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Digital Electronics

Electronics Technology
Landon Johnson
Counters

Counter Competencies
29. Given the schematic diagram of a counter circuit, the
student will determine if this counter is synchronous or
asynchronous.
30. Given a schematic of an asynchronous counter,
the student will identify the LSB flip-flop.

31. Given a schematic of a synchronous counter,


the student will identify the LSB flip-flop.
32. Given the schematic of a counter and the value
currently on the counter, the student will determine
the new counter value if an instructor specified
number of pulses are applied to the counter

Counter Competencies
33. Given a modulus number from 16 to 32, the student
will draw a schematic of flip-flops and NAND gates that
will count this modulus starting with zero.
34. Given the schematic diagram of a synchronous
counter circuit, the student will determine the modulus of
the counter.
35. Given the schematic diagram of a synchronous
counter circuit, the student will determine the
counting sequence and list the sequence in
decimal.
36. Given the schematic diagram of a counter and the
clock input frequency, the student will determine the
output frequency of the counter.

COUNTER UNIT

Asynchronous up and down counters


Asynchronous modulus counters
Seven segment displays/ BCD coding
Synchronous Counters
Pre-settable Counters
Ring Counters

COUNTERS CHARACTERISTICS
1. MODULUS- number of counts in one cycle
2. Up or down count
3. Asynchronous or synchronous operation
4. Free running or self stopping

ASYNCHRONOUS COUNTERS
Only LSB flip-flop controlled by the clock input
Also known as a RIPPLE COUNTER
Two or more T flip-flops interconnected, output
of each flip-flop connected to clock input of the next.
Modulus- number of stable states in each flip-flop cycle
Modulus =2

N= number of flip-flops

Highest number in count = 2 N 1

BUILD A 4 BIT RIPPLE


1. 4 JK flip-flops in toggle mode- all JK inputs tied
COUNTER
high

2. Q outputs connected to clock input of following flip-flop


3. FF A = LSB (one with clock input); toggles when input clock
toggles from high to low; FF D = MSB
4. FF B, C, D do not toggle till receive NGT from proceeding FF
5. Direction of count can be reversed by
complementing each FFs output or complementing
each FFs input
D

C
D

B
C

CLK
D

A
B

CLK
K

CLK
K

CLK
K

TEST
1. What is the term for the number of counts in one counter cycle?
Modulus of the counter
2. How is the modulus determined?
2 N N number of flip flops
3. Since only the first flip-flop of a ripple counter is controlled by a clock,
the counter is ____________________?
Asynchronous
4. What is the mod number of a counter containing 5 flip-flops?
32
5. What is the highest count of a four bit counter?
31

PROGRAMMING A RIPPLE COUNTER


Counters may be made to recycle after any desired
count
by using a gate to reset the counter.
CONVERT MOD 8 TO MOD6
C

B
C

CLK
C

CLK
K

INPUT CLK

A
J

CLK

master
reset

3 FLIP FLOPS
2 MOD 8
HIGHEST COUNT 2 1 7
3

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

C
0
0
0
0
1
1
1

B
0
0
1
1
0
0
1

A
0
1
0
1
0
1
0

UNSTABLE
STATE

HOW TO BUILD A COUNTER TO GO


FROM ZERO TO MOD NUMBER X
1. Determine smallest number of FFs such2that

IF 2 X , SKIP STEPS 2 AND 3

2. Connect a NAND gate output to asynchronous clears of all FFs

3. Determine which FFs will be high at count = X


Connect the Q outputs of these FFs to NAND gate inputs

BUILD A COUNTER THAT COUNTS


FROM ZERO TO NINE (X=MOD 10)
1. Determine smallest number of FFs such2that

2 8 and 2 16 thus 4 FFs are required


3

2. Connect a NAND gate to asynchronous clears of all FFs


3. Determine which FFs will be high at count = X
Connect the Q outputs of these FFs to NAND gate inputs
1
1
0
0
D

C
D

B
C

CLK
D

A
B

CLK
K

CLK
K

CLK
K

SELF-STOPPING COUNTER
Counters may be made to stop counting after any
desired count by using a gate to inhibit the clock.
Stop at desired count:

Stop at 1010 1010 2


1

0
D

1
C

CLK
D

0
B

CLK
K

CLK
K

CLK
K

D
C
B
A

PROGRAMMING COUNTERS
USING JK INPUTS
Counters can be controlled using the JK inputs
Low on JK of 1st FF will cause it to stop toggling on any
count
High or low at JK inputs forces counter to skip states

1
D

0
C

CLK
D

0
B

CLK
K

CLK
K

J
CLK

C
D

ASYNCHRONOUS DOWN COUNTER


Direction of count can be reversed
by
(a) complementing each FFs
output or
(b) complementing each FFs input
D

C
CLK

B
CLK

B
C

A
B

CLK

CLK
C

CLK

CLK

A
CLK

CLK
A

COUNTER
1. What is the value of
the last usable state before the
PROBLEM
13
NAND gate resets 1101
the circuitry?
2

