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Reservoirs, Spillways, & Energy

Dissipators
CE154 Hydraulic Design
Lecture 3
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Lecture 3 Reservoir, Spillway, Etc.


Purposes of a Dam
- Irrigation
- Flood control
- Water supply
- Hydropower
- Navigation
- Recreation
Pertinent structures dam, spillway,
intake, outlet, powerhouse
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Hoover Dam downstream face

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Hoover Dam Lake Mead

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Hoover Dam Spillway Crest

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Hoover dam Outflow Channel

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Hoover Dam Outlet Tunnel

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Hoover Dam Spillway

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Dam Building Project


Planning
- Reconnaissance Study
- Feasibility Study
- Environmental Document (CEQA in California)
Design
- Preliminary (Conceptual) Design
- Detailed Design
- Construction Documents (plans & specifications)
Construction
Startup and testing
Operation
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Necessary Data

Location and site map


Hydrologic data
Climatic data
Geological data
Water demand data
Dam site data (foundation, material,
tailwater)

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Dam Components
Dam
- dam structure and embankment
Outlet structure
- inlet tower or inlet structure, tunnels,
channels and outlet structure
Spillway
- service spillway
- auxiliary spillway
- emergency spillway
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Spillway Design Data


Inflow Design Flood (IDF) hydrograph
- developed from probable maximum
precipitation or storms of certain
occurrence frequency
- life loss use PMP
- if failure is tolerated, engineering
judgment cost-benefit analysis use
certain return-period flood
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Spillway Design Data (contd)


Reservoir storage curve
- storage volume vs. elevation
- developed from topographic maps
- requires reservoir operation rules for
modeling
Spillway discharge rating curve

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Reservoir Capacity Curve

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Spillway Discharge Rating

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Spillway Design Procedure


Route the flood through the reservoir to
determine the required spillway size
S = (Qi Qo) t
Qi determined from IDF hydrograph
Qo determined from outflow rating
curve
S determined from storage rating
curve
- trial and error process
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Spillway Capacity vs. Surcharge

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Spillway Cost Analysis

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Spillway Design Procedure (contd)


Select spillway type and control
structure
- service, auxiliary and emergency
spillways to operate at increasingly
higher reservoir levels
- whether to include control structure
or equipment a question of regulated
or unregulated discharge
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Spillway Design Procedure (contd)


Perform hydraulic design of spillway
structures
- Control structure
- Discharge channel
- Terminal structure
- Entrance and outlet channels
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Types of Spillway
Overflow type integral part of the dam
-Straight drop spillway, H<25, vibration
-Ogee spillway, low height
Channel type isolated from the dam
-Side channel spillway, for long crest
-Chute spillway earth or rock fill dam
- Drop inlet or morning glory spillway
-Culvert spillway
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Sabo Dam, Japan Drop Chute

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New Cronton Dam NY Stepped Chute


Spillway

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Sippel Weir, Australia Drop Spillway

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Four Mile Dam, Australia Ogee


Spillway

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Upper South Dam, Australia Ogee


Spillway

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Winnipeg Floodway - Ogee

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Hoover Dam Gated Side Channel


Spillway

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Valentine Mill Dam - Labyrinth

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Ute Dam Labyrinth Spillway

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Matthews Canyon Dam - Chute

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Itaipu Dam, Uruguay Chute Spillway

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Itaipu Dam flip bucket

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Pleasant Hill Lake Drop Inlet (Morning


Glory) Spillway

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Monticello Dam Morning Glory

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Monticello Dam Outlet - bikers heaven

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Grand Coulee Dam, Washington Outlet


pipe gate valve chamber

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Control structure Radial Gate

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Free Overfall Spillway


Control
- Sharp crested
- Broad crested
- many other shapes and forms
Caution
- Adequate ventilation under the nappe
- Inadequate ventilation vacuum
nappe drawdown rapture oscillation
erratic discharge
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Overflow Spillway
Uncontrolled Ogee Crest
- Shaped to follow the lower nappe of a
horizontal jet issuing from a sharp crested
weir
- At design head, the pressure remains
atmospheric on the ogee crest
- At lower head, pressure on the crest is
positive, causing backwater effect to reduce
the discharge
- At higher head, the opposite happens
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Overflow Spillway

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Overflow Spillway Geometry


Upstream Crest earlier practice used 2
circular curves that produced a
discontinuity at the sharp crested weir to
cause flow separation, rapid development
of boundary layer, more air entrainment,
and higher side walls
- new design see US Corps of Engineers
Hydraulic Design Criteria III-2/1

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Overflow Spillway
3/ 2

Q CL H e

C f ( P, H e

, , downstream submergence)
o

L effective width of spillway

H
H
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design energy head overcrest

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Overflow Spillway
Effective width of spillway defined below, where
L = effective width of crest
L = net width of crest
N = number of piers
Kp = pier contraction coefficient, p. 368
Ka = abutment contraction coefficient, pp. 368-369

'

L L 2( N K p K a ) H e
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Overflow Spillway
Discharge coefficient C
C = f( P, He/Ho, , downstream
submergence)
Why is C increasing with He/Ho?
He>Ho pcrest<patmospheric C>Co
Designing using Ho=0.75He will increase
C by 4% and reduce crest length by 4%
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Overflow Spillway
Why is C increasing with P?
- P=0, broad crested weir, C=3.087
- P increasing, approach flow velocity
decreases, and flow starts to contract
toward the crest, C increasing
- P increasing still, C attains
asymptotically a maximum

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C vs. P/Ho

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C vs. He/Ho

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C. vs.

