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3G RANOP

Module 7 Parameter Optimisation

2005 Nokia

V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials

3G RAN Optimisation
Cluster
Preparati
on
RF
Optimisation
and Neighbour
Planning

Cluster health checks


Parameter consistency
check
Neighbour list
verification
Uplink interference as
a problem indicator
RF optimisation
New Site Integration
Neighbour plan
optimisation

Signalling
Flows

Drive Test
Analysis

Drive Survey Analysis


System Performance
(RRC and RAB phases)

RRC Establishment
RAB Establishment
SHO
ISHO

Network
Statistics

Inter-System
Working and
Optimisation

3G<>2G Cell
reselection
Neighbour Planning
Handover Process and
compressed mode
3G ISHO service
analysis (AMR and PS)
GSM ISHO Optimisation

Parametri
c
Optimisati
on

Cell Resources
RRC/RAB Performance
Handovers
Abnormal Release

Use of Parameters to
optimise network
performance

Module 7 Parameter Optimisation


Objectives
After this module the delegate shall be able to: List some of the parameters that can be tuned for
improved performance
Match these parameters to Call Setup and Call
Retention improvement areas

Parameter Optimisation Introduction


The foundation of good network performance comes from a well optimised:
RF Plan
neighbour plan
Scrambling plan

The maximum benefits from parameter optimisation can only be realised if the
above are in place.
Although parameter optimisation can provide short term gains they do not
correct underlying network problems. (E.g SHO <> Dominance)
Feature Strategy
Parameterisation
Neighbour Definition
Scrambling Code Planning

Basic Radio Platform (Site/Antenna Location,etc)

The UE types in the network needs


to be taken into account during
parameter optimisation
There are always tradeoffs (e.g
setup time versus success rate)
Parameter values may be different
from network to network due to
NW plan and operator strategy
and therefore these parameters
should be tuned in every network

Nokia Parameters an Introduction


Managed Objects
RNC = Radio Network Controller
WBTS = WCDMA Base Station
WCEL = WCDMA Cell
ADJ = Adjacency for WCDMA cell
ADJS = intra-frequency
adjacency
ADJI = inter-frequency
adjacency
ADJG = inter-system adjacency
HOP = Handover Path
HOPS, HOPI, HOPG
FMC = Frequency Measurement
Control
FMCS, FMCI, FMCG
COCO = Radio Network
Connection Configuration

RNC

COCO

WBTS

FMCS
FMCI
FMCG

HOPG
HOPI
HOPS
ADJS

WCELL

ADJI
ADJG

See RNC Parameter Dictionary


DN00211177

Common Channel Power settings


Common Channel power settings are critically important as they define
the cell edge.
The latest recommended settings are based on Nokias global
experience and have been seen to work well. Care should be taken
when optimising these parameters.
The link budget of the PCCPCH and SCCPCH can be compared with
Data on the DPCH.
There tends to be plenty of margin in AICH and PICH.
In general neighbouring cells should not have CPICH power differences
greater than 3dB otherwise this can lead to soft handover radio link
failures.
Exceptions may occur if one cell is an indoor solution and the other is a
macrocell

DL Common Control Channel


DL Common control channels must be heard over the whole cell.
The only common physical channel that can have power control is
SCCPCH, when it carries the FACH transport channel.
All other downlink common physical channels don't use power
control: PCCPCH, CPICH, P-SCH, S-SCH, PICH, AICH and SCCPCH
The power of the common physical channels are set relative to the
CPICH:
Parameters
PtxPrimaryCPICH
PtxPrimarySCH
PtxSecSCH
PtxPrimaryCCPCH
PtxSecCCPCH
PtxPICH
PtxAICH

Default (Relative) Default (Absolute)


33 dBm
33 dBm
-3 dB
30 dBm
-3 dB
30 dBm
-5 dB
28 dBm
0 dB
33 dBm
-8 dB
25 dBm
-8 dB
25 dBm

DL Common Control Channel


Different quality requirement for the common channels
make power planning a non-trivial task

