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Managing Organizations

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Unit 1: Foundations of Individual Behavior

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S
E L E V E N T H
2005 Prentice Hall Inc.
All rights reserved.

E D I T I O N

W W W . P R E N H AL L . C O M / R O B B I N S

PowerPoint Presentation
by Charlie Cook

Contents

12 hrs

1. Values: Introduction, Definition, Values, Value system, Rokeach Survey


2. Work values in workforce, Hofstede Framework
3. Attitudes : Introduction, definition, Formation of attitudes, functions of attitudes,
difficulties faced in changing attitudes, Cognitive Dissonance theory, Work attitudes
4. Personality: Introduction, definition, determinants of personality, theories
Psychoanalytical, Trait
5. Personality theories -Trait MBTI, Big 5, R B Cattells 16 traits
6. Personality traits influencing OB, Holland typology
7. Emotions : Introduction, definition, emotional labor, emotional dissonance, emotion
continuum, emotion dimensions, gender versus emotions
8. Emotional intelligence, Goleman EI model, applications of emotions
9. Perception: Introduction, definition, factors influencing perception, perceptual
process
10. Judging others, Attribution theory, perceptual errors/bias
11. Motivation- Introduction, definition, Motivation model, theories of motivation
Maslows, Herzberg, Alderfer ERG, McCllelands
12. Motivation theories - Vrooms, Porters performance, Adams Equity motivation
theories
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32
Dr. Jessy Nair
Dept of Management Studies

Emotions - Why Emotions were Ignored in


OB
The myth of rationality
- Organizations are not emotion-free.
Emotions of any kind are disruptive to organizations.
- Original OB focus was solely on the effects of
strong negative emotions that interfered with
individual and organizational efficiency.
Emotions
- Overt reactions that express feelings about events.
- Intense feelings directed at something or
someone.
2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Dr. Jessy Nair


Dept of Management Studies

Emotions - Categories
Anger

Fear

Joy

Love

Sadness

Disgust

Alarm

Cheerfulness

Affection

Disappointm
ent

Envy

Anxiety

Contentment

Longing

Neglect

Exasperation

Enthrallment

Lust

Sadness

Irritation

Optimism

Shame

Rage

Pride

Suffering

Torment

Relief

Sympathy

Surprise

Zest

The closer any two emotions are to each other on the


continuum, the more likely people are to confuse them.
Dr. Jessy Nair
Dept of Management Studies

What Are Emotions? (contd)


Emotional Labor
A situation in which an employee expresses
organizationally desired emotions during
interpersonal transactions.

Emotional Dissonance
A situation in which an employee
must project one emotion while
simultaneously feeling another.

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45

Felt versus Displayed Emotions


Felt Emotions
An individuals actual
emotions.
Displayed Emotions
Emotions that are organizationally required
and considered appropriate in a given job.

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46

What Are Emotions?


Affect
Affect
AAbroad
broadrange
rangeof
ofemotions
emotionsthat
thatpeople
people
experience.
experience.

Emotions
Emotions
Intense
Intensefeelings
feelingsthat
thatare
are
directed
directedat
atsomeone
someoneor
or
something.
something.

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reserved.

Moods
Moods
Feelings
Feelingsthat
thattend
tendto
tobe
beless
less
intense
intensethan
thanemotions
emotionsand
and
that
lack
a
contextual
that lack a contextual
stimulus.
stimulus.

47

Emotion Dimensions
Variety of emotions
Positive
Negative
Intensity of emotions
Personality
Job Requirements
Frequency and duration of
emotions
How often emotions are
exhibited.
How long emotions are
displayed.
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Facial Expressions Convey Emotions

48
Dr. Jessy Nair
Dept of Management Studies

Gender and Emotions


Women
Can show greater emotional expression.
Experience emotions more intensely.
Display emotions more frequently.
Are more comfortable in expressing emotions.
Are better at reading others emotions.
Men
Believe that displaying emotions is inconsistent
with the male image.
Are innately less able to read and to identify with
others emotions.
Have less need to seek social approval by showing
positive emotions.
49
Dr. Jessy Nair
Dept of Management Studies

Discuss
What are the implications of emotions at
workplace ?
What actions can managers take to enable
emotional labour?
Are men more emotional compared to
women !!

