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Thermodynamics &

Chemistry of Chocolate
Thermodynamics & Kinetics of Materials
MAE 583
Dr. Kostas Sierros
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Akshay Gupte
Panpan Ren
Rahul Kooragayala

Facts
CHOCOLATE
virtually universal appeal
contains more than 300 known chemicals
The taste is partially determined by the
chemistry of the product.

Typical Chocolate Ingredients

The Making of Chocolate

Fermenting & Drying

Roasting & Winnowing

Conching

Tempering

Moulding

Roasting & Winnowing

Cocoa beans are prone to e.coli and salmonella


bacteria, and must therefore be pasteurized.

Keeping the temperature below 285F helps


preserve the flavors of our single origin beans.
Roasting above this temperature is used for
beans that dont have much of their own unique
flavor so a roasted note is created as part of the
chocolate profile.

Conching
The roasted nibs are then ground and liquefied to
produce chocolate liquor and then is usually pressed to
extract cocoa butter, with the remaining solids being
processed to create chocolate powder. One of the
wonders of the chocolate manufacturing process is
that, having separated the two key constituents of
chocolate at the outset, they are subsequently
recombined.
Air flowing through the conche removes unwanted
acids; moisture is reduced by the process; and
substances produced in the original roasting are
oxidized, creating a more mellow flavor.

Here again, control of temperature is critical. The


temperature can rise up to 176F for dark chocolate,
but should not exceed 131F for milk chocolate to
avoid caramelization.

Tempering
Tempering is a highly controlled process which
sees the temperature of the chocolate very
gradually raised, gradually lowered and gradually
raised again in order to form exactly the right
kind of crystals.

Start at room temperature (70F)


Raise gradually to 115F (milk chocolate), 118F
(dark chocolate)
Allow to cool to 80F
Raise gradually to 88F
Allow to cool gradually to room temperature

Quality
Micrometer-scale
structure:
crystals and particles ranging
from 10 m to 120 m in
diameter;
Flavor: the release of flavor
compounds to the mouth
and nose;
Texture: the way that
material melts and breaks up
in the mouth;
Visual characteristics.
Form V is desired, but form
VI is most stable.

Fat Bloom, a serious problem


Fat Bloom makes chocolate less
delicious and visually unappealing.
Mostly agreed: Involve the
transform of fat crystals from form V
to form VI and surface recrystallization of fat caused
generally by migration.
Fat Bloomed Chocolate

Methods to prevent
Good temper (to get the right crystal form);
Addition of free milk fat (well mixed);
Proper storage condition (reliable method).
However, even well-tempered and well
processed chocolate can transform into the
thermodynamically stable but undesirable
Form VI if it is stored for a long time or under
unsuitable conditions.

Chemistry of Chocolate
Compound

Amount
(%W/W)

Neurotransmitters:
Serotonin

0.62 - 5.82

Histamine

0.04 - 0.13

Methylxanthines:
Serotonin

Caffeine

Phenylethylamine

Theobromine

<1.3

Caffeine

<1.0

Tetrahydroisoquinolines:
Salsolinol

High

Methyltetrahydroisoquinoline

<0.01

Amines:
Theobromine

Anandamide

Theobromine

The combination of these chemicals


may provide the lift that chocolate
eaters experience.

Phenylethylamine

0.02 - 2.20

Tele-methylhistamine

0.01 - 1.54

Spermidine

0.05 - 1.15

p-tyramine

0.02 - 0.35

3-methyloxytyramine

0.02 - 0.33

Tryptamine

0.03 - 0.18

Spermine

0.00 - 0.13

Theobromine and Caffeine


Belongs to a class of alkaloid molecules known as
methylxanthines.
Caffeine can be found in small quantities (<1%)
800 g of milk chocolate contains the equivalent amount
of caffeine present in a cup of coffee
Theobromine, a weak stimulant, is present in slightly
higher amounts (about 1% of total weight)
Effects : Theobromine and caffeine are both central
nervous system stimulants; raise nervous activity.

Phenylethylamine & Anandamine


Phenylethylamine is a chemical that our brain releases
when we fall in love. It also acts as an anti-depressant by
combining with dopamine that is naturally present in the
brain.
Anandamide helps to stimulate and open synapses in
the brain that allow "feel good" waves to transmit more
easily.
Effects : raise blood preasure and blood glucose levels;
makes us feel alert and gives us a sense of well-being;
broken down easily hence hard to feel.

Serotonin
Serotonin is a chemical in the brain that is released after eating
carbohydrates.
It is a neurotransmitter that communicates a feeling of calm to the brain
Effects : Helps to stabilize moods;

Endorphins are another chemical that act to send high levels of energy
and feelings of euphoria to the brain. In addition, endorphins have
been shown to be effective painkillers, much like morphine.

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