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LEARNING OUTCOMES
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## Define the basic angle modulation equation.

Describe the differences of frequency and phase
modulation.
Define the basic formulas of angle modulation.
Solve angle modulation worded problems.

An
angle-modulated
mathematically as:

can

be

expressed

m t V c cos c t t
Where:
o m(t) = angle-modulated wave
o V = peak carrier amplitude
c
o

## c = carrier radian frequency, (2fc), radians per

second
(t) = instantaneous phase deviations (radians)

## With angle modulation, it is necessary that (t)

be prescribed function of the modulated signal.

t F Vm t
Where:
o V (t) = V sin( t)
m
m
m
o

## m = angular velocity of the modulating signal,

(2fm radians per second)

## The difference between FM and PM lies in which

property of the carrier (the frequency or the
phase) is varied directly with the modulating
signal and which property is varied indirectly.

## Note that when the frequency of the carrier is

varied the phase is also varied and vise versa.

## If the frequency of the carrier is varied directly in

accordance with the modulating signal, FM
occurs.
If the phase of the carrier is varied directly in
accordance with the modulating signal, PM
occurs.FM - varying the frequency of a constant
Direct
amplitude carrier directly proportional to the
amplitude of the modulating signal at a rate
equal to the frequency of the modulating signal
Direct PM varying the phase of a constantamplitude carrier directly proportional to the
amplitude of the modulating signal at a rate
equal to the frequency of the modulating signal

o
o

## The magnitude and direction of the frequency

shift (f) is proportional to the amplitude of the
modulating signal.
The rate at which the frequency changes are
occurring is equal to the frequency of the
modulating signal (fm).
(f) is called the frequency deviation.
frequency deviation - amount of change in carrier
frequency produced by the modulating signal

o
o

## frequency deviation is the change in frequency

that occurs in the carrier when it is acted on by a
modulating signal frequency
frequency deviation is typically given as a peak
frequency shift in hertz
the peak-to-peak frequency deviation is called as
the carrier swing (2f)

f = fmax + fc
CS
f f = fc - fmin
CS (Carrier
Swing)

f kf x Vm

(Hz)

Where:
o f= peak frequency deviation (Hz)
o k = deviation sensitivity (Hz/V)
f
o

## Modulation Index - the ratio of frequency deviation to the modulating

frequency

f
mf
fm

Where:
o m = modulation index for FM
f
o

f m=
(Hz)

modulation

frequency

## phase deviation in PM is equal to its modulation index

kp x Vm (Radians)
mp
Where:
o = peak phase deviation (radians)
o k = deviation sensitivity (rad/V)
p
o V = peak value of the modulating signal (V)
m
o m = modulation index for PM
p

## In FM, both the modulation index and the frequency

deviation are directly proportional to the amplitude of
the modulating signal, and the modulation index is
inversely proportional to its frequency.

## In PM, both the modulation index and phase deviation

are directly proportional to the amplitude of the
modulating signal and unaffected by its frequency.

f (actual)
% modulation
x 100%
f (max)
o

## With angle modulation, the

simply the ratio of the
actually produced to the
deviation allowed by law
form.

percent modulation is
frequency deviation
maximum frequency
stated in percentage

Examples:
1.Determine the peak frequency deviation and the
modulation index for an FM modulator with a
deviation sensitivity of 5kHz/V and a modulating
signal Vm(t) = 2cos(2 2000t).
2.Determine the peak phase deviation for a PM
modulator with a deviation sensitivity of 2.5 rad/V
and a modulating signal Vm(t) = 2cos(2 2000t)
3.A phase modulator has a kp = 2rad/V. What RMS
voltage of a sine wave would cause a peak
deviation of 60?

