of output. The slope of these curves shows the rate at which

l can be substituted for k while keeping output constant. The negative of this slope

is called the (marginal) rate of technical substitution (RTS). In the figure, the RTS

is positive and diminishing for increasing inputs of labor.

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11

Substitution

(RTS)

Shows the rate at which labor can be

substituted for capital

Holding output constant along an isoquant

dk

RTS (l for k )

dl

q q0

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12

Total differential of the production

function:

f

f

dq dl dk MPl dl MPk dk

l

k

Along an isoquant dq = 0, so

MPl dl MPk dk

dk

RTS (l for k )

dl

q q0

MPl

MPk

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13

RTS will be positive (or zero)

Because MPl and MPk will both be

nonnegative

From the assumption of diminishing

marginal productivity alone

Show that d(RTS)/dl < 0

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14

Since RTS = fl/fk

And dk/dl = -fl/fk along an isoquant and

Youngs theorem (fkl = flk)

dRTS d ( f l / f k )

dl

dl

[ f k ( f ll f lk dk / dl ) - f l ( f kl f kk dk / dl )]

( fk )2

( f k2 f ll - 2 f k f l f kl f l 2 f kk )

( f k )3

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15

Denominator is positive

Because we have assumed fk > 0

Because fll and fkk are both assumed to be

negative

should be positive

If workers have more capital, they will be

more productive

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16

But some production functions have fkl < 0

over some input ranges

Assuming diminishing RTS means that

MPl and MPk diminish quickly enough to

compensate for any possible negative

cross-productivity effects

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17

9.2

A Diminishing RTS

Production function:

q = f(k,l) = 600k 2l 2 - k 3l 3

Marginal productivity functions:

MPl = fl = 1200k 2l - 3k 3l 2

MPk = fk = 1200kl 2 - 3k 2l 3

Will be positive for values of k and l for which kl

< 400

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18

9.2

A Diminishing RTS

Because

fll = 1200k 2 - 6k 3l and fkk = 1200l 2 - 6kl 3

Diminishing marginal productivities for sufficiently

large values of k and l

fll and fkk < 0 if kl > 200

productivity functions yields

fkl = flk = 2400kl - 9k 2l 2

Which is positive only for kl < 266

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19

Returns to Scale

How does output respond to increases in

all inputs together?

Suppose that all inputs are doubled,

would output double?

Greater division of labor and

specialization of function

Loss in efficiency - management may

become more difficult

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20

Returns to Scale

Production function is given by q = f(k,l)

And all inputs are multiplied by the same

positive constant (t >1)

Then we classify the returns to scale of

the production function by

Effect on Output

Returns to Scale

f(tk,tl) = tf(k,l) = tq

f(tk,tl) < tf(k,l) = tq

f(tk,tl) > tf(k,l) = tq

Constant

Decreasing

Increasing

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21

Returns to Scale

Production function

Constant returns to scale for some levels

of input usage

Increasing or decreasing returns for other

levels

The degree of returns to scale is generally

defined within a fairly narrow range of

variation in input usage

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22

Returns to Scale

Returns to scale can be generalized to a

production function with n inputs

q = f(x1,x2,,xn)

If all inputs are multiplied by a positive

constant t:

f(tx1,tx2,,txn) = tkf(x1,x2,,xn)=tkq

If k = 1, constant returns to scale

If k < 1, decreasing returns to scale

If k > 1, increasing returns to scale

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23

Example:

Suppose : Q = AKL

To check for RTS:

Q = A(mK) (mL)

= AmKmL

= m+ (AKL)

= m+Q

Thus,

when +

=1

CRTS

+

<1

DRTS

+

> 1 IRTS

if Q = AK 4L 5

+ = 4 + 5 = 0.9 <1

Decreasing RTS!

Example:

let Q = 3L + 10K + 500

(i) Suppose L = K = 1

Q = 3(1) + 10(1) + 500 = 513

(ii) Lets double all inputs ie

L= K = 2

Q = 3(2) + 10(2) + 500 = 526

Whe all inputs are doubled, increase in output is

less than double!

The above production function exhibits DRTS!

