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INTERACTION BETWEEN

FOOD FLAVOUR &


PACKAGING MATERIAL
Monika Mathur
2014FST29D

FOOD- PACKAGING
INTERACTIONS
Interactions within a package system refer to
the exchange of mass and energy between the
packaged food, the package material and the
external environment.
Interaction between food, packaging, and the
environment, produces an effect on the food,
and/or the package.
Foods characteristic flavor and aroma are result
of a complex interaction of hundreds of
individual constituent
If one or more flavor constituents are altered or
diminished, food quality may be reduced.
oxidation of aroma components due to the

Mass transfer processes in packaging systems are permeation,


migration and absorption

Possible interactions between foodstuff, polymer film and the


environment, together with the adverse consequences.

Sensory changes in food


products results from
intentional or unintentional
interactions with packaging
materials

Negative sensory
impacts

1.TAINTS
1.TAINTS
2.SCALPIN
2.SCALPIN
G
G
3.OFF3.OFFODORS
ODORS
4.LOSS OF
4.LOSS OF
MOISTUR
MOISTUR
E
E

ROUTES BY WHICH TAINTS OCCUR IN


FOOD THROUGH PACKAGING
MATERIAL
1. TAINTS FROM CONTACT
MATERIALS

2. TAINTS FROM NONCONTACTING MATERIALS

3. TAINTS FROM RECYCLED


MATERIALS

A. Glass
B. Metal
C. Paper
D. Plastics( PE, LDPE,
HDPE, PS, PA,PVC,
EPOXY)
A. Printing inks
,varnishes
B. Coloring agents,
adhesives
C. Antioxidants
Recycled materials
(paper, board)
containing absorbed
odors when
introduced into new
packaging material
may cause taint.

TAINTS TRANSFER INTO FOOD FRODUCTS DURING


PROCESSING, TRANSPORT & STORAGE THROUGH
PRIMARY & SECONDARY PACKAGING SOURCES

SENSORY DESCRIPTORS ASSOCIATED WITH TAINT


SOURCES
1. PLASTICS
. MONOMERSSTYRENE
. STYRENE BUTADIENE RUBBER- 4-PHENYL1-CYCLOHEXENE
. THERMAL PROCESSINGPS, PA, PP (SOTOLON)

2. ADDITIVES AND PRODUCTION AIDS


DEGRADATION PRODUCTS OF
A. NUCLEATING AGENTS4-METHYL BENZALDEHYDE, 4-PROPYL
BENZALDEHYDE
B. PEROXIDE CROSSLINKER- ACETOPHENONE
LUBRICATING OIL1,3-DIMETHYLNAPHTHALENE

3. PRINTING INKS AND ADHESIVES


SOLVENTS THINNER
EHTYL ACETATE, MINERAL OIL
RETARDANTS
2-BUTANONE, EHTYL ACRYLATE
COLD SEALING
LATEX
REACTION PRODUCTS
2-ETHYL-5-5-DIMETHYL-1,3-DIOXANE

4. PAPER AND BOARD


LIPID OXIDATION PRODUCTS
LIGNIN RELATED COMPONDS
TRICHOLROPHENOL

HEXANAL, 2-NONENAL, NONALACTONE


3-PROPYLPHENOL, VANILLIN, 2,4,6-

1. TAINTS FROM CONTACT MATERIALS


POLYSTYRENE
(PS)
Styrene monomer in PS associated with tainting
problems
Yoghurt cups & transparent containers
Foamed trays and cups
PS decomposes at Temp. > 240C
Ethyl benzene (solvent) during PS polymerization,
another source of taints
Sensory descriptors- plastic like, chemical, insecticide
off-odor
Product
Odor
Threshold
water

0.050 mg/Kg

Orange juice

0.2-0.3
mg/Kg

Whole milk

1-3mg/Kg

Condensed

3 mg/Kg

POLYOLEFINS
Family of plastics based on ethylene and propylene.
Residual solvents -affect sensory quality of food
product.
Oxidation products of plastics results in off- odor like
candle-like, musty, stuffy, rancid & soapy.
During package formation from PET polymers by
polycondensation/ moulding can cause formation of
acetaldehyde which alters flavor profiles of food and
beverages if migrated and produce fruity, green apple
flavor.

PVC & cPVC


Substance
Antimony
M-chlorophenol

Related odor
Metallic
Phenolic like

Cyclohexanone

Acetone like

Ethyl-2Organo-sulphur
mercaptoacetate odor

Threshold level
0.005 ppm in
water
0.12 ppm in
water
-

EPOXY

Used for lining water reservoirs, water mains and


home plumbing systems.
Effect sensory quality of tap water during food
manufacturing, food service operations,
residential homes.
Odors plastic, adhesive, putty, chlorine like off

