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SCREW THREAD MEASUREMENT

Prof.Md.Khaled khalil

Terminology of Screw Threads

Metrology

Important Elements of Screw Threads


There are six elements of a thread, errors in any

one of which may caused rejection.


These are major, minor, and effective diameters,
pitch, flank angles, and profile at the root and
crest.
The most important of these elements are the
effective diameter, the pitch, and the flank angle.
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Metrology

Effect of thread elements on Error


Error in the major diameter may cause interference

with the mating threads, or reduction in flank contact,


or in the case of internal threads, weakness by
reduction of wall thickness.
Errors in the minor diameter may cause interference,

reduction of flank contact, or weakness by reduction of


cross section at the root.
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Metrology

Effect of thread elements on Error


Errors in the effective diameters determine the amount

of slackness or interference between the flanks of


mating threads.
With the major and minor diameters at their maximum
limits, if the effective diameter is small the thread will be
thin on an external screw and thick on an internal
screw.
The reverse conditions prevail if the effective diameter
is above its basic value.
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Metrology

Effect of thread elements on Error


Errors in pitch are the errors in the effective

diameter helix measured parallel to the axis


of the screw thread and are of three types,
namely
i. Periodic Pitch Error
ii. Progressive Pitch Error
iii. Erratic Pitch Error
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Metrology

Periodic errors and their Possible


sources
Periodic errors are those which vary in

magnitude along the length of the thread and


recur at regular interval. If they recur every
revolution the thread is called drunken. Error
of this type are most frequently caused:
By lack of squareness in the thrust bearing of
the lead screw used to produce the thread.
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Metrology

Periodic errors and their Possible


sources
True Helix
Overall
Error=2x

Actual Thread

Fig.: Development of Drunken Thread Helix


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Metrology

Periodic errors and their Possible


sources
If the pitch of the screw being cut is not
equal to that of the lead screw.
By eccentric mounting of the gears
between the lead screw and spindle.
By errors in the teeth of these gears.
By errors in the lead screw itself.
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Metrology

Progressive errors and their Possible


sources
If the pitch of the thread is uniform but is
longer or shorter than its nominal value, the
error is called progressive. This may be
caused:
By a change in length due to hardening.
By errors in the pitch of the lead screw.
By faults in the saddle guide-ways.
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Metrology

Erratic errors and their Possible sources


Erratic errors are those which vary in an

irregular manner along the length of the


thread. Their causes are often difficult to
identify. Possible sources are:
Faults in the machine.
Irregular cutting action resulting from nonuniformity in the material of the screw.
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Metrology

Floating Carriage Diameter Measuring


Machine

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Metrology

FIG.: Floating Carriage Diameter Measuring


Machine

Measurement of Major Diameter


Major Diameter of Plug Gauge
S ( B A)

Plug Gauge

Standard Cylinder

Diameter of standard S
B

Reading over standard A


Reading over Plug Gauge B

A S

Micrometer Anvil
Fudicial Indicator

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Metrology

Measurement of Minor Diameter


Minor Diameter of Plug Gauge
S ( B A)

Diameter of standard S
B

Reading over standard A


Reading over Plug Gauge B

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Metrology

V-piece

A S

Centre

Measurement of effective diameter


Effective diameter E T P
Diameter under the wire T S B A

P a constant whose value depends on


the diameter of the wire and on the
pitch and angle of the screw thread.
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Metrology

Measurement of effective diameter


In right angled triangle
OAB
d

OA OB. cos ec . cos ec


2 2
2
d

AG OA OG (cos ec 1)
2
2
In right angled triangle
AFD

AF DF . cot . cot
2 4
2

Fig.: Measurement of effective diameter


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Metrology

Measurement of effective diameter contd.


FG AF AG
p
d

. cot (cos ec 1)
4
2 2
2
E T 2 FG

2 . cot (cos ec 1) .
2 2
2
4

i, e. P . cot d (cos ec 1)
2
2
2
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Metrology

Fig.: Measurement of effective diameter

Measurement of effective diameter contd.


p

OG OB BD sec sec
2 4
2

p
Dia.
d
O

OD BD tan tan
2 4
2
DG OG OD

P 2 DG 2.
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p
p
p

sec tan sec tan


4
2 4
2 4
2
2

sec

tan

sec

tan

4
2
2
2
2
2

Metrology

D
G

E
T
A

/2

Fig.: Measurement of effective


diameter

Measurement of Included Angle by


Wires of Different Size
The included angle is found from the
formula
d 2 d1

d 2 d1
2 2
sin

2 D2 D1 d1 d 2 D2 D1 d 2 d1
2 2 2 2

Distance between centres of wires


1
O1O2 D2 D1 d1 d 2 c
2
1
Difference between radii of wires d 2 d1 r
2
r
sin
2 c
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Metrology

Fig.: Measurement of Included Angle by


Wires

Measurement of Error in the Angle


r
sin
2 c
The error in the angle is

.r
.c
r
c

1
1
r
cos . . .r 2 .c
2 2
c
c
1
r
2. sec . .r 2. sec . 2 .c
2 c
2 c
2
c.r r.c

2
2
c c r
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Metrology

Fig.: Measurement of Included Angle by


Wires

Correction for Rake and Compression

cos cot
2
p

d
2
2
2
2
2
Rake correction c
. . A 1 A. sin A . sin Where A
2
2
d
2
2
T d

2
p
d
0
For 60 threads c 0.076
T d 2

p 2d
For Whitworth threads c 0.086
T d 2

A
A
Compressio n correcti on e 0.001 1 mm 0.00004 1 in

3
E3
E

2
3

p 2d
For BA threads c 0.105
T d 2

Where A is the measuring force in N(lbf) and E is effective diameter in millimeters(inches)

Corrected effective diameter E T P c e


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Metrology

The End

Thank You !

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Metrology