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310
Dr. Jessy Nair
Dept of Management Studies

External Constraints on Emotions


Organizational
Organizational
Influences
Influences

Cultural
Cultural
Influences
Influences

Individual
Individual
Emotions
Emotions

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reserved.

411

Affective Events Theory (AET)


Emotions are negative or positive responses to a work environment
event.
Personality and mood determine the intensity of the emotional
response.
Emotions can influence a broad range of work performance and
job satisfaction variables.
Implications of the theory:
Individual response reflects emotions and mood cycles.
Current and past emotions affect job satisfaction.
Emotional fluctuations create variations in job satisfaction.
Emotions have only short-term effects on job performance.
Both negative and positive emotions can distract workers and
reduce job performance.
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412
Dr. Jessy Nair
Dept of Management Studies

Emotional Intelligence
Emotional Intelligence, as a psychological theory, was
developed by Peter Salovey and John Mayer.
"Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive emotions, to
access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to
understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to
reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional
and intellectual growth. ( Mayer & Salovey, 1997).

Goleman is a science journalist who brought "emotional


intelligence" on the bestseller list and has authored
a number of books on the subject.
Dr. Jessy Nair
Dept of Management Studies

Ability and Selection


Emotional Intelligence
An assortment of noncognitive skills,
capabilities, and competencies that
influence a persons ability to
succeed in coping with
environmental demands and
pressures.

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414
Dr. Jessy Nair
Dept of Management Studies

Daniel Goleman's 5 components


Emotional
EmotionalIntelligence
Intelligence
(EI)
(EI)
Self-awareness
Self-awareness
Self-management
Self-management
Self-motivation
Self-motivation
Empathy
Empathy
Social
Socialskills
skills
Research
ResearchFindings
Findings
High
HighEI
EIscores,
scores,not
not
high
highIQ
IQscores,
scores,
characterize
characterizehigh
high
performers.
performers.
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415
reserved.

Daniel Golemans model (1998) focuses on EI as a wide


array of competencies and skills that drive leadership
performance, and consists of five areas:
SELF-AWARENESS
Know ones emotions, strengths, weaknesses, drives,
values and goals and recognize their impact on others
while using gut feelings to guide decisions.
SELF-REGULATION
Manage or redirect ones disruptive emotions and
impulses and adapt to changing circumstances.
MOTIVATION
Motivate oneself to achieve for the sake of
achievement.
EMPATHY
Recognize, understand, and consider other peoples
feelings especially when making decisions
SOCIAL SKILL
Manage others emotions to move people in the
desired direction.
Dr. Jessy Nair
Dept of Management Studies

Managing the Hidden Stress of Emotional Labor - Susan David


https://hbr.org/2016/09/managing-the-hidden-stress-of-emotional-labor&cm_sp=Article-_-Links-_End%20of%20Page%20Recirculation
Dr. Jessy Nair
Dept of Management Studies

OB Applications of Understanding
Emotions
Ability and Selection
Emotions affect employee effectiveness.
Decision Making
Emotions are an important part of the decisionmaking process in organizations.
Motivation
Emotional commitment to work and high motivation
are strongly linked.
Leadership
Emotions are important to acceptance of messages
from organizational leaders.
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417
Dr. Jessy Nair
Dept of Management Studies

OB Applications of Understanding
Emotions

Interpersonal Conflict
Conflict in the workplace and individual emotions are
strongly intertwined.
Customer Services
Emotions affect service quality delivered to customers
which, in turn, affects customer relationships.
Deviant Workplace Behaviors
Negative emotions lead to employee deviance (actions
that violate norms and threaten the organization).
Productivity failures
Property theft and destruction
Political actions
Personal aggression

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418
Dr. Jessy Nair
Dept of Management Studies

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319
Dr. Jessy Nair
Dept of Management Studies

Perception and
Individual Decision Making

What Is Perception, and Why Is It


Important?
Perception

Peoples
Peoplesbehavior
behavior isis
based
based on
on their
their
perception
perception of
of what
what
reality
reality is,
is, not
not on
on
reality
reality itself.
itself.