Packaging
material

Sensory descriptors with packaging


material
Description

Product

Sensory
description

GLASS

Milk

Plastic, oxidized,
burnt flavor

METAL

Beer, canned pork


products

Musty
Catty off-odor

PAPER

Board stock
Packing sacks

Cakes,biscuits
Cocoa powder

Papery, mouldy,
mushroom odor

ADHESIVES

Coatings

POLYAMIDE

Retort pouch

Ham products

Cat urine odor

POLYESTER

Retort pouch

Fruit-flavored soft
drinks

Off-flavor

POLYPROPYLENE

Oats

Stearic, paint,
bitter, hay, grainy

POLYOLEFINS

LDPE

Orange juice

Soapy, pungent,
metallic

Waxy, oily, rancid

Packaging
material

Description

Product

Sensory
description

HDPE

Milk

Stale, fruity

HDPE water
pipes

Water

Earthy-musty,
waxy, plastic
like

(PE) coated
paperboards

Milk, water

Plastic, waxy

PE+ RUBBER
NET

Water

Yellowish color,
plastic like odor

PETE

Milk

Oxidized,
burnt, plastic
like flavor

POLYSTYRENE

Coffee creamer,
condensed milk

Astringent
chemical
plastic flavor

PVC

Fruit drinks
Packed cheese

Catty odor
Chemical pine
odor

EPOXY

Drinking water

Plastic, glue,
putty

CELLOPHANE
CELLULOSE
FILMS

sandwiches

Sweet, woody,
rubbery offflavor

FOOD GRADE PLASTICS


Food grade plastic does not contain dyes or recycled
plastic deemed harmful to humans. However, this
does not mean that food grade plastic cannot
contain recycled plastic.
Symbol
SAFE Description
FOOD GRADE

&5

PALSTICS ARE SYMBOL NO.exampl


2, 4

PET or PETE (polyethylene terephthalate) is a


tough polymer with exceptional gas and
Typesclear,
of
food
grade plastic
moisture barrier properties. PET's ability to
contain carbon dioxide (carbonation) makes it
ideal for use in soft drink bottles

es

Soft
drink
bottles,
deterge
nt
bottles

HDPE (high density polyethylene) is used in milk, Milk


juice and water containers in order to take bottles
advantage of its excellent protective barrier
properties

Vinyl (polyvinyl chloride, or PVC)


provides excellent clarity, puncture
resistance and cling.
As a film, vinyl can breathe just the
right amount, making it ideal for
packaging fresh meats that require
oxygen to ensure a bright red surface
while maintaining an acceptable shelf
life.

Plastic
food
wrap,
shrink
wrap

LDPE (low density polyethylene)


offers clarity and flexibility.
It is used to make bottles that
require flexibility.
it is used to produce grocery bags
and garbage bags, shrink and stretch
film, and coating for milk cartons

Squeez
e
bottles
,
dry
cleanin
g bags

PP (polypropylene) has high tensile


strength, making it ideal for use in
caps and lids that have to hold tightly
on to threaded openings.
Because of its high melting point,
polypropylene can be hot-filled with
products designed to cool in bottles,
including ketchup and syrup.
It is also used for products that need
to be incubated, such as yogurt.

Bottle
caps,
take-out
food
container
s,
drinking
straws

PS (polystyrene), in its crystalline


form, is a colorless plastic that can be
clear and hard.
It can also be foamed to provide
exceptional insulation properties.
Foamed or expanded polystyrene
(EPS) is used for products such as
meat trays, egg cartons and coffee
cups

Plastic
foam,
packing
peanuts

Other denotes plastics made from


other types of resin or from several

2. TAINTS FROM ADDITIVES & NON-CONTACT MATERIALS

PRINTING INKS, VARNISHES,


WAXES
Printed coupons within food package & Low molecular
weight compounds from printing inks, varnishes, binders,
additives easily migrate through packaging material into
food, contributing taints

Wax
coating
of
inner pouches are
contaminated with
aromatic
hydro-

ADHESIVES

ADDITIVES

Linoleic

TAINTS FROM RECYCLED


MATERIALS
Recycled material contain absorbed molecules when
introduced into new packaging material causes
taints.
Bacteria,
molds
Oxidation
of residual
resins

Decarboxylatio
n / oxidation of
lignin
Degradation of
processing
chemicals

Odors from
paper/board

Ligni
Vanillic
n Decarboxylation/acid
oxidation

Guaiac
ol

Smoky
taint

Other volatile compounds present in pulp which may


also be- responsible for taints in food, include
aldehydes, alcohols and esters for example hexanal

compound

Odor
descriptio
n

TAINTS FROM CONTAMINANTS DURING


TRANSPORT AND STORAGE

SCALPING/ SORPTION

Absorption of flavor compounds

Term
sorption
includes
properties
of
absorption, adsorption and cluster formation&
movement of chemical compound into a polymer.
Product
components
may
penetrate
the
structure of the packaging material, causing
loss of aroma, or changing barrier and/or
mechanical properties, resulting in a reduced
perception of quality.
Disturbances in the overall impression of flavor
due to sorption results in the changes in sensory
characters of food product.

FACTORS
Polymer
EFFECTING
propertiesFLAVOR ABSORPTION

1.

1. Molecular
2.
3.
concentration
Carbon
chain length,
boiling
point and
4. Storage conditions
1. PH

POLYMER PROPERTIES
1. FREE VOLUME

2. CRYSTALLINITY

Molecular void volume


that is trapped in solid
state.