P-CCPCH
coverage

Pilot

In this example the


mobile "sees" the cell
but cannot access it as it
cannot decode the BCH
coverage

Possible values in dBm

CPICH = 33dBm
P-CCPCH = 28 dBm
S-CCPCH= 33 dBm
SCH1= SCH2 = P-CCPCH = 28dBm

DL Common Control Channel


Not all the CCCH need to be treated in the same way:
Only Power Setting (depending on coverage)
CPICH
P-CCPCH
P/S-SCH
AICH
Power Setting and channel availability for multiple access/depending on
coverage and traffic)
PICH
depending on paging repetition used per radio frame (10ms)
S-CCPCH depending on traffic load on FACH
Setting the DL Common Control Channel Power is a trade off between:
cell coverage: all the channels must be decoded at the cell edge
cell capacity: the common channel power steal resources from the traffic
channels

Effects CPICH Power modification


Less Power
Available for traffic
Increased soft
handover overhead
Too much
power

Reduced system
capacity

Late cell reselection


/handout
/handover
too late

Non-ideal traffic
distribution

CPICH coverage
holes

Reduced system
coverage

Unreliable scrambling
code detection

Slow initial
synchronisation
synchonisation

CPICH Transmit
Power
Too little
power

Unreliable channel
estimation
Early cell reselection
/handout
/handover
too early

IncreasedEb/No
requirement
Non-ideal traffic
distribution

Reduced system
capacity

Common Channel Power Configuration


Soft handover is driven by the CPICH Ec/Io which means that CPICH power
allocations are important
If neighbouring cells have different CPICH allocations then radio links will be
unbalanced during soft handover and radio links may fail
Requirement to align CPICH allocations as much as possible
20 W

20 W

33 dBm
CPICH

20 W

33 dBm
CPICH

20 W

28 dBm
CPICH

20 W
28 dBm
CPICH

33 dBm
CPICH

20 W
30 dBm
CPICH

Neighbouring Node B with equal CPICH result in


balanced radio links during soft handover
Inner loop power control will be driven by both
Node Bs
Scenario results in unbalanced radio links during soft
hand over. Inner loop power control will be driven by
Node B with 28dBm CPICH and therefore the radio
link to the second Node B may fail
Slightly unbalanced radio links during soft handover
Inner loop power control will be driven primarily by
the 28dBm CPICH Node B

Call Setup Key Areas for investigation


Cell Selection and Reselection
Initial cell selection to a good cell and subsequent cell reselections to
better cells is essential to increase the Call Setup Success Rate (CSSR)
and speed up the call setup time.
RACH Process
Improve the RRC Setup Performance
Activation Time Offset
Improve PS Call Setup success rate by allowing more time for Radio
Bearer setup and Reconfiguration procedures
SRB changes
Decrease call setup time by increasing the speed of the signalling bearer

Cell Reselection Parameter Examples


Cell reselection triggering time (WCEL-Treselection = 2s)
Reselection takes place immediately when the UE notices that there is
difference between the cells Ec/No values (in worst case scenario there can be
up to 3dB + Qhyst difference based on the measurement accuracy
requirement)

Cell reselection hysteresis 2 (WCEL-Qhyst2 = 4dB)


This will add 4dB hysteresis to the neighboring cell evaluation (target for the
cell reselection)

Cell Re-selection Quality Offset 2 (HOPS-AdjsQoffset2 = 0dB)


This parameter is used in the cell re-selection and ranking between WCDMA
cells. The value of this parameter is subtracted from the measured CPICH Ec/No
of the neighbor cell before the UE compares the quality measure with the cell
re-selection/ ranking criteria

Sintrasearch (WCEL-Sintrasearch = 12dB)


This parameter is used by the UE to calculate the threshold (CPICH Ec/No) to
start intra frequency (SHO) measurements (Sintrasearch above QqualMin value)

Minimum required quality level in the cell (WCEL- QqualMin = -18dB)