A process by which
individuals organize
and interpret their
sensory impressions in The world as it is
The world as it is
order to give meaning to
perceived
isis the
world
perceived
the
world
their environment.

that
that isis behaviorally
behaviorally
important.
important.

Contents Perception and Motivation


Perception:
Introduction, definition, factors influencing perception, perceptual
process
Shortcuts in judging others, Attribution theory, perceptual errors/bias
Motivation - Introduction, definition, Motivation model,
Theories of motivation
Maslows,
Herzberg,
Alderfer ERG,
McCllelands
Vrooms Expectancy Theory
Porters performance
Adams Equity motivation theory
2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Dr. Jessy Nair


Dept of Management Studies

Person Perception: Making Judgments about


Others
Attribution Theory
When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to
determine whether it is internally or externally
caused.
Distinctiveness:
Distinctiveness:shows
showsdifferent
differentbehaviors
behaviorsinindifferent
different
situations.
situations.
Consensus:
Consensus:response
responseisisthe
thesame
sameas
asothers
otherstotosame
same
situation.
situation.
Consistency:
Consistency:responds
respondsininthe
thesame
sameway
wayover
overtime.
time.
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523

Errors and Biases in


Attributions
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency to underestimate the
influence of external factors and
overestimate the influence of internal
factors when making judgments about the
behavior of others.

524

Errors and Biases in


Attributions
Self-Serving Bias
The tendency for individuals to attribute
their own successes to internal factors
while putting the blame for failures on
external factors.

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Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging


Others
Selective Perception
People selectively interpret what they see on the
basis of their interests, background, experience, and
attitudes.

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Frequently used Shortcuts in


Judging Others
Halo Effect
Drawing a general impression about an
individual on the basis of a single
characteristic
Contrast Effects
Evaluation of a persons characteristics that
are affected by comparisons with other people
recently encountered who rank higher or lower
on the same characteristics.
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Frequently used Shortcuts in


Judging Others
Projection
Attributing ones own characteristics to other
people.

Stereotyping
Judging someone on the basis of ones
perception of the group to which that person
belongs.

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Specific Applications in Organizations


Employment Interview
Perceptual biases of raters affect the accuracy of
interviewers judgments of applicants.
Performance Expectations
Self-fulfilling prophecy (pygmalion effect): The lower
or higher performance of employees reflects
preconceived leader expectations about employee
capabilities.
Ethnic Profiling
A form of stereotyping in which a group of individuals
is singled out - typically on the basis of race or
ethnicity - for intensive inquiry, scrutinizing, or
investigation.
Dr. Jessy Nair
Dept of Management Studies

Specific Applications in Organizations


Performance Evaluations
Appraisals are often the subjective
(judgmental) perceptions of appraisers of
another employees job performance.

Employee Effort
Assessment of individual effort is a
subjective judgment subject to perceptual
distortion and bias.

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Dept of Management Studies

The Link between Perceptions and


Individual Decision Making
Problem
A perceived discrepancy
between the current state
of affairs and a desired
state.
Decisions
Choices made from
among alternatives
developed from data
perceived as relevant.

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Perception
Perception
of
ofthe
the
decision
decision
maker
maker

Outcomes

Assumptions of the Rational


Decision-Making Model
Rational DecisionMaking Model
Describes how
individuals should
behave in order to
maximize some
outcome.