10

2. What value does the NAND gate reset the value to?
1000 2 810
3. What is the modulus of this counter?6
4. If count starts at decimal 11 and receives seven clock
pulses, what is the new value 12
on10 the counter?
5. What is the unstable state of the counter?
1110 2 1410
B

0V

S
J
Q
CP
K QN
R

S
J
Q
CP
K QN
R

S
J
Q
CP
K QN
R

S
J
Q
CP
K QN
R

COUNTER
111 7
1. What is the value of
the unstable state, in decimal?
PROBLEM
2

10

0112 310
2. At what value does the NAND gate set the counter to?
3. If QA=1, QB=1, and QC=0, and 5 clock pulses are applied:
QC= 1 QB=

0 QA=

4. What is the modulus of this counter?


4
1
A

+V
0V

S
J
Q
CP
K QN
+V
R

2
B

4
C

+V

+V
S
J
Q
CP
K QN
R

S
J
Q
CP
K QN
R

IC ASYNCHRONOUS COUNTERS
Logic Diagram for 7493
___
CPo

J
Q
CP
K QN
R

J
Q
CP
K QN
R

J
Q
CP
K QN
R

J
Q
CP
K QN
R

___
CP1
MR1

Qo
(LSB)

Q1

Q2

*All J, K inputs internally


connected HIGH

MR2

7493

MR

MR

Q
2

___
CP

___
CP

Q3
(MSB)

7493 AS A MOD-16 COUNTER


Logic Diagram for 7493
___
CPo

J
Q
CP
K QN
R

J
Q
CP
K QN
R

J
Q
CP
K QN
R

J
Q
CP
K QN
R

___
CP1
Qo
(LSB)

MR1

Q1

Q2

*All J, K inputs internally


connected HIGH

MR2

___
CP

7493

MR

MR

Q3
(MSB)

___
CP
Q

F= 10 kHz/16 = 625 Hz

10 kHz
o

TEST
Build a MOD
10 counter
with a
Logic Diagram
for 7493
7493
___
J
Q
J
Q
J
Q
J
Q
CPo

CP
K QN
R

CP
K QN
R

CP
K QN
R

CP
K QN
R

___
CP1
Qo
(LSB)

MR1

Q1

Q2

*All J, K inputs internally


connected HIGH

MR2

___
CP

7493

MR

MR

Q3
(MSB)

___
CP
Q

10 kHz
o

F= 10 kHz/10 = 1KHz

BCD COUNTER
Binary counter that counts from 0000 to 1001 before it recycles
(MOD-10).
Widespread applications where pulses or events are to be
counted and the results displayed on a decimal numerical
read-out.
Also used for dividing a pulse frequency exactly by 10.
Hundreds

Tens

Units

BCD
counter

BCD
counter

BCD
counter

Decoder/display
0-9

Decoder/display
0-9

Input

Decoder/display
0-9

Cascading BCD counters to count and display from 000 to 999.

MOD-60 COUNTER
MOD 6

MOD 10

___
CP

7493

MR

f out = f

___
CP
Q

/60
in

not
used

7493

MR

MR

___
CP

___
CP

f in /10

Two 7493s can be combined to produce a MOD-60


Counter

f in

DIGITAL CLOCK

COUNTERS
ASYNCHRONOUS
J
Q
CP
K QN
R

J
Q
CP
K QN
R

J
Q
CP
K QN
R

S
J
Q
CP
K QN
R

SYNCHRONOUS
D

CP QN
R

CP QN
R

CP QN
R

CP QN
R

SYNCHRONOUS COUNTERS
Two or more FFs connected as T FFs.
All FFs in the counter are clocked at the same time.

Advantage over the ripple counter is speed and accuracy but more comple

5V
+V

5V

J
CP
QN K
R

J
CP
QN K
R

J
CP
QN K
R

J
CP
QN K
R

5V
0V

SYNCHRONOUS COUNTERS
N
MOD <2
A NAND control gate is used to clear the counter before the
full count.
5V
+V

J
CP
QN K
R

J
CP
QN K
R

J
CP
QN K
R

J
CP
QN K
R
0V

SYNCHRONOUS COUNTERS
UP/DOWN
0V

5V
Q

5V

J
CP
QN K
R

J
CP
QN K
R

J
CP
QN K
R

5V

0V

PRESETTABLE COUNTERS
Can be preset to any desired count. To operate:
1. Apply desired count to parallel data inputs P2, P1, P0.
2. Apply a low pulse to the parallel load input PL.
P2

P1

PARALLEL
DAT A INPUT S

Po

5V
+V
Q

J
CP
QN K
R

J
CP
QN K
R

J
CP
QN K
R
5V

CLOCK
PARALLEL
LOAD
__
PL

COUNTER TYPES
Asynchronous Counter (a.k.a. Ripple or Serial Counter):
each FF is triggered one at a time with output of one FF
serving as clock input of next FF in the chain.
Synchronous Counter (a.k.a. Parallel Counter): all the FFs
in the counter are clocked at the same time.
Up Counter: counter counts from zero to a maximum
count.
Down
Counter: counter counts from a maximum count down to zero.
BCD Counter: counter counts from 0000 to 1001 before it recycles.
Pre-settable Counter: counter that can be preset to any
starting count either synchronously or asynchronously
Ring Counter: shift register in which the output of the
last FF is connected back to the input of the first FF.
Johnson Counter: shift register in which the inverted output of
the last FF is connected to the input of the first FF.