Minimum required RX level in the cell (WCEL- QrxlevMin = -111dBm)

Cell Selection - S Criterion


If the cell does not fulfill the suitable cell criteria (i.e. S-criteria) the UE
cannot access the cell and therefore the UE is out of the coverage
Qqualmeas (dB)
(CPICH Ec/N0)

S-Criterion
fulfilled

Squal > 0

Squal >0 AND


Srxlev > 0

Qqualmin
(24...0)

The Qqualmin and


Qrxlevmin
parameters
should be tuned
carefully as non
optimum settings
can have
significant impact
on CSSR, Call
setup time and
time on 3G

Qrxlevmin
(115...25)
Pcompensation
(typ =>0db)

Qrxlevmeas (dBm)
CPICH RSCP

Srxlev > 0

Cell Selection example


BLER for Each
Call Setup status statistics
for Ec/No
each Ec/No range

100%

100%

90%

90%

80%

80%

70%

70%

60%

60%
[%]

[%]

for Each RSCP


Call Setup statusBLER
statistics
for each RSCP range

50%

50%

40%

40%

30%

30%

20%

20%

10%

10%
0%

0%
> -60

-60 to 70

-70 to 80

-80 to - -90 to 90
100
RSCP (dBm)

-100 to - -112 to 112


115

< -115

There is a tradeoff between maximising


3G utilisation and CSSR (end user
experience)

> -4

-4 to - -6 to - -8 to - -10 to -12 to -14 to -16 to -18 to


6
8
10
-12
-14
-16
-18
-21
Ec/No [dB]

<-21

These calls may be


unable to setup the call
after Qqualmin is
changed to 18dB from
current 20dB

Even though the CSSR is ~ 70% successful in poor RF conditions


(Ec/No<-18 dB)
It is recommended to leave the Qqualmin and Qrxlevmin as 18dB and
111 dBm respectively

Cell Reselection and Call Setup Time


Poor cell reselection can lead to poor call setup time distribution (due
to UE having to send several RRC Connection Requests

Poor Cell Reselection Performance

Corrected Reselection Performance

Call Setup Delay (PDF & CDF)

Call Setup Delay CDF

100

PDF
CDF

90
80

100.0%

70

5000 to 8000 8000 to 10000

Setup Time [ms]

> 10000

Setup Time (seconds)

>5.5s

3000 to 5000

5.3s-5.5s

0 to 3000

5.1s-5.3s

4.9s-5.1s

0.0%

4.7s-4.9s

10

4.5s-4.7s

20.0%
4.3s-4.5s

20

4.1s-4.3s

40.0%

30

3.9s - 4.1s

40

3.7s - 3.9s

60.0%

3.5s - 3.7s

50

<3.5s

80.0%

60

Cell Reselection Test Case Example


Default Normal conditions
Qqualmin = -20dB
Search when CPICH<-8dB, neighbours must be 2dB better, delay reselection by
3s

Set1 Aggressive Reselection


Start Searching Earlier (-6dB), no hysteresis to neighbour, change after 1s delay

Set2 Faster Change


Change immediately but capped by hysteresis

Set3 Search earlier with faster Change


Searching starts at -6dB, hysteresis to neighbours but change immediately

Parameter
Sintrasearch
Qhyst2
Treselection

Default
12dB
2dB
3s

Set1
14dB
0
1

Set2
12dB
2
0

Set3
14dB
2
0

Cell Reselection Test Case Results


Scanner data chart:

If the measurements for


cell reselection happens at
about Ec/No 8dB, there is
95% possibility that second
best server is >2dB lower
than the best server
This means that the cell
reselection has 80%
probability it does not to
lead to ping pong
If the reselection happens
at about 16dB there is only
30% possibility that the
second best server is >2dB
lower than best server
This does not leave enough
room for deviation between
best and second best server

Start the measurements at Ec/No ~-8dB -> with


Qqualmin = -20 dB -> Sintrasearch >= 12dB -> test at
least 12dB and 14dB

Note: With common channel


setting in this network: base
Ec/No (own cell) is around -4
dB (thats why not more than 1
cell at Ec/No > -4 dB)

RACH Process
Optimum RACH performance is needed to ensure;
High RRC Setup performance and RRC Connection Access Success.
In both cases the testing is concentrated on RRC Setup success rate, and the
number of RRC Connection Requests sent.