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Model
ModelAssumptions
Assumptions
Problem
Problemclarity
clarity

Known
Knownoptions
options
Clear
Clearpreferences
preferences

Constant
Constant
preferences
preferences
No
Notime
timeor
orcost
cost
constraints
constraints
Maximum
Maximumpayoff
payoff

The Three Components of Creativity


Creativity
The ability to produce novel and useful ideas.
Three-Component Model of Creativity
Proposition that individual creativity requires:
expertise,
creative-thinking skills, and
Intrinsic task motivation

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How are Decisions actually


made in Organizations
Bounded Rationality
Individuals make decisions by constructing
simplified models that extract the essential
features from problems without capturing all
their complexity.

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How are Decisions actually made in


Organizations
How/Why problems are identified
Visibility over importance of problem
Attention-catching, high profile problems
Desire to solve problems
Self-interest (if problem concerns decision maker)
Alternative Development
Satisficing: seeking the first alternative that solves
problem.
Engaging in incremental rather than unique problem
solving through successive limited comparison of
alternatives to the current alternative in effect.
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Dr. Jessy Nair


Dept of Management Studies

Common Biases and Errors


Overconfidence Bias
Believing too much in our own decision
competencies.
Anchoring Bias
Fixating on early, first received information.
Confirmation Bias
Using only the facts that support our decision.
Availability Bias
Using information that is most readily at hand.
Representative Bias
Assessing the likelihood of an occurrence by trying
to match it with a preexisting category.
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Dept of Management Studies

Common Biases and Errors


Escalation of Commitment
Increasing commitment to a previous decision
in spite of negative information.

Randomness Error
Trying to create meaning out of random events
by falling prey to a false sense of control or
superstitions.

Hindsight Bias
Falsely believing to have accurately predicted
the outcome of an event, after that outcome is
actually known.
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Dept of Management Studies

Intuition
Intuitive Decision Making
An unconscious process created out of distilled
experience.
Conditions Favoring Intuitive Decision Making
A high level of uncertainty exists
There is little precedent to draw on
Variables are less scientifically predictable
Facts are limited
Facts dont clearly point the way
Analytical data are of little use
Several plausible alternative solutions exist
Time is limited and pressing for the right decision
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Dept of Management Studies

Organizational Constraints on
Decision Makers

Performance Evaluation
Evaluation criteria influence the choice of actions.
Reward Systems
Decision makers make action choices that are favored
by the organization.
Formal Regulations
Organizational rules and policies limit the alternative
choices of decision makers.
System-imposed Time Constraints
Organizations require decisions by specific deadlines.
Historical Precedents
Past decisions influence current decisions.
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Dept of Management Studies

Cultural Differences in Decision


Making

Problems selected
Time orientation
Importance of logic and rationality
Belief in the ability of people to solve
problems
Preference for collect decision making

Dr. Jessy Nair


Dept of Management Studies

Ethics in Decision Making


Ethical Decision Criteria
Utilitarianism
Seeking the greatest good for the greatest number.

Rights
Respecting and protecting basic rights of
individuals such as whistleblowers.

Justice
Imposing and enforcing rules fairly and impartially.

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Ethics in Decision Making


Ethics and National Culture
There are no global ethical standards.
The ethical principles of global
organizations that reflect and respect local
cultural norms are necessary for high
standards and consistent practices.

