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# COMMUTATOR (DC MACHINES)

Disusun oleh :

## Ade Virgie Hayoening P (2031510004)

Choirur Roziqin (2031510016)
Diana Ayu Lestari (2031510018)
Farah Van Tina (2031510024)
Hendra Styawan (2031510027)
Sri Sugmah (2031510048)

Introduction
DC motors convert electrical energy into mechanical energy
The working principle of the DC (and AC as well) generator is
Faradays Law,which states that emf and electric current if the
circuit is closed, is produced when a conductor cuts through
magnetic force lines.
The opposite of the law applies for the DC (and AC) motor. Motion
is produced when a current carrying wire is put in a magnetic field.

Commutation
In DC machines the current in each wire of the armature is actually
alternating.
We need a way to convert alternating current into direct current
(see Fig. 1)
Fig.1 (a), DC generator: induced AC emf is converted to DC voltage.
Fig.1 (b), DC motor: input direct current is converted to alternating
current in the armature at appropriate times to produce
unidirectional torque.

Commutation

Commutation

## Fig.1 (b) DC motor

DC Machine Construction

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## DC Machine: Major Components

The stator of the DC machine has poles, which are excited by DC
current to produce magnetic fields.
In the neutral zone, in the middle between the poles, commutating
poles are placed to reduce sparking of the commutator. The
commutating poles are supplied by DC current.
Compensating windings are mounted on the main poles.
The poles are mounted on an iron core that provides a closed
magnetic circuit.
The motor housing supports the iron core, the brushes and the
bearings.
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## DC Machine: Major Components

The rotor has a ring-shaped laminated iron core with slots.
Coils with several turns are placed in the slots. The distance between
the two legs of the coil is about 180 electric degrees.
The coils are connected in series through the commutator segments.
The ends of each coil are connected to a commutator segment.
The commutator consists of insulated copper segments mounted on
an insulated tube.
Two brushes are pressed to the commutator to permit current flow.
The brushes are placed in the neutral zone, where the magnetic field
is close to zero, to reduce arcing.
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DC Machine: Commutator

DC Machine: Commutator
The rotor has a ring-shaped laminated iron core with slots.
The commutator consists of insulated copper segments mounted on
an insulated tube.
Two brushes are pressed to the commutator to permit current flow.
The brushes are placed in the neutral zone, where the magnetic field
is close to zero, to reduce arcing.

DC Machine: Commutator
The commutator switches the current from one rotor coil to the
The switching requires the interruption of the coil current.
The sudden interruption of an inductive current generates high
voltages .
The high voltage produces flashover and arcing between the
commutator segment and the brush.

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DC Machine: Commutator

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DC Machine Construction

## Fig.4 DC motor stator with poles visible (4 pole machine).

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DC Machine Construction

## Fig.5 Rotor of a DC motor.

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DC Machine Construction

## Fig.6 Cutaway view of a DC motor.

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Construction of dc Machines:
The rotor in a dc machine is called an armature.
The armature has cylindrical steel core that is composed of
a stack of slotted laminations.
Slots in laminations are aligned axially along rotor or shaft.
Armature windings are placed in slots.
The stator in a dc machine is the fieldpart of the machine.
Field poles are located on stator and project inward.
Each pole has a narrow iron core around which the exciting
winding or field coil placed.

## Field coil may consist of two or more separate windings.

A pole shoe distributes pole flux over rotor surface across a narrow air gap.
Leads from the armature coils are connected to the commutator.
Commutator consists of radial copper segments separated by an insulating

## material, usually mica.

Current is conducted to the armature by carbon brushes that are held against

## the surface of the commutator by springs.

Brushes wear with time, must be inspected regularly, and occasionally

replaced.
Copper commutator segments wear also and sometimes have to be resurfaced,

or turned down. If not, the harder mica protrudes above the copper, and the
brushes bounce, resulting in arcs that damage the commutator surface.

Sikat (Brush)
Fungsi dari sikat-sikat adalah untuk jembatan
bagi aliran arus dari lilitan jangkar beban, aliran
arus tersebut akan mengalir dari sumber dan
diterima oleh kontaktor
Bahan sikat kebanyakan berupa

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## Medan magnet dihasilkan oleh kutub stator yang menginduksikan emf

pada koil rotor (atau armatur) ketika mesin berotasi atau diputar.
Tegangan Induksi
Sisi coil (terdiri satu konduktor) yang melintang terhadap garis gaya
magnet terbangkitkan tegangan induksi sebesar :

Dimana :
B : Rapat fluks magnet (Wb/m)
v : Kecepatan relative konduktor terhadap medan magnet (m/sec)
l : Panjang konduktor (m)
Kutub fluks dihasilkan oleh eksitasi/arus medan DC, yang secara
magnetisasi berpasangan dengan rotor.