Minimise the impact of UE Tx power (preamble power) to the cell capacity.


Minimise call setup delay
Different UE performance is taken into account

RRC Setup Phase


UE

This phase starts when UE sends


the RRC CONNECTION REQUEST
message using the PRACH channel
It is completed when RNC, after
reserving all the necessary
resources for the RRC Connection
(RNC, BTS, Radio and
Transmission), replies with DL
RRC CONNECTION SETUP
message, carried over S-CCPCH
(FACH sub-channel)

Node B

RNC

[RACH] RRC:RRC Connection Request


NBAP: RL Setup Request

Start
Start
TX/RX
TX/RX
NBAP: RL Setup Response
ALCAP:ERQ
ALCAP:ECF
[FACH] RRC: RRC Connection Setup

Start
TX/RX
L1 Synchronisation
NBAP: Synchronisation Indication

[DCH] RRC: RRC Connection Setup Complete

RACH Process
L1 ACK / AICH

Downlink Not detected


BS
UEtxPowerMaxPRACH
PowerRampStepPRACHpreamble

Uplink
PreamblePreamble
MS
1

Message part

PowerOffsetLastPreamblePRACHmessa
PRACH_preamble_retrans
# PRACH preambles transmitted during one PRACH cycle without receiving AICH response

RACH_tx_Max
# preamble power ramping cycles that can be done before RACH transmission failure is reported

Initial preample power:


Ptx = CPICHtransmissionPower-RSCP(CPICH) +RSSI(BS) +
PRACHRequiredReceivedCI

RACH Process parameters


Main parameters to improve the RRC Connection Setup performance
are listed below
WCEL-PRACH_preamble_retrans & RACH_tx_Max (def 8 & 8)
WCEL-PowerOffsetLastPreamblePRACHmessage (def 2dB)
WCEL-PowerRampStepPRACHpreamble (def = 2dB)
The RRC Connection Access success is highly dependent on the UE so
all used UEs should be tested carefully before making any changes.
Note, Some of the UEs (especially the ones with, early, Qualcomm
chipset) could have fixed values for some parameters (an example
from Sanyo):
PRACH_preamble_retrans & RACH_tx_Max = 8 & 8
PowerRampStepPRACHpreamble = 3dB

RACH Process test


Two values for PRACHRequiredReceivedCI tested (drive testing)
-20dB & -25dB : UL interference conditions are at the same level (reported in SIB 7 for both cases)
PRACH req. C/I = -25dB

PRACH req. C/I = -20dB


100%

PRACH req. C/I = -25dB

100%
88%

80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
1

0% 2%

0% 5%

0%

6%

# RRC Connection Request Messages per call setup

Clear improvement in number of


needed RRC Connection Request
messages per call.
For 20dB 100% of established calls
are setup with only 1 RRC Connection
Request message

PRACH req. C/I = -20dB

100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
1

Clear improvement number of sent


preambles per RRC Connection
Request for 20dB case.
For 20dB 50% of cases the needed
number of preambles is <=4 where
as for 25dB it is ~6.5
There should also be improvement of
the call setup time

RACH Process test


Two values for
PRACHRequiredReceivedCI
tested (drive testing)
-20dB
-25dB
UL interference conditions are
at the same level (reported in
SIB 7 for both cases)

100.0%

100%
99%
98%
97%

96.2%

96%
95%
94%
-25dB

-20dB
Call Setup Success Rate

PRACH req. C/I = -25

PRACH req. C/I = -20

120.0%
100.0%
80.0%
60.0%
40.0%
20.0%

Call Setup Delay (seconds) RRC Conn. Req. to Alerting

>5.5s

5.3s-5.5s

5.1s-5.3s

4.9s-5.1s

4.7s-4.9s

4.5s-4.7s

4.3s-4.5s

4.1s-4.3s

3.9s - 4.1s

3.7s - 3.9s

3.5s - 3.7s

0.0%
<3.5s

Clear improvement in call


setup delay for 20dB case.
~65% of the established calls
are through with only 3.5 3.7s
delay and the >5.5s delay
tail disappears (in this case).