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Downstream Apron Effect on C

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Tailwater Effect on C

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Overflow Spillway Example


Ho = 16
P = 5
Design an overflow spillway thats not
impacted by downstream apron
To have no effect from the d/s apron,
(hd+d)/Ho = 1.7 from Figure 9-27
hd+d = 1.716 = 27.2
P/Ho = 5/16 = 0.31
Co = 3.69 from Figure 9-23
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Example (contd)
q = 3.69163/2 = 236 cfs/ft
hd = velocity head on the apron
hd+d = d+(236/d)2/2g = 27.2
d = 6.5 ft
hd = 20.7 ft
Allowing 10% reduction in Co, h d+d/He = 1.2
hd+d = 1.216 = 19.2
Saving in excavation = 27.2 19.2 = 8 ft
Economic considerations for apron elevation!
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Energy Dissipators
Hydraulic Jump type induce a
hydraulic jump at the end of spillway to
dissipate energy
Bureau of Reclamation did extensive
experimental studies to determine
structure size and arrangements
empirical charts and data as design
basis
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Hydraulic Jump energy dissipator


Froude number
Fr = V/(gy)1/2
Fr > 1 supercritical flow
Fr < 1 subcritical flow
Transition from supercritical to
subcritical on a mild slope hydraulic jump
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Hydraulic Jump

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Hydraulic Jump

V2
y1

y2

V1
Lj

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Hydraulic Jump
Jump in horizontal rectangular channel
y2/y1 = ((1+8Fr12)1/2 -1) - see figure
y1/y2 = ((1+8Fr22)1/2 -1)
Loss of energy
E = E1 E2 = (y2 y1)3 / (4y1y2)
Length of jump
Lj 6y2

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Hydraulic Jump
Design guidelines
- Provide a basin to contain the jump
- Stabilize the jump in the basin:
tailwater control
- Minimize the length of the basin
to increase performance of the basin
- Add chute blocks, baffle piers and end
sills to increase energy loss Bureau of
Reclamation types of stilling basin
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Type IV Stilling Basin 2.5<Fr<4.5

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Stilling Basin 2.5<Fr<4.5

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Stilling Basin 2.5<Fr<4.5

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Type IV Stilling Basin


2.5<Fr<4.5
Energy loss in this Froude number range
is less than 50%
To increase energy loss and shorten the
basin length, an alternative design may
be used to drop the basin level and
increase tailwater depth

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Stilling Basin Fr>4.5


When Fr > 4.5, but V < 60 ft/sec, use
Type III basin
Type III chute blocks, baffle blocks
and end sill
Reason for requiring V<60 fps to avoid
cavitation damage to the concrete
surface and limit impact force to the
blocks
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Type III Stilling Basin Fr>4.5

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Type III Stilling Basin Fr>4.5

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Type III Stilling Basin Fr>4.5


Calculate impact force on baffle blocks:
F = 2 A (d1 + hv1)
where F = force in lbs
= unit weight of water in lb/ft3
A = area of upstream face of blocks
in ft2
(d1+hv1) = specific energy of flow
entering the basin in ft.
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Type II Stilling Basin Fr>4.5


When Fr > 4.5 and V > 60 ft/sec, use
Type II stilling basin
Because baffle blocks are not used,
maintain a tailwater depth 5% higher
than required as safety factor to
stabilize the jump

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Type II Stilling Basin Fr>4.5

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Type II Stilling Basin Fr>4.5

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Example
A rectangular concrete channel 20 ft
wide, on a 2.5% slope, is discharging 400
cfs into a stilling basin. The basin, also
20 ft wide, has a water depth of 8 ft
determined from the downstream
channel condition. Design the stilling
basin (determine width and type of
structure).
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Example
1. Use Mannings equation to determine
the normal flow condition in the
upstream channel.
V = 1.486R2/3S1/2/n
Q = 1.486 R2/3S1/2A/n
A = 20y
R = A/P = 20y/(2y+20) = 10y/(y+10)
Q = 400
= 1.486(10y/(y+10))2/3S1/220y/n
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Example
Solve the equation by trial and error
y = 1.11 ft
check
A=22.2 ft2, P=22.2, R=1.0
1.486R2/3S1/2/n = 18.07
V=Q/A = 400/22.2 = 18.02
Fr1 = V/(gy)1/2 = 3.01
a type IV basin may be appropriate,
but first lets check the tailwater level
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Example
2. For a simple hydraulic jump basin,
y2/y1 = ((1+8Fr12)1/2 -1)
Now that y1=1.11, Fr1=3.01 y2 = 4.2 ft
This is the required water depth to cause the
jump to occur.
We have a depth of 8 ft now, much higher
than the required depth. This will push the
jump to the upstream
3. A simple basin with an end sill may work well.
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Example
Length of basin
Use chart on Slide #62, for Fr 1 = 3.0,
L/y2 = 5.25
L = 42 ft.
Height of end sill
Use design on Slide #60,
Height = 1.25Y1 = 1.4 ft
Transition to the tailwater depth or optimization
of basin depth needs to be worked out

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