Tegangan jangkar

Dimana:
Ea : tegangan jangkar
K : konstanta
: fluks
n : kecepatan
Kecepatan

Dimana:
C = konstanta

## Kopel elektromagnetik (Nm)

T= kopel elektromagnetik
Ea=tegangan jangkar
= kecepatan sudut
K= konstanta

## Emf & Torque

Kecepatan motor dan fluksi dihitung dengan:

## m= kecepatan angular mekanik rotor

Dg =diameter rotor
p = jumlah kutub
= fluks perkutub

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= torsi
E a= ggl induksi
Ia= Arus jangkar

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DC Motor

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## Separately Excited DC Generator

These are the generators whose field magnets
are energized by some external dc source such as
battery .
A circuit diagram of separately excited DC
generator is shown in figure.
Ia = Armature current
V = Terminal voltage
Eg = Generated emf

## Voltage drop in the armature = Ia Ra (R/sub>a is the

armature resistance)
Let, Ia = IL = I (say)
Then, voltage across the load, V = IRa
Power generated, Pg = EgI
Power delivered to the external load, PL = VI.

Self-excited DC Generators
These are the generators whose field magnets are energized by the current supplied by
themselves.
In these type of machines field coils are internally connected with the armature.
Due to residual magnetism some flux is always present in the poles.
When the armature is rotated some emf is induced. Hence some induced current is
produced.
This small current flows through the field coil as well as the load and thereby
strengthening the pole flux.
As the pole flux strengthened, it will produce more armature emf, which cause further
increase of current through the field.
This increased field current further raises armature emf and this cumulative
phenomenon continues until the excitation reaches to the rated value.

## According to the position of the field coils the

Self-excited DC generators may be classified as:
Series wound generators
Shunt wound generators
Compound wound generators

## In these type of generators, the field windings are connected in

series with armature conductors as shown in figure below. So, whole
current flows through the field coils as well as the load. As series
field winding carries full load current it is designed with relatively
few turns of thick wire. The electrical resistance of series field
winding is therefore very low (nearly 0.5 ).
Let, Rsc = Series winding resistance
Isc = Current flowing through the series field
Ra = Armature resistance
Ia = Armature current
V = Terminal voltage
Eg = Generated emf

## Then, Ia = Isc = IL=I (say)

Voltage across the load, V = Eg -I(IaRa)
Power generated, Pg = EgI
Power delivered to the load, PL = VI

## In these type of DC generators the field windings are connected in

parallel with armature conductors as shown in figure below. In
shunt wound generators the voltage in the field winding is same as
the voltage across the terminal.
Let, Rsh = Shunt winding resistance
Ish = Current flowing through the shunt field
Ra = Armature resistance
Ia = Armature current
V = Terminal voltage
Eg = Generated emf

## Here armature current Ia is dividing in two parts, one is shunt field

current Ish and another is load current IL. So, Ia=Ish + IL The effective
power across the load will be maximum when IL will be maximum.
So, it is required to keep shunt field currentas small as possible. For
this purpose the resistance of the shunt field winding generally kept
high (100 ) and large no of turns are used for the desired emf.
Shunt field current, Ish = V/Rsh
Voltage across the load, V = Eg-Ia Ra
Power generated, Pg= EgIa
Power delivered to the load, PL = VIL

Compound DC Motor
Motor Kompon DC merupakan gabungan motor seri dan shunt.
Pada motor kompon, gulungan medan (medan shunt) dihubungkan secara paralel
dan seri dengan gulungan dinamo (A). Sehingga, motor kompon memiliki torque
penyalaan awal yang bagus dan kecepatan yang stabil.
Makin tinggi persentase penggabungan (yakni persentase gulungan medan yang
dihubungkan secara seri), makin tinggi pula torque penyalaan awal yang dapat
ditangani oleh motor ini..
Dalam industri, motor ini digunakan untuk pekerjaan apa saja yang membutuhkan
torsi besar dan kecepatan yang constant.

PERTANYAAN
Apakah perbedaan antara motor induksi dan motor DC?
Jawaban :
Motor induksi adalah salah satu jenis dari motor-motor listrik yang bekerja
berdasarkan induksi elektromagnet. Motor induksi memiliki sebuah sumber energi
listrik yaitu di sisi stator, sedangkan sistem kelistrikan di sisi rotornya diinduksikan
melalui melalui celah udara dari stator dengan media elektromagnet. Hal inilah yang
menyebabkannya diberi nama motor induksi.