RRC Setup & Access Phase


When a physical dedicated channel establishment is initiated by the UE,
the UE starts a timer WCEL-T312 (def=10s) and waits for layer 1 to
indicate WCEL-N312 (def=4) "in sync" indications
On receiving N312 "in sync" indications, the physical channel is considered
established and the timer T312 is stopped and reset
On the BTS side after receiving synchronisation indicators the BTS sends
NBAP: SYNCHRONIZATION INDICATION message to RNC after which the
closed loop and outer loop PC start to control the powers

N_INSYNC_IND
indicators on
L1

Timer T312
started

UE initiates physical
dedicated channel
establishment before
sending e.g. RRC
Connection Setup Complete
message on DPDCH

in sync
indicators on
L1
N312 L1 in
sync
indicators

L1 Synchronization
established
BTS sends NBAP:
SYNCHRONIZATION
IDICATION
-message

Timer
T312
stopped
L1
Synchronizati
on
established

RNC receives RRC


Connection Setup
Complete message
->

RRC Connection Setup


Complete message
SENT after 7 TSLs from
DL sync is achieved

RRC Setup & Access Phase


In case UE is not able to
establish synchronisation
within timer T312 it stops
TX on the DCH

UE

Node B

RNC

[RACH] RRC:RRC Connection Request


NBAP: RL Setup Request

Start
Start TX/RX
TX/RX

In case BTS is not able to


establish synchronisation
it does not send
NBAP:Synchronization
Indication message to
RNC
The BTS tries to establish
synchronization until RNC
sends NBAP:Radio Link
Deletion message

NBAP: RL Setup Response


ALCAP:ERQ
ALCAP:ECF
[FACH] RRC: RRC Connection Setup

Start
TX/RX
L1 Synchronisation

Radio Bearer Process


Call Setup Success Rate (CSSR) depends on how well UE responds to the Radio
Bearer (RB) Reconfiguration or RB Setup processes
If UE does not have enough time to setup the lower layers for the new RB
configuration then call setup will fail.
This could be improved by increasing the Activation Time Offset (ATO)
parameter:
Connection Frame Number (CFN) is used in NBAP and RRC messages, when a radio
link is reconfigured.
It is used to indicate the activation time of the reconfiguration, and it is set by the
Packet Scheduler
The CFN, which is set to the "activation time" field in L3 messages, is:
(the CFN provided by FP + (ActivationTimeOffset + SignalingDelayOffset)/10) mod
256

Call Setup time can be improved by changing ATO and/or changing the Signalling
Radio Bearer (SRB) bit rate
Both call setup delay and access performance should be considered and balanced.

ATO
In RAN1.5. 2 ED2 the total offset consists of ActivationTimeOffset parameter part
and fixed SignallingDelayOffset part
ActivationTimeOffset part represents the processing delay of RNC and BTS.
The SignalingDelayOffset is an RNC internal parameter that implies a
required offset based on the SRB bit rate, the actual procedure and the
length of a RRC message. The fixed values set in RNC are below (ms)
RB Procedures
Service
SRB 3,4
SRB 13,6
AMR
280
70
CS
280
70
PS
200
50

Transport channel procedures


Service
SRB 3,6
SRB 16,6
AMR
240
60
CS
240
60
PS
160
40

Physical channel and measurement procedures


Service
SRB 3,6
SRB 16,6
All services
80
20

The recommended value for ActivationTimeOffset is 700ms for RAN1.5.2


(For RAN04 it will be 300ms) has been used.