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Ways to Improve Decision Making


1. Analyze the situation and adjust your decision
making style to fit the situation.
2. Be aware of biases and try to limit their impact.
3. Combine rational analysis with intuition to increase
decision-making effectiveness.
4. Dont assume that your specific decision style is
appropriate to every situation.
5. Enhance personal creativity by looking for novel
solutions or seeing problems in new ways, and
using analogies.
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References
1.

https://hbr.org/2016/09/managing-the-hidden-stress-of-emotionallabor&cm_sp=Article-_-Links-_-End%20of%20Page%20Recirculation

2.

https://www.google.co.in/search?
q=E+Q+Dilbert&espv=2&rlz=1C1CHHZ_enIN484IN485&biw=1366&bih
=630&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjjw5Gp_6
XPAhVCmJQKHSvlCg4QsAQIIw&dpr=1#imgrc=wFkXZna8e_PbcM
%3A

3.

https://www.google.co.in/search?
q=E+Q+Dilbert&espv=2&rlz=1C1CHHZ_enIN484IN485&biw=1366&bih
=630&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjjw5Gp_6
XPAhVCmJQKHSvlCg4QsAQIIw&dpr=1#tbm=isch&q=Emotional+intel
ligence+Dilbert&imgrc=D47jSbLSlkPJVM%3A

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344
Dr. Jessy Nair
Dept of Management Studies

Basic Motivation Concepts

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S
E L E V E N T H
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PowerPoint Presentation
by Charlie Cook

Defining Motivation
Motivation
The processes that account for an individuals
intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward
attaining a goal.
Key
KeyElements
Elements
1.
1. Intensity:
Intensity:how
howhard
hardaaperson
persontries
tries
2.
2.
3.
3.

Direction:
Direction:toward
towardbeneficial
beneficialgoal
goal
Persistence:
Persistence:how
howlong
longaaperson
persontries
tries

Hierarchy of Needs Theory


Abraham Maslow
Hierarchy of Needs Theory

There is a hierarchy of five needs


physiological, safety, social, esteem, and selfactualization; as each need is substantially
satisfied, the next need becomes dominant.
Self-Actualization
The drive to become what one is capable of
becoming.

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Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

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Maslows Hierarchy of Needs


The Need Hierarchy Approach
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

Physiologicalbasic survival and biological function.


Securitya safe physical and emotional environment.
Belongingnesslove and affection.
Esteempositive self-image/self-respect and recognition and
respect from others.
Self-actualizationrealizing ones potential for personal
growth and development.

Weakness of Maslows theory


Five levels of need are not always present.
Ordering or importance of needs is not always the same.
Cultural differences.
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Dr. Jessy Nair


Dept of Management Studies

Two-Factor Theory
Frederick
Herzberg
Two-Factor (Motivation-Hygiene) Theory
Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction,
while extrinsic factors are associated with
dissatisfaction.
Hygiene Factors
Factorssuch as company policy and
administration, supervision, and salarythat,
when adequate in a job, placate workers.
When factors are adequate, people will not be
dissatisfied.
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Two-Factor Theory
Frederick Herzberg

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ERG Theory
ERG Theory

Clayton Alderfer

There are three groups of core needs:


Existence, Relatedness, and Growth.
Core
CoreNeeds
Needs
Existence:
Existence:provision
provisionof
of
basic
basicmaterial
material
requirements.
requirements.
Relatedness:
Relatedness:desire
desirefor
for
relationships.
relationships.
Growth:
Growth:desire
desirefor
for
personal
development.
personal development.
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Concepts:
Concepts:
More
Morethan
thanone
oneneed
needcan
can
be
beoperative
operativeatatthe
thesame
same
time.
time.
IfIfaahigher-level
higher-levelneed
need
cannot
cannotbe
befulfilled,
fulfilled,the
the
desire
to
satisfy
a
lowerdesire to satisfy a lowerlevel
levelneed
needincreases.
increases.

Theory of Needs
David
McClellands
Need for Achievement
Need for Affiliation
The drive to excel, to
achieve in relation to a set
of standards, to strive to
succeed.

The desire for


friendly and close
personal
relationships.

Need for Power


The need to make others
behave in a way that
they would not have
behaved otherwise.

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653

nPow

nAch

nAff

Expectancy Theory
Victor Vroom
Expectancy Theory
The strength of a tendency to act in a
certain way depends on the strength of an
expectation that the act will be followed by
a given outcome and on the attractiveness
of that outcome to the individual.