Permeating molecule
finds easy path in voids.

Polymer
with
symmetry
structure/bulky
chains, have high
volume
&
permeability

poor
in
side
free
high

Diffusion occurs
in amorphous
regions in
polymer
.

FLAVOR PROPERTIES
Low
sorbant
1. CONCENTRATION
concentrations affect
polymer to a very
limited extent
amount of absorbed
compounds
is
directly proportional
concentration of the
sorbants
At
higher
concentrations,
absorption
of
compounds into a
polymer
material

2. PRESENCE OF
COPERMEANTS

Interactions between
different flavor
compounds

Affects the absorption of

low molecular weight


compounds into polymer
food packaging materials

Flavour
compounds
are absorbed more
3. in
Polarity
easily
a polymeric
film if their polarities
are similar.

Polyolefins are highly


lipophilic
and
inconvenient
for
packaging
products
with
non-polar
substances such as
fats, oils, aromas etc.,
since they can be
absorbed
and
retained
by
the
package.
The polyesters are
more polar than the
polyolefins and will

4. Molecular size
Smaller
molecules
are
absorbed more rapidly
and in higher quantities
than larger molecules.
Very
large
molecules
plasticize the polymer,
causing
increased
absorption into the newly
available absorption sites.

absorption of a series of
compounds with the same
functional
group
increases
with
an
increasing
number
of
carbon
atoms
in
the
molecular chain, up to a
certain limit

EXTERNAL PROPERTIES

Flavours may be dissolved,


adsorbed, bound, entrapped,
encapsulate
by
food
1.
Food
matrix
components.

2. Storage temperature

Proteins, carbohydrates and


oil interact with flavours,
changing the concentration
of free flavour in the solution
and
consequently
increasing/decreasing
the
amount of absorption.

Permeability of gases and


liquids
in
polymers
increases with increasing
temperature.
Possible
reasons
for
increased
flavour absorption at higher
temperatures are:

Extent of flavour absorption


by
LDPE
oil/fat>polysaccharides>disac
charides

increased mobility of the


flavor molecules

Because of the lipophilic


character of many flavour
compounds, food products
with a high oil/fat content
will lose less flavour by

change
configuration,
swelling or
crystallinity
change in
solubility in
phase.

in

polymer
such
as
decrease of

the volatile
the aqueous

EFFECTS OF FLAVOR ABSORPTION

1.

Effect on oxygen permeability of a plastic


package

The shelf-life of a food or beverage packaged in a


polymer depend on many factors, but one of the
most important is the rate at which oxygen from
the air enters the package.
For some foods, the oxygen tolerance is high, such
as salad dressings, peanut butter, most soft drinks
and high alcohol liquor. For other foods, the
oxygen tolerance is very low, suchResearcher
as beer, low-acid
Findings
foods, wine, coffee, or baby foods.Hirose et al., 1988
oxygen permeability of LDPE increased
due to the presence of absorbed dlimonene
oxygen permeability of LDPE was
proportional to the mass of absorbed
limonene

Sadler and Braddock,


1991

increased oxygen permeability of LDPE


indicated that absorption of volatiles are
responsible for structural changes in the
polymer

Sadler and Braddock,


1991

Effect on sensory properties of


food product

Absorption of aroma compounds by plastics


can affect the sensory quality of foods. The
effect may be an overall loss of odor
intensity or a change in the aroma
character.

A change in character can occur when only


certain components of a complex aroma
mixture are absorbed.

Flavour alteration also depends on many


parameters- storage temperature and type
of packaging material

Antimicrobial
ingredients in
packaging systems
Extracts of clove, basil
in LDPE

Controlling oxidation
through timed release of
antioxidants
BHT, Ascorbic acid
addition in packages

Flavor & odor absorber


Cyclo dextrins, dsorbitol in PETE films

SMART
PACKAGING
TO IMPROVE
SENSORY
QUALITY

Incorporation of color
changing plastics into
packages.
Time-temperature
indicators, gas leakage
indicators, toxin
indicators and spoilage
detectors/freshness
indicators

Color changes to a bromocresol green (BCG) sensor in response

Panels

I.

II.

ROBINSON TEST TO EVALUATE MATERIALS


FOR TAINTING POTENTIAL

Test food is evaluated for taint compared to control


using discrimination method.
Intensity of taint is evaluated using 5-point rating scale.
Effective for quality control of materials used in
packaging.

CONCLUSION
Interactions between foods and packaging can be
detrimental to quality and/or safety.
Changes in product flavor due to aroma sorption and
the transfer of undesirable flavors from packaging to
foods are important mechanisms of deterioration when
foods are packaged in polymer-based materials.
Product considerations include sensitivity to flavour
and related deteriorations, color changes, vitamin loss,
microbial activity, and amount of flavor available.
Storage considerations include temperature, time, and
processing method.
Polymer considerations include type of polymer and
processing method, volume or mass of polymer to
product ratio.

Methodology

to

determine

the

extent

of

such