## With angle modulation, the frequency components of

the modulated wave are much more complexly related
to the frequency components of the modulating signal
than AM.
In angle modulation, a single-frequency modulating
signal produces an infinite number of pairs of side
frequencies and, thus have a infinite bandwidth.
These sidebands are separated from the carrier by
multiples of fm but their amplitudes tends to decrease
as their distance from the carrier frequency increases.
However most of the side frequencies are negligibly in
amplitude and can be ignore

Identity:

## J 0 m cosc t J 1 m cos c m t cos c m t

m t Vc J 2 m cos c 2m t cos c 2m t

## J 3 m cos c 3m t cos c 3m t ...

Where:
o m(t) = angle modulated wave
o V = peak amplitude of the unmodulated wave
c
o J (m)cos t = carrier component
0
c
o J (m)[cos( - )t + cos( + )t] = 1st set of side frequencies
1
c
m
c
m
o J (m)[cos( - 2 )t + cos( + 2 )t] = 2nd set of side frequencies
2
c
m
c
m
o J (m)[cos( - 3 )t + cos( + 3 )t] = 3rd set of side frequencies
3
c
m
c
m

m2

m
J n m

m2

m2

...

n! 1! n 1 2! n 2 3! n 3

Where:
o n= number of the side frequency
o m = modulation index

## Note: the modulation index determines how many sideband

components have significant amplitudes

## The actual bandwidth required to pass all the

significant sideband for an angle modulated wave
is two times the product of the highest
modulating-signal frequency and the number of
significant sidebands pairs determine from the
Bessel table.

Bandwidth 2 n fm

Hz

Where:
o n= number of significant sidebands
o f
=
highest
modulating-signal
m
frequency

## Carsons rule is an approximation and gives

transmission bandwidths of a angle-modulated
systems. These bandwidths are slightly narrower than
the bandwidths determine using the Bessel table.
Carsons rule defines a bandwidth that includes
approximately 98% of the total power in the
modulated wave.

Bandwidth 2 f fm

Hz

Where:
o f= number of significant sidebands
o f
=
highest
modulating-signal
m
frequency

FM System

Bandwidth Formula

Narrowband FM, m1
(NBFM)

BW = 2fm

Wideband FM, m 5
(WBFM)

BW = 2f

Carsons Rule
(Approximate formula)

BW = 2(f+fm)

(Exact formula)

BW = 2(n x fm)

Descriptions

Wideband FM

Narrowband
FM

Applications

and
entertainment

Mobile
communication
s

Modulation
index (mf)

5 2500

Maximum
deviation (max)

75 kHz

5 kHz

Modulating
frequency (fm)

30 Hz 15 kHz

3 kHz (max)

o
o

## the worst case (maximum)modulation index

equal to the maximum peak frequency deviation
divided by the maximum signal frequency

f(max)
DR
fm(max)

Examples:
1.For an FM modulator with a modulation index = 1, a
modulating signal Vm(t) = Vmsin(2 1000t), and an
unmodualted carrier Vc(t) = 10sin(2 5000t). Determine
the no. of sets of significant side frequencies, their
amplitudes and draw the frequency spectrum showing
their relative amplitudes.
2.For an FM modulator with a peak frequency deviation
f = 10kHz a modulating signal frequency fm = 10kHz,
Vc = 10V and a 500kHz carrier. Determine the actual
minimum BW from the Bessel function table.
3.What is the deviation ratio of TV sound if the maximum
modulation frequency is 15 kHz?
4.Determine the deviation ratio and the BW for an FM BC
transmitter.

o
o
o

## With angle modulation, the total signal voltage

and power do not change with modulation
The total power in an angle modulation wave is
equal to the power of the unmodulated carrier
With angle modulation, the power that was
originally in the unmodulated carrier is
redistributed among the carrier and its sidebands
The modulated carrier power is the sum of the
powers of the carrier and the side frequency
components

VC 2
PC
2R

VC 2
PT
2R

Before modulation

After modulation

Where:
o

Pc = carrier power

## Vc = peak carrier unmodulated voltage

R = load resistance

P T P 0 P 1 P 2 P 3 P 4... P N
V0 2 2(V1)2 2(V2)2 2(V3)2
2(V4)2
PT

...
2R
2R
2R
2R
2R

P T P C J 02 2 J 12 J 22 J 22 ...J N2

Examples:
An FM signal , 2000 sin(2 x 108t + 2sin x 104t),
is applied to a 50 ohms antenna. Determine:
a) The carrier frequency.
b) The transmitter power.
c) The modulating index.
d) The intelligence signal frequency.
e) The bandwidth (using the two methods)
f) The power in the largest and smallest side
bands.
An FM Broadcast transmitter has a deviation of 25
kHz and a modulating frequency of 8 kHz. Calculate
the power that is unaccounted, if the total power is
10W, J0 = -0.26, J1 = 0.34, J2 = 0.49, J3 = 0.31

Angle
modulated
wave
has
characteristic compare to AM.

superior

noise

## The addition of noise to a received signal causes

change in its amplitude. Since the amplitude changes
in the AM contain the intelligence, any attempt to get
rid of the noise adversely affect the received signal.