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Expectancy Theory Relationships


EffortPerformance Relationship
The probability that exerting a given amount of
effort will lead to performance.
PerformanceReward Relationship
The belief that performing at a particular level
will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome.
RewardsPersonal Goals Relationship
The degree to which organizational rewards
satisfy an individuals goals or needs and the
attractiveness of potential rewards for the
individual.
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Dr. Jessy Nair


Dept of Management Studies

The Expectancy Model of


Motivation

Extension of Expectancy Motivation Theory


Porter-Lawler
The Porter-Lawler Extension of Expectancy Theory
Assumptions:
If performance results in equitable and fair rewards,
people will be more satisfied.
High performance can lead to rewards and high
satisfaction.
Types of rewards:
Extrinsic rewards are outcomes set and awarded
by external parties (e.g., pay and promotions).
Intrinsic rewards are outcomes internal to the
individual (e.g., self-esteem and feelings of
accomplishment).
Dr. Jessy Nair
Dept of Management Studies

Extension of Expectancy Motivation


Theory
Porter-Lawler

Dr. Jessy Nair


Dept of Management Studies

Equity Theory
Equity Theory
Individuals compare their job inputs and
outcomes with those of others and then
respond to eliminate any inequities.
Referent
Referent
Comparisons:
Comparisons:
Self-inside
Self-inside
Self-outside
Self-outside
Other-inside
Other-inside
Other-outside
Other-outside
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Equity Theory
People are motivated to seek social equity in the
rewards they receive for performance.
Equity is an individuals belief that the treatment he or she
receives is fair relative to the treatment received by others.

Individuals view the value of rewards (outcomes)


and inputs of effort as ratios and make subjective
comparisons of themselves to other people.

outcomes (self)
inputs (self)

outcomes (other)

inputs (other)
Dr. Jessy Nair
Dept of Management Studies

Equity Theory
Conditions of and reactions to equity comparisons:
Feeling equitably rewarded.
Maintain performance and accept comparison as fair estimate.

Feeling under-rewardedtry to reduce inequity.

Change inputs by trying harder or slacking off.


Change outcomes by demanding a raise.
Distort the ratios by altering perceptions of self or of others.
Leave situation by quitting the job.
Change comparisons by choosing another object person.

Feeling over-rewarded.
Increase or decrease inputs.
Distort ratios by rationalizing.
Help the object person gain more outcomes.

Dr. Jessy Nair


Dept of Management Studies

Equity Theory
Propositions
Propositionsrelating
relatingto
toinequitable
inequitablepay:
pay:
1.
1. Overrewarded
Overrewardedhourly
hourlyemployees
employeesproduce
produce
more
morethan
thanequitably
equitablyrewarded
rewardedemployees.
employees.
2.
2. Overrewarded
Overrewardedpiece-work
piece-workemployees
employees
produce
produceless,
less,but
butdo
dohigher
higherquality
qualitypiece
piece
work.
work.
3.
3. Underrewarded
Underrewardedhourly
hourlyemployees
employeesproduce
produce
lower
lowerquality
qualitywork.
work.
4.
4. Underrewarded
Underrewardedemployees
employeesproduce
producelarger
larger
quantities
quantitiesof
oflower-quality
lower-qualitypiece
piecework
workthan
than
equitably
equitablyrewarded
rewardedemployees
employees
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Equity Theory
Distributive Justice
Perceived fairness of the amount and
allocation of rewards among individuals.

Procedural Justice
The perceived fairness of the process to
determine the distribution of rewards.

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Theory X and Theory Y


Douglas McGregor
Theory X
Assumes that employees dislike work, lack ambition,
avoid responsibility, and must be directed and coerced
to perform.

Theory Y
Assumes that employees like work, seek responsibility,
are capable of making decisions, and exercise selfdirection and self-control when committed to a goal.