ATO change case


1500

AMR_701

500

200

1600
1400

Time(ms)

1200
1000
800

1000ms

600

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

RRCConnectionRequest
RRCConnectionSetup
RRCConnectionSetupComplete
MM CM Service Request
MM Authentication Request
MM Authentication Response
SecurityModeCommand
SecurityModeComplete
CC SetUp
CC Call Proceeding
RadioBearerSetup
RadioBearerSetupComplete

<=>
<=>
<=>
<=>
<=>
<=>
<=>
<=>
<=>
<=>
<=>
<=>

RRCConnectionSetup
RRCConnectionSetupComplete
MM CM Service Request
MM Authentication Request
MM Authentication Response
SecurityModeCommand
SecurityModeComplete
CC SetUp
CC Call Proceeding
RadioBearerSetup
RadioBearerSetupComplete
CC Alerting

1300ms

400
200
0
1

10

11

12

The difference in call setup time to the previous page is almost the
difference between the RadioBearerSetup and
RadioBearerSetupcomplete messages (part 11).

SRB change case


RRC Connection Access phase Success Rate should be evaluated
when changing the SRB bit rate
Example of RRC performance with SRB 3.5 kbits/s and 13.6 kbits/s
RRC Setup SuccessRate

RRC Access SuccessRate

RRC Setup & Access SuccessRate

100

99

98

97

96

95

94

SRB 3.4kbps

SRB 13.6kbps

Maximum DL power
If call setups are attempted and are failing in bad Ec/No or RSCP
conditions then one solution to improve the call setup success rate
might be to tune CPICHtoRefRABOffset
The max DL power is determined by Admission Control as
EbNoDCH is the (linear) value
of the planned downlink Eb/No
of the service transferred on the
DCH

RDCH is the maximum transport


channel bit rate of downlink DCH.
Ptx,DPCH,max is the value of
WCEL-PtxDLabsMax - WCELPtxDPCHMax.

EbNoref is the (linear) value of the


planned downlink Eb/No of the reference
service which is defined with parameter
Downlink BLER target of the reference
service (DLreferenceTargetBLER).

Rref is the
maximum DCH bit
rate of the reference
service (parameter
DLreferenceBitRate).

Ptx,off defines the power of the


primary CPICH in relation to the
maximum code power of the ref.
service (WCELCPICHtoRefRABoffset)

Maximum DL power
Example Maximum and Minimum Power for different services
WCEL-CPICHtoRefRABOffset = 2dB and RNC-PCrangeDL = 15dB
Service Type

3.4 kbps
standalone
SRB

13.6 kbps
standalone
SRB

12.2 kbps
speech +
3.4 kbps
SRB

64 kbps
data +
3.4 kbps
SRB

128 kbps
data +
3.4 kbps
SRB

384 kbps
data +
3.4 kbps
SRB

Maximum

27.8 dBm

31.8 dBm

32.2 dBm

35.2 dBm

38.0 dBm

40 dBm

Minimum

15 dBm

16.8 dBm

17.2 dBm

20.2 dBm

23.0 dBm

25 dBm

However, it should be noted that the minimum power used is


increased if Offset is reduced as well (Minimum power=Max power
DL PC Range) which might lead to the situation where too high
powers are allocated even in the good coverage conditions -> too
much power is wasted in BTS.
CPICHtoRefRABOffset of 0 dB (default 2 dB) could be tested with RNCPCrangeDL of 20 dB (default 15 dB)

SHO Optimisation
The main emphasis in SHO optimisation is related to SHO overhead, SHO
success rate, call drop rate and average Active Set size.
Neighbor planning is more important than SHO parameter optimisation, so
it should be done properly
Acceptable SHO overhead in this case is 50 % or less, one example below
600
500
400
300
200
100
0

50

100
Soft handover overhead [%]

150

200

SHO Failures
The SHO failures are mainly related to:
Initial Synchronization Failure of the new added RL
Active Synchronization Failure of the existing RL(s)
Different soft handover parameters can help with synchronization
problems between radio links.
When new radio link is added to the Active set the L1 synchronization
between the UE and the new BTS must be achieved. The UL/DL
synchronization procedures are needed to establish reliable new
connection between BTS and UE.
Some of the initial synchronization failures are due to the fact that
there can be difference in the UL noise rise levels of the adjacent cells
(check Noise rise from Module1)
If a lot of initial synchronization failures for SHO links are seen then one
possibility is to try to reduce those by delaying the additions.