Output more than doubles when all inputs

are doubled (input increase 10%, output

increases more than 10%).

Larger output associated with lower cost.

Arise because the larger scale of operation

allows managers and workers to specialize

their tasks and use of more sophisticated

equipments and factories.

One firm is more efficient than many.

The isoquants get closer together.

Capital

(machine

hours)

The isoquants

move closer

together

4

30

20

2

10

5

10

Labor (hours

doubled (input increase 10%, output

increases 10%).

productivity.

Constant returns-to-scale production

functions

Are homogeneous of degree one in inputs

f(tk,tl) = t1f(k,l) = tq

Are homogeneous of degree zero

If a function is homogeneous of degree k,

its derivatives are homogeneous of

degree k-1

2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a

29

license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Marginal productivity of any input

Depends on the ratio of capital and labor

Not on the absolute levels of these inputs

Depends only on the ratio of k to l

Not the scale of operation

Homothetic production function

All of the isoquants are radial expansions of

one another

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30

license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

k per period

q=3

q=2

q=1

l per period

Because a constant returns-to-scale production function is homothetic, the RTS depends

only on the ratio of k to l, not on the scale of production. Consequently, along any ray

through the origin (a ray of constant k/l), the RTS will be the same on all isoquants. An

additional feature is that the isoquant labels increase proportionately with the inputs.

31

Capital

(machine

hours)

2

A

6

30

4

2

0

2

Constant

Returns:

Isoquants are

equally spaced

10

5

10

5

15

5

Labor (hours)

are doubled.

managers can become difficult to monitor.

Capital

(machine

hours)

Decreasing Returns:

Isoquants get further

apart

15

2

10

5

10

12

Labor (hours)

Elasticity of substitution ()

For the production function q = f (k, l)

Measures the proportionate change in k/l

relative to the proportionate change in the

RTS along an isoquant

%(k / l ) d (k / l ) RTS d ln(k / l )

d ln(k / l )

%RTS

dRTS k / l d ln RTS d ln( f1 / f k )

The value of will always be positive

because k/l and RTS move in the same

direction

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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

35

9.3

Graphic Description of the Elasticity of Substitution

k per period

(k/l)A

RTSA

RTSB

B

q = q0

(k/l)B

l per period

In moving from point A to point B on the q = q 0 isoquant, both the capitallabor ratio

(k/l) and the RTS will change. The elasticity of substitution () is defined to be the

ratio of these proportional changes; it is a measure of how curved the isoquant is.

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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

36

Elasticity of Substitution

If is high

The RTS will not change much relative to k/l

The isoquant will be relatively flat

If is low

The RTS will change by a substantial

amount as k/l changes

The isoquant will be sharply curved

Or as the scale of production changes

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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

37

Elasticity of Substitution

Elasticity of substitution between two

inputs

The proportionate change in the ratio of

the two inputs

To the proportionate change in RTS

With output and the levels of other inputs

constant

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38

Linear production function ( = ):

q = f(k,l) = k + l

Constant returns to scale

f(tk,tl) = tk + tl = t( k + l) = tf(k,l)

All isoquants are straight lines with slope

--/

RTS is constant

=

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39

9.4 (a)

Values for

(a) =

k per period

slope = - /

q1

q2

q3

l per period

Three possible values for the elasticity of substitution are illustrated in these

figures. In (a), capital and labor are perfect substitutes. In this case, the RTS will

not change as the capitallabor ratio changes.

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40

Fixed Proportions

Fixed proportions production function ( =

0):

q = min (k,l) , > 0

Capital and labor must always be used in

a fixed ratio

The firm will always operate along a ray

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41

9.4 (b)

Values for

(b) = 0

k per period

q3

q3/

q2

q1

q3/

l per period

Three possible values for the elasticity of substitution are illustrated in these

figures.

In (b), the fixedproportions case, no substitution is possible. The capitallabor

ratio is fixed at /.

