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Bachelor of Quantity Surveying (Honours)

Building Services I [BLD 60403]


Energy Efficient Ventilation System
Ng Chuan Kai 0323738
Boon Li Ying 0323839
Loh Wen Jun 0323551
Tey Cheng Fern 0323912
Vivian Tay Huey Shuen 0323869
Michelle Tung 0324175

Ventilation
Process of changing air in an enclosed space
Proportion of air should be withdrawn and replaced by the fresh air
Maintain temperature and humidity at comfortable levels and to allow the
indoor air pollution to flow out
Excessive humidity can cause diseases and other symptoms such as
headache, sore throat or even breathing difficulty

Energy Efficient
Energy efficiency means using less energy to provide the same level of energy
Energy efficient is not energy conservation
Energy conservation is reducing or going without a service to save energy

For example, turning off a light is energy


conservation. Replacing an incandescent lamp
with a compact fluorescent lamp is energy
efficiency.

Ventilation
Natural Ventilation

Mechanical Ventilation

Natural Ventilation

Best Selection of the Window

Louvre Window

The result of the experiment carried out by Breezeway


Fixed Window

Awning Window

Sliding Window

Percentage of
Ventilation

Double Hung Window

Casement Window

Louvre Window
0%

20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

Installation Process
1. Fixed top sill with the side jamb and repeat the process.

2. Cut the panel and put the PVC anti-dust strip on the end of each panel.

3. Offer the frame with bolts and nuts and tighten it.

4. Try to slide each individual blade that located between the jams into the
aluminium holders.

Best Selection of the Door

Fibreglass Door

Taken from

Installation Process
1. Apply some beads of caulk to the underside of
the door sill and need to seal at least 4 times.

2. Place some solid shims behind the hinge jamb and frame and temporarily secure the unit
to the frame by using screw or nails to fasten it.

3. Check the weather-stripping to make sure the margins and contact are equal around.

4. Adjust the door threshold to have an even contact between the door sweep and
threshold.

5. Caulk again the intersection of the jamb, brick molds, threshold and floor for in-swing
and out-swing door.

Mechanical Ventilation

Best Selection of the Fan

Whole House Fan

Installation Process
1. Mark the joist that need to be cut by pushing a nail through the wall as these
nails will be easily seen.
2. Using pushed-through nails in the ceiling as guide, cut and place the template
on the ceiling and staple in place.
3. Pass the fan through the opening. Center and attach the fan to the platform.
4. Secure 4 sides of the fan frame by nailing wooden blocks to the platform.
5. Flip the fan motor and rebolt it to the struts. Slip the fan belt into position and
slide the motor to achieve proper tension. Be careful not to overtighten.

Management System

Management System

to provide a healthy and comfortable internal


environment for the buildings occupants
through
- the process of changing air which remove
the polluted indoor air from a building and
replaced by the fresh air from outside
to maintain air purity such as preservation of
oxygen content, removal of carbon dioxide
and control of humidity

management system is necessary to the energy


efficient ventilation system
-maintain the effectiveness of ventilation
regardless of wind direction
-make sure the inlet and outlet openings are not
obstructed by nearby objects
-the window is located in opposing pressure
zone to increase the ventilation rate
provide periodic maintenance for the system to
make sure that the system running efficiently
and lead to the maximum of systems lifespan
to ensure the reliability of the ventilation
system and to secure the operation of the
ventilation plant

Passive Stack Ventilation (PSV)

the most effective natural ventilation strategy


as it combines with trickle ventilation through
window frames

one option to provide domestic ventilation

a combination of the air flowing over the roof


and the natural buoyancy of warm moist air to
lift the moist and stale air from the kitchen and
bathroom up ducting to the roof ridge level
where it escapes into the atmosphere

fresh air is drawn into the building through the


trickle vents in the windows and doors

Passive Stack Ventilation (PSV)

PSV system are energy efficient


- this
system is without the need for any electric fans or control

the amount of ventilation achieved depends on


- the
amount of movement of the external air and the external
air temperature

standard PSV systems have a simple inlet grille to the


duct, usually fitted into the ceiling

cleaning the grilles especially the one in the kitchen is


essential
-to ensure that
there are no restrictions to air flow up each stack

PSV system requires very little maintenance


-a
periodic check of the roof terminal and of any ducting that
is accessible should be enough to maintain the structure of
the system

Mechanical Extract Ventilation (MEV)

a system that extracts air from wet


rooms continually

consists of a central ventilation unit


positioned in loft space ducted
throughout the building to extract air
from the wet rooms

replacement dry air is drawn into the


building via background ventilators

Mechanical Extract Ventilation (MEV)

providing a gap at the bottom of the


internal doors that allow the free
passage of air through the building

can be operated automatically or manual


switching

able to increase the speed of the fan and


extraction rate, rather than raising the
extraction rate for the whole building

require regular maintenance to remove


dust and grease from the fans, grilles
and filters

Advantages and Disadvantages

Advantages
Reduces energy usage

Energy Efficient means use less energy for the same service
Examples are natural ventilation and Mechanical ventilation with heat recovery

Natural ventilation

Mechanical ventilation with heat


recovery

Advantages
Provide comfortable microclimate

Example: Geothermal ventilation system

Provides cool air during hot weather

Provides hot air during cold weather

Advantages
Saves cost in a long run
More expensive, but can save in long term
Example: Energy recovery ventilation system
Operate by transferring heat from warm, inside exhaust air to cold, outside supply air
Reduce the heating and cooling costs
Electricity bill is reduced