74193 COUNTER
MOD-16 PRESETTABLE UP/DOWN COUNTER

RING COUNTER
Shift register counter with feedback from Q of last FF back to first
RING FF
COUNTER
input

5V

D
5V
0V

clk

CP QN
R

CP QN
R

CP QN
R

CP QN
R

JOHNSON COUNTER
Shift register in which the inverted output of the last FF is fed back to
the input of the first FF.

5V

D
0V
0V

clk

CP QN
R

CP QN
R

CP QN
R

CP QN
R

Lab 18.

A PROGRAMMABLE COUNTER
Design a four-bit counter controlled by two control lines X
and Y that behaves according to the truth table.

PROGRAM
SWITCH
X
Y
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1

COUNTER
MODE
NO COUNT
MOD 5
MOD 10
MOD 12

Lab 18.

A PROGRAMMABLE COUNTER
5V

Q1 CP1
Q2 CP2

J
CP
QN K
R

J
CP
QN K
R

J
CP
QN K
R

J
CP
QN K
R

_
XYAC
_
XYBD

XYCD

PROGRAM
SWITCH
X
Y
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1

COUNTER
MODE
NO COUNT
MOD 5
MOD 10
MOD 12

X
Y

RIPPLE COUNTER
Binary Output
Clock Input

00
1
10
10
1

Pulse 8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

PS and
CLR
input
All 16
J-K(8)
flip-flops
This
On
the
4-bit
next
counter
clockhas
pulse
states
all FFs
and
are
in
the
will
will
count
toggle
from
because
binary each
0000 will
through
receive
1111
INACTIVE
TOGGLE
MODE
a H-to-L
and then
pulsereset
one
back
after
to another.
0000.
Watch
Thethe
counter
counthas
ripple
a modulus
thru theof
counter.
16.

RIPPLE COUNTER WITH WAVEFORMS


Binary Output
Clock Input

01
00
10
1

Pulse 5
1
2
3
4

Clock input
FFs triggered on 1s output
H-to-L pulse.
CLK toggles 1s FF.
1s FF toggles 2s FF.
2s output
2s FF toggles 4s FF.
4s output

DECADE COUNTER
Binary Output
Clock Input

111
0
t
nt a
u
o
al c
i
t
i
In

11
0
00
11
0

Pulse 8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Short negative pulse

To clear input
of each FF

All J & K inputs = 1


All PR inputs = 1
To change mod-16 counter to decade counter:
Count is at 1001.
Reset count to 0000 after 1001 (9) count.
Next clock pulse will increment counter for a
When count hits 1010 reset to 0000.
short time to 1010 which will activate the NAND gate
See added 2-input NAND gate that clears all
and reset the counter to 0000.
JK FFs to 0 when count hits 1010.

DOWN COUNTER
11
0
00
1

t
oun
c
l
ia
Init t at
se
111
y
r
bina

4
2
1
Pulse 5
3

Changes from Ripple Up Counter are


wiring from Q outputs (instead of Q outputs)
to the CLK input of the next FF.

SELF-STOPPING DOWN COUNTER

10
0
10
1

unt on
The
tch coremained
Wacount
.
Pulse 8000.
at binary

2
3
4
Pulse 8
1
5
6
7

This is a 3-bit down counter.


The 1s FF is in TOGGLE mode when counting (J & K = 1).
The 1s FF switches to HOLD mode when the J and K inputs are forced LOW by the OR gate
when the count decrements to 000. The count stops at 000.

COUNTER USED FOR FREQUENCY DIVISION

8
50 Hz

16
Clock Input

800 Hz

200 Hz
100 Hz

4
400 Hz
2

USING THE 7493 COUNTER IC


Counters are available in IC form.
Either ripple (7493 IC) or synchronous
(74192 IC) counters are available.
100
? Hz
Hz

400
? Hz
Hz

800
? Hz
Hz

1600 Hz
7493 Counter IC
wired as a 4-bit
binary counter

MAGNITUDE COMPARATOR
A magnitude comparator is a combinational logic device
that compares the value of two binary numbers and
responds with one of three outputs (A=B or A>B or A<B).

A(0)
A(1)
Input
Input
Inputbinary
binary
binary0111
1111
0001

A(2)

74HC85
Magnitude
Comparator

A(3)
B(0)
B(1)
Input
Input
binary
binary
0110
0111
1100

B(2)
B(3)

A>B

HIGH

A=B

HIGH

A<B

HIGH

TROUBLESHOOTING EQUIPMENT

Logic Probe
Logic Pulser
Logic Clip (logic monitor)
Digital IC Tester
DMM/Logic Probe
DMM or VOM
Dual-trace Oscilloscope
Logic Analyzer

SIMPLE TROUBLESHOOTING HINTS


Feel top of IC to determine if it is hot
Look for broken connections, signs of
excessive heat
Smell for overheating
Check power source
Trace path of logic through circuit
Know the normal operation of the circuit