SHO Failure
If there are many Active Synchronization Failures detected, one action
could be to advance the SHO activity (e.g. using cell individual offsets)
or in general use different FMCS (usually these conditions are improved
when addition is done earlier e.g. add 4dB and drop 6dB).
If UE does not have enough level to receive ActiveSet
Update message it is possible that call drop happen
because of H/O failure.
Call drop be avoided by setting earlier timing (timing for
sending out Measurement report )of H/O between
targeted cells.
Use FMC parameter

Impact all of FMC


targeted areas

Use ADJSEcNooffset

Impact only
between 2 targeted
cells

SHO Parameters
The most important FMCS parameters to be used for SHO optimisation are

Parameters

Default
value
CPICH Ec/No Filter Coefficient 600 ms
Addition Window
2.5 dB
Addition Time
100ms
Drop Window
4 dB
Drop Time
640ms

Default values should work fine, but in some cases more


conservative SHO settings (add 4 dB, drop 6 dB) could be used to
avoid high ASU period (time between Active Set Update message)

Packet Scheduler Parameters


The focus for PS data tests is to minimize the PS call drop and keep the
throughput high
The performance depends on the usage of certain bit rate and different
RRC states of the connection.
Dynamic Link Optimisation (DyLo) feature could impact the achieved
throughput
Maximum allowed bitrate in certain cells (e.g. Rural, Highway) could be
set to a lower value if there is risk of capacity shortage (Radio, Iub)
Further performance/throughput could be optimized with different
bearer activity/inactivity timers and traffic volume parameters.
The optimum set of parameters depend on the used application (FTP,
MSS, email) and amount of data.

DyLO Improves NRT traffic coverage


128kbps

384kbps

UE

Radio link is modified to use lower bit rate


(with physical channel reconfiguration
message) when Tx power is getting close to
maximum, in order to ensure sufficient
quality

BTS

Dylo restrictions
Radio link conditions under DRNC cannot trigger DyLO
The reconfiguration of Iub AAL2 transmission resources is not
performed due to DyLO
DyLO is not allowed during compressed mode measurement

Triggering of DyLO
Ptx, ave is averaged
radio link power,
measured and reported
to RNC by BTS
distance

Ptx, RL

Ptx, max is determined


by Admission Control

Ptx, max The value of the Offset


is fixed at 2 dB
Offset

DyLO is triggered if

Ptx, ave > Ptx, max


Triggering of DyLO Offset
Ptx, ave

time

Dylo can be started


only if the current
bitrate is higher than
Maximum Allowed DL
User Bitrate in HHO

Dylo Bit Rate Upgrade


After downgrade of DCH bit rate due to DyLO, upgrade of the bit rate
can only be performed from the initial bit rate
Cell level parameter Initial and minimum allowed bit rate in downlink is
configurable by operator
Bit rate upgrade from any other bit rate is not possible
Bit rate upgrade is based on downlink traffic volume measurement reports
(capacity requests)
A change in radio link power conditions does not trigger upgrade

Possible triggering of the DyLO is checked before the bit rate is


upgraded, in order to avoid ping-pong effect
New Ptx, max is calculated by AC according to the new bit rate
Initial Tx power Ptx, init is calculated by AC according to the new bit rate
DyLO is possible if Ptx, init < (Ptx, max Offset)Fixed, 2
dB
Upgrade is not possible, the next lower bit rate is tried (lower power)

