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EXCITATION SYSTEM

GENERATOR

ELECTRICAL ENERGY IS THE PUREST FORM OF ENERGY IN


FLEXIBILITY OF GENERATION TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION
AND UTILISATION
ELECTRICAL POWER IS GENERATED BY SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
OUR SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS WORK UNDER THE PRINCIPLE OF
,

FARADAY S LAW OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION


,

FARADAY S LAW OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION


E.M.F N X d/dt

According

to Faradays Law of
Electromagnetic Induction the following 3
things are essential for the generation of e.m.f
1.Electrical Conductor- STATOR WINDING.
2.Magnetic Field- FIELD WINDING-ROTOR.
3. RELATIVE MOTION BETWEEN THESE
TWO WHICH IS ACHIEVED BY THE Prime
Mover-TURBINE.

Faradays law of Electromagnetic


Induction
E = k dBl/dt
Where,
e instantaneous voltage induced along the
length of the conductor,V
dB/dt rate of change of magnetic flux density,
tesla/s
l length of the conductor exposed to the
flux,m
k - constant

Principle

What is Reactive Power?

While active power is the energy supplied to run a


motor, heat a home, or illuminate an electric light
bulb, reactive power provides the important function
of regulating voltage.

If voltage on the system is not high enough, active


power cannot be supplied.

Reactive power is used to provide the voltage levels


necessary for active power to do useful work.

Reactive power is essential to move active power


through the transmission and distribution system to
the customer.

VOLTAGE CONTROL
The
voltage is a load variable very much
influenced by local conditions. Though
everybody is having the responsibility to have
better voltage profile including the customer, the
CTU(central transmission utility) has the
ultimate control.
It is important to have a balance of reactive power
in the operation of the system otherwise voltage
control is lost.

ARMATURE REACTION
AR is meant by the effect of magnetic field set by
armature current as the distortion of flux under main
pole of a generator
when there is no load connected to the generator the
armature conductors carries no current there is only
one magnetic field in the machine under this
condition.This field from north to south pole is shown
in figure. It is called the main field.
The armature magnetic field has two effects
Cross magnetizing effect or distorts it
Demagnetizing effect or weakens to main flux

The

actual flux after loading (OFA) can be resolved


in two rectangular components, OFD parallel to
proper axis and OFC perpendicular to this axis
Components

OFC is at right angles to the vector


main flux. It produces distortion in the mainfield and
it is called the cross magnetizing or distorting
components of the armature reaction
The

components OFD is at right angle to the main


MMF. It is called the demagnetization or weaken the
main flux of armature reaction
Due to the cross magnetizing or distortion rotor
(MNA) magnetic neutral axis distorted by an angle
which is called load angle or rotor angle.

By

extra steam distortion speed) is compensated this


extra steam is done by governing system which is
regulated the steam flow according to the load
condition
AR

leads to a change in flux distribution in the


generator , leading to a reduction of induced emf

GENERATOR
Synchronous generators are able to both absorb
and produce reactive power. Changes to reactive
output are made by altering the level of excitation
on the rotating field of the generator.
When a generator absorbs reactive power it is
called under excited and consumes reactive
power from the network and acts as a shunt coil
viewed from the network when it produces
reactive power it is called over excited and
acts as a shunt capacitor as viewed from the
network.

ROLE OF EXCITATION
BASIC FUNCTION:
THE MAIN FUNCTION OF EXCITATION
SYSTEMS IS TO FEED DC VOLTAGE TO THE
ROTOR WINDINGS TO GENERATE THE
MAGNETIC FIELD ACCORDING TO THE
OPERATING CONDITIONS

CONTROL
PROTECTIVE FUNCTION
ENHANCING POWER SYSTEM STABILITY

PURPOSE OF EXCITATION SYSTEM


REGULATE TERMINAL VOLTAGE OF THE MACHINE.
MEET EXCITATION POWER REQUIREMTS UNDER ALL
NORMAL OPERATING CONDITIONS.
ENABLE MAXIMUM UTILISATION OF MACHINE
CAPABILITY.
GUARD THE MACHINE AGAINST INADVERTANT
TRIPPING DURING TRANSIENTS.
IMPROVE DYNAMIC & TRANSIENT STABILITY THEREBY
INCREASING AVAILABILITY.



MAINLY TO MAINTAIN THE TERMINAL VOLTAGE OF A GENERATOR


AT A PREDETERMINED VALUE, INDEPENDENT OF THE CHANGE IN
LOADING CONDITIONS.

IN ADDITION TO THIS,

THE EXCITATION SYSTEM HAS TO CONTRIBUTE THE

FOLLOWING FUNCTIONS ALSO.

1.

MAINTENANCE OF STABLE OPERATION OF MACHINE UNDER STEADY


STATE, TRANSIENT AND DYNAMIC CONDITIONS.

2.

EFFECTIVE UTILIZATION OF MACHINE CAPABILITIES WITHOUT


EXCEEDING MACHINE OPERATING LIMITS,(USING LIMITERS)

Voltage Must be Maintained Within


Acceptable Levels

Under normal system conditions, both peak or off peak load


conditions, the voltages need to be maintained between 95%
and 105% of the nominal.

