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The Male and the

Female Reproductive
System

The Reproductive System


GONADS primary sex organs
TESTES in males
OVARIES in females

Gonads produce gametes (sex


cells) and secrete hormones
sex cells
Sperm (male gametes or sex cells)
Ova or eggs (female gametes or sex
cells)

Male Reproductive System

Testes
Duct system
Epididymis
Ductus or Vas deferens
Urethra
Accessory organs
Seminal vesicle
Prostate gland
Bulbourethral gland
External genitalia
Penis
Scrotum

Male Reproductive System

Figure 16.2a

Testes
- Primary sex organ
- Produce sperms & male sex
hormones (testosterone)
- lies outside the abdominal
cavity within the scrotum

Figure 16.1

Testes: Seminiferous tubules


SEMINIFEROUS
TUBULES
-tightly coiled structures in
the lobules of testes

-Function for
SPERMATOGENESIS
- sperm-forming or
producing factories
Interstitial cells produce
androgens (male sex
hormones) such as
testosterone

Epididymis
Comma-shaped, tightly coiled
tube
Functions to mature and store
some sperm cells (at least 20
days)
Expels sperm with the
contraction of muscles in the
epididymis walls to the vas
deferens

Ductus Deferens or Vas


Deferens

Carries sperm from the


epididymis to the ejaculatory
duct
Moves sperm by peristalsis
Ends in the ejaculatory duct
which unites with the urethra

Urethra
Extends from the
base of the urinary
bladder to the tip
of the penis
Carries both
urine and sperm
in the semen
Sperm enters from
the ejaculatory
duct

Accessory Glands
Seminal vesicles
Prostate gland
Bulbourethral glands

Seminal Vesicles
Located at the base of the
bladder
Produces a thick, yellowish
secretion (60% of semen)
Fructose (sugar)
Vitamin C
Prostaglandins
Other substances that
nourish and activate sperm

Prostate Gland
Encircles the upper part
of the urethra
Single, doughnut shaped
Secretes a milky fluid
Helps to activate
sperm
Enters the urethra
through several small
ducts

Bulbourethral Glands
Pea-sized gland inferior to
the prostate
Produces a thick, clear
mucus
Cleanses the urethra of
acidic urine
Serves as a lubricant
during sexual intercourse
Secreted into the penile
urethra

Semen (seminal fluid)


Mixture of sperm and accessory
gland secretions
Advantages of accessory gland
secretions
Fructose provides energy for sperm
cells
Alkalinity of semen helps neutralize the
acidic environment of vagina
pH (about 7.5)
Semen inhibits bacterial multiplication
Elements of semen enhance sperm

External Genitalia:
SCROTUM
Scrotum
Divided sac of skin
outside the
abdomen
Maintains testes at
3C lower than
normal body
temperature to
protect sperm
viability

PENIS
Penis
Delivers sperm into the
female reproductive
tract
Regions of the penis
Shaft
Glans penis (enlarged tip)

PREPUCE or the
foreskin
Folded cuff of skin around
proximal end
Often removed by
circumcision

Ejaculation

- release of semen by the penis


- May be more than 400 Million
sperms/3.5 ml of semen/
ejaculation

Spermatogenesis
Production of sperm cells
Begins at puberty & continues
throughout life
Occurs in the seminiferous tubules
Sperm cells result after maturing of
spermatids
Spermatogenesis takes 64 to 72 days

Anatomy of a Mature Sperm


Cell
The only human flagellated
cell
HEAD
- Contains the DNA
- Covered by acrosome
contains enzymes to
penetrate the egg
MIDDLE PIECE
- Has mitochondria > ATP->
provides energy for sperm
movement
TAIL
- Flagella

Figure 16.5b

Testosterone
The most important hormone of the
testes
Functions of testosterone
Stimulates reproductive organ
development
Underlies sex drive
Causes secondary male sex
characteristics

Deepening of voice
Increased hair growth
Enlargement of skeletal muscles
Thickening of bones