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42

Cobb-Douglas production function ( = 1):

q = f(k,l) = Akl A,, > 0

This production function can exhibit any

returns to scale

f(tk,tl) = A(tk) (tl) = At + k l = t + f(k,l)

if + = 1 constant returns to scale

if + > 1 increasing returns to scale

if + < 1 decreasing returns to scale

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43

The Cobb-Douglas production function is

linear in logarithms:

ln q = ln A + ln k + ln l

is the elasticity of output with respect to k

is the elasticity of output with respect to l

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44

9.4 (c)

Values for

k per period

(c) = 1

q=3

q=2

q=1

l per period

Three possible values for the elasticity of substitution are illustrated in these

figures.

A case of limited substitutability is illustrated in (c).

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45

CES production function ( = 1/(1-)):

q = f(k,l) = [k + l] / 1, 0, > 0

> 1 increasing returns to scale

< 1 decreasing returns to scale

For this production function, = 1/(1-)

= 1 linear production function

= - fixed proportions production

function

= 0 Cobb-Douglas production function

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46

Constant returns to scale

Marginal productivities are

fk = 1 + (k/l)-0.5 and

fl = 1 + (k/l)0.5

RTS diminishes as k/l falls

fl 1 (k / l ) 0.5

RTS

f k 1 (k / l ) -0.5

This function has a CES form ( = 0.5 and = 1)

Elasticity of substitution:

1

1

2

1 0.5

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47

Technical Progress

Methods of production change over time

Following the development of superior

production techniques

The same level of output can be produced

The isoquant shifts in

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48

9.5

Technical Progress

k per period

k2

k1

q0

q0

l1

l2

l per period

Technical progress shifts the q0 isoquant toward the origin. The new q0 isoquant,

q0, shows that a given level of output can now be produced with less input. For

example, with k1 units of capital it now only takes l1 units of labor to produce q0,

whereas before the technical advance it took l2 units of labor.

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49

Production function: q = A(t)f(k,l)

Where A(t) represents all influences that

go into determining q other than k and l

Changes in A over time represent

technical progress

A is shown as a function of time (t)

dA/dt > 0

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50

Differentiating the production function with

respect to time we get

dq dA

df (k , l )

f (k , l ) A

dt dt

dt

dA q

q f dk f dl

dt A f (k , l ) k dt l dt

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51

Dividing by q gives us

dq / dt dA / dt f / k dk f / l dl

q

A

f (k , l ) dt f (k , l ) dt

dA / dt f

k

dk / dt f

l

dl / dt

A

k f (k , l )

k

l f (k , l )

l

Gx - proportional growth rate in x, [(dx/dt)/x]

Write the equation in terms of growth rate

f

k

f

l

Gq GA

Gk

Gt

k f (k , l )

l f (k , l )

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52

Since

f

k

q k

eq ,k

k f (k , l ) k q

f

l

q l

eq ,l

l f (k , l ) l q

Growth equation:

Gq GA eq ,k Gk eq ,l Gl

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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

53

9.4

Production Function

Assume that technical progress occurs at a

constant exponential () , A(t) = Aet

q = Aetk l 1-

Taking logarithms and differentiating with respect

to t gives the growth equation

ln q ln q q q / t

(ln A t ln k (1 ) ln l )

Gq

t

q t

q

t

ln k

ln l

(1 )

Gk (1 )Gl

t

t

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54

n

Many-input CobbDouglas: q x

i 1

i 1

i

i

i

i 1

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55

Many-input constant elasticity of

substitution (CES):

q

i i

Diminishing marginal productivities for

each input because 1

The elasticity of substitution: =1/(1-)

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56

Nested production functions

CobbDouglas and CES production

functions are combined into a nested

single function

Composite input x4 CES :

1/

2

x4 x 1 x

Final production function Cobb Douglas :

qx x

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57

Generalized Leontief:

n

q ij xi x j , where ij ji

i 1 j 1

Diminishing marginal productivities to all

inputs

Because each input appears both linearly and

derivatives

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58

Translog:

n

ln q 0 i ln xi 0.5 ij ln xi ln x j , where ij ji

i 1

i 1 j 1

May assume any degree of returns to

scale

The condition ij = ji is required to ensure

equality of the cross-partial derivatives

permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

59

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