DyLO Test example parameter settings


PtxDLabsMax
InitialAndMinimumAllowedBitrateDL
MaxBitRateDLPSNRT

Default
43
384kbps
384kbps

Set1
43
64kbps
384kbps

Set2
38 or 36
64kbps
384kbps

BTS types of Supreme,Optima 38dBm, Metrosite


36dBm

Time spent on different bearers spreading


factors
Default
Set1
Set2
sf8
36:45.873
24:27.095
16:37.340
sf16
00:00.000
12:30.764
24:27.813
sf32
02:07.373
08:43.990
08:46.952
FACH
14:37.097
09:26.672
10:19.881
Idle
00:37.344
00:21.919
00:10.115
384 kbits/s as initial &
Minimum Bitrate gives
poor results

Set 2 gives
smallest time in
idle mode & more
time in 128
kbits/s: improved
NRT coverage

sf32
FACH
0
Idle

Time
16:44:44:114

16:44:39:717

16:44:32:206

16:44:28:111

16:44:25:637

16:44:23:935

16:44:19:619

300

16:44:15:594

16:44:44:274

16:44:41:209

16:44:34:199

16:44:28:191

16:44:25:667

16:44:23:935

16:44:19:109

16:44:13:620

16:44:05:037

16:43:59:009

16:43:54:864

16:43:53:491

16:43:49:866

16:43:45:459

16:43:39:451

16:43:34:344

16:43:28:805

16:43:22:396

16:43:16:879

16:43:07:605

16:42:58:402

16:42:53:485

16:42:50:761

16:42:40:816

16:42:33:295

16:42:25:084

300

16:44:06:039

16:44:00:220

16:43:56:325

16:43:54:502

16:43:51:289

16:43:48:454

16:43:43:416

16:43:37:549

16:43:32:901

16:43:27:894

16:43:21:895

16:43:16:387

16:43:07:875

16:42:59:204

16:42:54:256

16:42:51:702

16:42:43:821

400
Sf8

16:42:35:809

16:42:21:229

16:42:14:159

16:42:05:265

16:41:57:764

16:41:49:754

16:41:44:736

RB_Status
400
Sf8

16:42:28:799

16:42:21:789

16:42:19:786

16:42:11:234

16:42:02:351

16:41:56:252

16:41:39:209

sf32
FACH
0
Idle

16:41:49:252

16:41:44:245

16:41:39:209

RB_Status

Dylo Test example- compare throughput with


the coverage
CPICH RSCP and RB Status (Set2)
-60

-70

200
StatusID

-80

RSCP

-90

sf16
-100

100
-110

-120

-130

StatusID

-9

200
-14

sf16

100
RB Status Statistics(vs EcNo)

100%

50%

0%

CPICH Ec/No and RB Status (Set2)


-4
120.00%

0.00%

90%

10.67%

70%

30%

20%

> -4

> -4

-4 to -6

Time

-7 -8
-4 to -6

11.73%

60%

-6 to -8

384

-6 to -8

13.26%
25.81%

80%

40%

10%
17.03%

-8 to -10

-8 to -10

-10 to -12

Ec/No [dB]

-10 to -12

32.37%

38.30%
47.55%
50.94%

56.40%
76.04%

100.00%
57.16%
88.37%

56.09%
sf32

128

-14 -15

-12 to -14

sf16

51.03%
37.74%
sf8

40.72%
30.34%
11.54%
11.32%
18.75%

-12 to -14
-14 to -16

-14 to -16

5.21%
4.65%

-16 to -18

-16 to -18

< -18

6.98%

Ec/No [dB]

RB Status for each Ec/No


RB Status Statistics(vs EcNo)

64

Ec/No
100.00%

80.00%

60.00%
sf8

sf16

sf32

-19
40.00%

20.00%

-24
0.00%
< -18

Module 7 Parameter Optimisation


Summary
Parameter optimisation is not a substitute for RF
Optimisation
In optimisation we have to consider the balances
between power (resources) and success/speed
Call Setup can be improved by improving Cell Selection
and Reselection, SRB Rate and ATO
Call retention can be improved by adjusting SHO
parameters at the expense of resource usage
DyLO can affect the measured throughput from surveys