Enhance indoor air quality

Indoor air is continuously withdrawn and replaced by fresh air

Oxygen level is preserved at 21%

Bad odour is eliminated

Humidity is controlled and balanced

Reduce stress and improve moods

Disadvantages
High cost in short term

Must pay installing fee in advance

Must engage specialists such as ventilation engineers

Service and maintenance cost are required as well

An example is Energy recovery ventilation system

Requires more time to install

More high tech

Requires efficient preparation to install it

More complicated design

Check ventilation rates

Example: Exhaust ventilation system

Case Study
Burj Khalifa

Burj Khalifa
A megatall skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab
Emirates.
Multi-use tower that includes residential,
hotel, commercial offices, entertainment,
shopping, and parking facilities.
It is the worlds tallest structure ever built.
Height :828m
Numbers of floors:162

Natural ventilation system


Burj Khalifa has occur the phenomenon as
reverse stack effect because the flow of air is
downward.
The cooler air is more dense is inside the
building and wants to drop downward and flow
out of the building to its bottom.
The air move from the top to the bottom through
the elevator shaft.
Each time the elevator door open it will help to
produce greater stack effect.
This help to reduce the temperature for the whole
tower without any cost.

Natural ventilation system


Glass panel also serve as a function to reduce
the temperature and reduce the usage of the
air conditioning,ventilation and
dehumidification function.
It is a special panel made from two layers
which is a thin layer of metal and a thin layer
of silver to keep the temperature inside the
building cool by reflecting the heat and
sunlight.

Mechanical ventilation system


Plate heat exchanger
Used for transfer heat between two fluid to
reduce the air temperature.
Ice-storage cooling system that produces tons of
ice slurry during off-peak hours.
Using the plate heat exchangers, the ice slurry
built up in a tank, store the cooling energy that is
later released, through the pipelines to the entire
indoor conditioning and tap water systems.

Mechanical ventilation system


Air handling unit
used to re-condition and circulate air as part
of a heating, ventilating and air-conditioning
system.
improve the air quality of the tower by using
the air on the higher level which is clean and
cooler air and transfer it to the lower floor.

Mechanical ventilation system


Chilled water pump
Is a heat exchange device
The condenser water absorbs heat from the
refrigerant in the condenser barrel of the
water chiller, and is then sent through return
lines to a cooling tower.

Possible Problem to the System

Sand Storm
Sky-sourced ventilation not applicable during that
time
Openings and windows cannot be opened, too dusty
Serious respiratory problem endanger our health

eg: Breathing difficulties

Heavy dust particles carried on together with wind


pressure

Contd
Concentrate air filters blocks the air ways pass through the filters to the
surrounding areas.

Condensation
Debilitating effect on occupiers of dwelling
If condensation occurs over a prolonged period of time,
other signs

eg: damp patches on windows, walls, black-mold growth

Introduction of energy saving measures

eg: double glazing and cavity wall insulation

No natural escape route for this stale, humid air now trapped
inside building

High usage of mechanical ventilation system


Huge air conditioning system is constructed in building
Supply throughout entire area of building, ensure thermal comfort
achieved.
Large amount of energy to supply sufficient air to surrounding
High percentage of electricity
Coal-burning power plants, air conditioning contributes indirectly
release of greenhouse gases and other pollutants

Proportion of outside air


Dilute and remove indoor contaminants, HVAC systems must bring
in adequate amounts of outdoor air
Higher cost needed cool hot summer air
Building engineers reduce or eliminate the amount of outdoor air
Allows contaminated air accumulate inside, causing pollutant
concentrations increase
Continuous supply of fresh air must be provided

Blockage in the ventilation system


Properly maintained to provide indoor air quality
Source of contamination become clogged, reduce or eliminate
airflow provides colder air supply to indoor area
Contaminated or dust particles causing air filter exist blockage, thus
reducing supply of air flow to the building

Contd
Failure to properly treat water in cooling towers to prevent growth
of organisms
Introduce organisms into HVAC supply ducts, increase
concentration of bacteria affect indoor air quality and cause serious
health problems.
Accumulations of water around system may bring harmful
biological growth can distributed throughout the building.

Recommendation for future improvement

Building maintenance activities


Source of pollutants used

eg: during painting, renovation, and pesticides

Schedule a time during use of pollutant sources to


minimize the impact on indoor air quality
Increase ventilation rates during periods of increased
pollution in building.

Regular maintenance of the ventilation systems


To avoid affecting thermal comfort of indoor air quality
Air cleaning regularly done ensure sufficient air distributed
to the building.
All air cleaners must be properly sized and maintained to be
effective
An HVAC system that properly designed, installed,
maintained, and operated is essential to providing healthful
indoor air

Avoid and control of outside air and pollutants


To reduce indoor air pollutants, increase the openings
and windows in a building
Ventilate air of indoor allowing outdoor air to flow in
building to dilute indoor air and reduce pollutants
An adequate supply of outdoor air is essential to
diluting indoor pollutants
In general, increasing rate of outdoor air supplied to
the building decreases indoor air problems

Control of condensation in a building


Limiting sources of moisture; including reverse
condensation, which moisture evaporates from damp
materials.
eg: replacing flueless gas or oil heaters.
By increasing air temperature of surrounding indoor
can reduce percentage of condensation to overall
building

Contd
Dehumidification by removing moisture, water vapor or humidity
from the air.
Natural or mechanical ventilation are also the important factor to
control the rate of condensation
Increasing surface temperatures
eg: inclusion of insulation materials around the building or
improving glazing