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Job Design Theory


Job Characteristics
Model
Identifies five job
characteristics and
their relationship to
personal and work
outcomes.

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665

Characteristics:
Characteristics:
1.1. Skill
Skillvariety
variety
2.2.
3.3.

Task
Taskidentity
identity
Task
Tasksignificance
significance

4.4.
5.5.

Autonomy
Autonomy
Feedback
Feedback

Job Design Theory


Job Characteristics Model
Jobs with skill variety, task identity, task
significance, autonomy, and for which feedback of
results is given, directly affect three
psychological states of employees:
Knowledge of results
Meaningfulness of work
Personal feelings of responsibility for results
Increases in these psychological states result in
increased motivation, performance, and job
satisfaction.
2005 Prentice Hall
Inc. All rights

Dr. Jessy Nair


Dept of Management Studies

Job Design Theory


Skill Variety
The degree to which a job requires a variety
of different activities.
Task Identity
The degree to which the job requires
completion of a whole and identifiable piece
of work.
Task Significance
The degree to which the job has a substantial
impact on the lives or work of other people.
2005 Prentice Hall
Inc. All rights

667

Job Design Theory


Autonomy
The degree to which the job provides
substantial freedom and discretion to the
individual in scheduling the work and in
determining the procedures to be used in
carrying it out.
Feedback
The degree to which carrying out the work
activities required by a job results in the
individual obtaining direct and clear
information about the effectiveness of his or
her performance.
2005 Prentice Hall
Inc. All rights

668

Job Design Theory


Job Characteristics
Model
Identifies five job
characteristics and
their relationship to
personal and work
outcomes.

2005 Prentice Hall


Inc. All rights

669

Characteristics:
Characteristics:
1.1. Skill
Skillvariety
variety
2.2.
3.3.

Task
Taskidentity
identity
Task
Tasksignificance
significance

4.4.
5.5.

Autonomy
Autonomy
Feedback
Feedback

Job Design Theory


Job Characteristics Model
Jobs with skill variety, task identity, task
significance, autonomy, and for which feedback of
results is given, directly affect three
psychological states of employees:
Knowledge of results
Meaningfulness of work
Personal feelings of responsibility for results
Increases in these psychological states result in
increased motivation, performance, and job
satisfaction.
2005 Prentice Hall
Inc. All rights

Dr. Jessy Nair


Dept of Management Studies

Job Design Theory


Skill Variety
The degree to which a job requires a variety
of different activities.
Task Identity
The degree to which the job requires
completion of a whole and identifiable piece
of work.
Task Significance
The degree to which the job has a substantial
impact on the lives or work of other people.
2005 Prentice Hall
Inc. All rights

671

Job Design Theory


Autonomy
The degree to which the job provides
substantial freedom and discretion to the
individual in scheduling the work and in
determining the procedures to be used in
carrying it out.
Feedback
The degree to which carrying out the work
activities required by a job results in the
individual obtaining direct and clear
information about the effectiveness of his or
her performance.
2005 Prentice Hall
Inc. All rights

672

Job Design Theory


Social Information Processing (SIP) Model
The fact that people respond to their jobs as
they perceive them rather than to the
objective jobs themselves.
Concept:
Concept:
Employee
Employeeattitudes
attitudesand
andbehaviors
behaviorsare
are
responses
responsesto
tosocial
socialcues
cuesby
byothers.
others.

2005 Prentice Hall


Inc. All rights

Social Information Processing


Model (SIP)

Concepts of the SIP Model

Employees adopt attitudes and behaviors


in response to the social cues provided
by others (e.g., coworkers) with whom
they have contact.
Employees perception of the
characteristics of their jobs is as
important as the actual characteristics of
their jobs.
2005 Prentice Hall
Inc. All rights

Dr. Jessy Nair


Dept of Management Studies

References
Organization Behaviour Stepehen P
Robbins, Judge and
Management - Griffin

Dr. Jessy Nair


Dept of Management Studies