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CURRICULUM

DEVELOPMENT
Prof. Dr. Teguh Budiharso, M.Pd
081334455566 & 081555666000
Email: buda@cbn.net.it

RALPH W. TAYLOR
Basic Questions:
1. Objectives to achieve
2. Learning experiences
3. How learning experiences be achieved
effectively and efficiently?
4. Evaluation

1. Learning Objectives
1. Sources of objectives: needs & learners
behavior: Needs: physics, social,
integrative (satisfaction); drive (minat)
2. Social environment
3. Experts consideration
4. Social/States philosophy
5. Psychology of learning
6. Selecting learning experiences and
instruction

2. Learning Experiences
1. Learning activities relevant to objectives:
reading: read newspaper, etc
2. Providing satisfaction: proud after
learning
3. Appropriate to competence level
4. Variation of learning experiences
5. One learning experience for various
objectives

3. Learning Organization
1.

2.

3.

Horizontal
Various subject matters in one level
-subject matter centered system: some different
lessons are learned in one level
Vertical
Various subject matters among levels
-correlated subject matters-related subjects combined
Integrated system
Subject matters are presented in unit containing
general contents

Effectiveness of Organization
1. Continuity: replication of a subject
matter in following stage
2. Sequence: degrees on higher level of
difficulty of a unit and another
3. Integration: indicates horizontal
relationship; some subjects given at the
same occasion

4. Evaluation
1. To see learners achievement on subject
matter
2. To see learning experiences and learning
organization are achieved as stated in
objectives
3. Evaluation: process and product.
Process: continuous learning process;
Product: results of learning--feedback

MODELS OF DEVELOPMENT
1. Sequential Models of Curiculum (Tyler,
1949)
Objectives--L Experiences--Organization
2. Sequential Model with Feedback
(Weeler, 1967)
Objectives L Experience --Organization of LE --- Evaluation

Models of Curriculum
3. Dynamic Model of Curriculum Development
(Cohen, 1974). Circulation steps; no
sequence
Objectives
Learning
Evaluation of
Experiences
students progress
Organization
of learning experiences

Models of Curriculum
4. Integrative People-Centered Model of
Curriculum Development (Cohen, 1974);
contents involves society and environment
Objectives
Learning
Evaluation of
Experiences
students progress
Organization
of learning experiences

TWO FORMS OF CURRICULUM


1. Ideal Curriculum
-what are expected to apply; but actual
implementation is different because of real
condition
2. Actual Curriculum
-What occurred in the field be (almost) similar
to ideal curriculum.
-Implemented into Core Curriculum and Local
Load Curriculum.

PRINCIPLES OF
DEVELOPMENT
Development
1.Relevance: society, learners needs,
environment, future needseducation as
investment
2.Effective: appropriate learning
experiences; relevant courses to needs
and drive

Principles of Development
3. Efficiency: relevant to technology and
sciences; broader and more contents;
innovative teaching and learning;
instructional technology
4. Flexibility: open to modification; adjusted
to learning needs; vertical: contents
relevant to higher education; horizontal:
providing skills for work;

CHANGES AND EXTENDING


Open to change, modified, and extended
1.Government rules system change
2.Development of technology and sciences
3.The worlds growth population

STEPS OF DEVELOPMENT
INSTITUTION/SCHOOL LEVEL
1.Instructional objectives: national
objectives, learners/society needs, higher
expectation of the school.
2.Implementation of content and program
organization
a. Kinds of program: IPA, IPS
b. Kinds of subject: general, specific

Steps of Development
3. Instructional Strategies: approach, evaluation system.
SUBJECT MATTER DEVELOPMENT
Objectives on subject matter; Theme, subject or
materials; Syllabus for each subject; Approach for each
lesson; Evaluation system for each subject
DEVELOPMENT OF CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION
Developing lesson plans for each unit of materials