## In FM the intelligence is not carrier by the amplitude

changes but instead by frequency change. So changes
in the amplitude of the received signal does not affect
the information.

N
-1
sin
S

fm

Where:
o = phase shift due to noise
o

## = frequency deviation due to noise

Examples:
The input to an FM receiver has a signal-to-noise ratio
of 2.8, the modulating frequency is 1.5 kHz. The maximum
permitted deviation is 4 kHz. Find:
a. frequency deviation caused by noise
b. the improved output S/N

Pre-emphasis
Differentiator)
o

(HPF

and

## The boosting of the higher modulating frequencies at the

transmitter, in accordance with the pre arranged curve to
improve noise immunity at FM and prevent the higher
frequency component of the transmitted intelligence being

1
fC
2 RC

o

## Reducing the amplitude of the higher modulating

frequencies at the receiver to the same amount as it was
before the pre emphasis circuit.

1
fC
2 RC
The
preemphasis
and
deemphasis networks have a time
constant of 75 s (150 s for
Europe, 25 s for Dolby) and a cut
off frequency of 2122 Hz.

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## More immune to noise

o
The main benefit of angle modulation over AM is its
superior immunity to noise, made possible by the
clipper limiter circuits in the receiver
Noise Performance and Signal-to-Noise Improvement
o
With the use of limiters, FM and PM demodulators can
actually reduce the noise level and improve the S/N
ratio during the demodulation process
Capture Effect
o
Capture effect allows the receiver to differentiate
between two signals received with the same
frequency
Power Utilization and Bandwidth efficiency
o
Angle modulation puts most of its power in the
information

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Bandwidth
o
high-quality angle modulation produces many side
frequencies, thus necessitating a much wider
bandwidth than is necessary

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## Circuit Complexity and Cost

o
PM and FM modulators, demodulators, transmitters,
and receivers are more complex to design and build
than their AM counterparts

## Varactor Diode Modulator

o
simple to use, reliable and have the stability of a crystal
oscillator
o
but the peak frequency deviation is limited to relatively
small values
o
used primarily for low-index applications, such as two way
Varactor Diode VCO Modulator
o
use of VCO instead of crystal oscillator
o
VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillators) are FM circuits in
which continuous variable changes in frequency are
provided by the varactor diode
FM Reactance Modulator
o
the variation In the reactance would cause the oscillator
frequency to vary in accordance with the modulating signal
thereby directly producing FM

## Linear Integrated Circuit Modulator

o
produces FM that is relatively stable and accurate
o
limited to lower output power applications and needed
several additional external components for them to function
(timing capacitors and resistors for frequency determination
and power supply filters

## Diode Direct PM Modulator

o
accomplished by directly changing the phase of the carrier
Transistor Direct PM Modulator

## Crosby Direct FM Transmitter

o
the frequency modulator can be either a reactance
modulator or a voltage-controlled oscillator
o
includes AFC loop
o
AFC (Automatic Frequency Control) compares the
frequency of the non-crystal carrier oscillator to the noncrystal reference oscillator and then produces a correction
voltage proportional to the difference between the two
frequencies and the correction voltage is fed back to the
carrier to compensate for any change that may have occurs
o
To achieve near-crystal stability of the transmit carrier
frequency without using a crystal in the carrier oscillator
Phase-Locked Loop Direct FM Transmitter
o
a phase-locked loop (PLL) to achieve crystal stability from a
VCO master oscillator and in the same time generate a high
index wideband FM output signal

PM from FM
o
FM modulator preceded by a differentiator generates a PM
waveform

## Armstrong Indirect FM transmitter

o
the carrier source is a crystal; therefore the stability
requirements for the carrier frequency can be achieved
without using an AFC loop
FM from PM
o
PM modulator preceded by an integrator generates an FM
waveform