Low voltage conditions could result in equipment


malfunctions:
1. Motor will stall, overheat or damage
2. Reactive power output of capacitors will be reduced
exponentially
3. Generating units may trip.

High voltage conditions may:


1. Damage major equipment insulation failure
2. Automatically trip major transmission equipment.

TYPES
1.
2.
3.
4.

DC EXCITATION SYSTEMS
AC EXCITATION SYSTEMS
STATIC EXCITATION
BRUSHLESS EXCITATION

Excitation system: Why not dc exciters?

Large numbers of brushes, extensive commuters and brush gear


maintenance.
During change of load chances of flash over.
For reliability exciters are directly coupled, this means reduction
in gears that are necessary.
At higher speeds invariably commutation problems.
AVR: Static excitation system, Automatic and separate voltage
regulators
Maximum and Minimum excitation limiters
Change over to Manual control in case of fault in Auto mode.

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF AN EXCITATION SYSTEM

Monitoring
AVR

Pulse
Gen.
Logic control

PulseAmpl.

Field
Suppressio
n

POWER SUPPLY AUTO CHANNEL

AVR

GATE
CONT

MAN
CONTR

GATE
CONT

PULSE
AMP

PULSE
AMP

POWER SUPPLY MAN CHANNEL

DUAL CHANNEL AVR


AUTOMATIC AND

MANUAL CHANNEL

Excitation system-DVR
The main advantages of DVR are
Automatic diagnosis, i.e. internal condition monitoring
and fault detection.
Set values are digital, hence absolutely reproduce able
and not there is no drift long time stability
Reduced module diversity
Comprehensive measuring and setting possibilities
User friendly and easy adaptation to customers
requirements

The DVR has the following functions


Voltage regulation which is responsible
for the machine dynamic response.
Firing pulse generation
Protection & control
Monitoring the system as whole

The digital regulator periodically


calculates the control signal from
measured & reference values.
This calculation is repeated at every short
time intervals approx. 3.3 ms.
The calculation is done in binary system.
Therefore the analog measured values viz.
generator voltage, current, field current
should be transformed in A/D converter
into binary signal.

Generation of firing pulses


Main function generation of double pulses
Digital filtering of synchronizing voltage
Adjustment of min. and maximum firing angle
Correction of firing angle whenever the frequency
deviates from nominal value
Gate pulse blocking and inverter mode operation
Field current monitoring with immediate blocking in
case of a short circuit to prevent the damage of
thyristor and fuses
Set point control for open loop control for SCC /OCC
testing

The most important functions of DVR


are Regulation of generator voltage (AVR)
Limiters (Load angle limiter, Rotor over load
limiter, Inductive stator current limiter and
Capacitive stator current limiter)

Power system stabilizer

Excitation monitoring
Current flow monitoring of individual thyristors
Change over to Channel 2, if field current increases
-following an inverse time characteristics
Actual value monitoring of generator voltage & field
current

DVR Input
U generator

I generator

DVR
I Rotor

U Sync

Uc

BRUSHLESS SYSTEM

STATIC EXCITATION

RESPONSE LIMITED TO
EXCITER M/C TIME CONST.

FAST RESPONSE

FIELD DISCHARGE WITH


NATURAL TIME CONSTANT

FAST FIELD DISCHARGE BY


RESISTOR & INVERTER
OPERATION

SUPPLY FROM PMG & NO


INITIAL BUILD-UP CIRCUIT
REQD

INITIAL BUILD-UP CIRCUIT


IS REQD

BRUSHLESS SYSTEM
EASY SUPPORTING OF
SHORT CKT IN SMALL
INDUSTRIAL M/CS

STATIC EXCITATION
SUPPORTING OF SHORT CKT
CURRENT NEEDS
COMPOUNDING TRAFO.

NO SLIP RINGS &


BRUSHGEAR. DIRECT
MEASUREMENT OF FIELD
PARAMETERS NOT POSSIBLE

DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF
FIELD QUANTITIES UF & IF
POSSIBLE

LESS POWER REQMTS


SMALL THYRISTOR
RECTIFIERS

MORE POWER REQMTS NO


LIMITATION ON
REDUNDANCY OF THYRISTOR
BRIDGE

LESS SPACE REQUIRED

MORE SPACE REQUIRED

GENERATOR
CAPABILITY
DIAGRAM

CONSTANT EXCITATION CIRCLES


CONSTANT CURRENT CIRCLES
TURBINE LIMITATION
STABILITY LIMIT

OPERATING LIMITS OF THE


GENERATOR
1. At lagging power factor, the limit in the reactive power
is imposed either by the rotor heating or stator heating
considerations.
2. Active power limit is imposed by the design of the
turbine.(at unity power factor the generator MVA can be
equalised with the rated MVA in absolute terms).
3. The leading power factor limits is imposed by,
load angle limiter due to stability considerations.
end winding heating due to iron magnetizing effect of
main field and armature reactions. minimum excitation
limit which is required to have a control over the
machine

The rules for fixing this leading power factor


limit vary from generator to generator, and
are of functioning of,
othe

parameters of the generator

othe

type of excitation system

othe

type of voltage regulator

othe

system to which the generator is


connected.

LIMITERS
V / Hz limiter: At under frequency, the V/Hz limiter
reduces the generator voltage so as to prevent saturation
effects. When under frequency occurs, the generator
voltage is reduced in proportion to that setting.
Field current maximum limiter: Field current
maximum limiter is provided to protect the generator
rotor from over currents occurring in steady state and
transient operation. High field currents are normally the
result of s sharp rise drop in network voltage or improper
rising of set point by the operator. The field current will be
held steady at the maximum permissible value for the
excitation circuit and the rotor. The switch back to the
thermal limit is based on the time integral of the
excitation current. The cool down time can also be
defined through parameters.

Inductive Stator current Limiter: The inductive stator


current holds the stator current Ig within permissible
limits while the generator is in the over excited condition.
This limiter prevents the static over currents. The
principle of operation of this limiter is similar to the rotor
over load limiter. When the turbine out put is high, stator
current may exceed permissible limits even when the
inductive currents are low. In this case the stator current
limiter is kept from influencing, to prevent the possibility
of oscillating back and forth between the inductive and
capacitive current limiters
Capacitive current limiter: The capacitive current
limiter holds the stator current with in permissible when
the generator is under excited.

Load Angle limiter: The load angle limiter prevents the


synchronous machine from slipping out of synchronism.
The load angle (delta) is the difference in phase angle
between the rotor and the stator rotating fields. This is
the result of driving torque (active power P) acting on the
generator and the level of rotor current. If the driving
torque remains constant, a increase in field current will
result in reduction in load angle. The load is angle is
calculated from generator voltage and current from a
simplified model of a the generator. When this calculated
value exceeds the preset value (75 deg), the limiter
increases the filed current until the load angle drops to
permissible limit value.

Adaptive Power system stabilizer (PSS): The purpose


of power system stabilizer is to use the generator
excitation to damp the electromechanical oscillations
between the network and the generator. In order to damp
these oscillations a damping torque has to be produced
depending difference in frequency (df) between the rotor
and the stator-rotating field, ie on the slip frequency. This
torque is produced mainly by the damper windings in the
rotor. Due to limitations imposed by economy, on the size
of the damper windings, further action is therefore
needed to increase the damping effect.

Adaptive Power system stabilizer (PSS): The purpose


of power system stabilizer is to use the generator
excitation to damp the electromechanical oscillations
between the network and the generator. In order to damp
these oscillations a damping torque has to be produced
depending difference in frequency (df) between the rotor
and the stator-rotating field, ie on the slip frequency. This
torque is produced mainly by the damper windings in the
rotor. Due to limitations imposed by economy, on the size
of the damper windings, further action is therefore
needed to increase the damping effect.

GENERATOR
PROTECTIONS

CLASS A
GENERATOR DIFFERENTIAL
GT DIFFERENTIAL
UAT DIFFERENTIAL
GEN &GT OVERALL DIFFERENTIAL
STATOR EARTH FAULT-0-95% & 95-100%
STAND BY EARTH FAULT
REVERSE POWER WITH ESV CLOSED
REVERSE POWER WITH ESV OPEN
GENERATOR OVER VOLTAGE ALARM & TRIP
GENERATOR ROTOR EARTH FAULT

CLASS A

LOW FORWARD POWER


GENERATOR MIN, IMPEDANCE
GEN. CO2 RELEASED
GT BUCHOLTZ- STAGE II
GT BUCHOLTZ- STAGE II
GT REF
GT OVERFLUX
GT PRESSURE RELIEF
UAT BUCHOLTZ- STAGE II
UAT PRESSURE RELIEF

CLASS A

GT O/C & BACK UP E/F


GT MULSIFIER
UAT O/C & BACK UP E/F
UAT MULSIFIER

CLASS B

GT OIL & WINDING TEMP.HIGH HIGH


UAT OIL & WINDING TEMP.HIGH HIGH
LOSS OF EXCITATION
GEN NEGATIVE SEQUENCE STAGE I

CLASS C

GEN NEGATIVE SEQUENCE STAGE II


GEN OUT OF STEP
UNDER FREQUENCY
GEN MIN IMPEDANCE STAGE II
GT BKR LBB

TURBINE TRIPS

INLET STEAM TEMP. LOW LOW


CONDENSER VACUUM LOW LOW
LUBE OIL PRESSURE LOW LOW
AXIAL DISPLACEMENT HIGH HIGH
OVERSPEED
TG BEARING METAL TEMP. HIGH HIGH
TG SHAFT VIBRATIONS HIGH HIGH
EMERGENCY STOP OPERATED

UNIT BUS CHANGE OVER

FAST BUS CHANGEOVER


SLOW BUS CHANGE OVER
OVERLAP TRANSFER
DEAD BUS CHARGING