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GSM Protocols

PROTOCOL
Defined rules and procedures used in
communication
To ensure that two communicating entities can
send
receive
interpret

FUNCTIONS OF PROTOCOLS
Session establishment and termination between users.
Orderly exchange of Data messages.
Coding of the information.
Routing and Sequencing
Flow control and Congestion control.
Error checking and recovery.
Efficient network resource utilization

GENERAL CRITERIA FOR DEFINING


THE BOUNDARIES OF LAYERS
Each function must be distinctly identified.
A distinct function must be implemented precisely in
one layer.
Sequentially of functions must be ensured.
Create boundaries where an acceptable
implementation exists.
The implementation details of a function must be
hidden.

GENERAL CRITERIA FOR DEFINING


THE BOUNDARIES OF LAYERS
An upper layer needs services of the next lowers for
communication.
Each entity communicates with adjacent layers entitles.
Communicates with the upper layer to provide services
and with lower layer to receive services.
Interface Control Information (ICI)
ICI is of any significance between the adjacent layers
only

Physical Layer
Lowest layer of the protocol architecture
Represents the functions necessary to transfer bit
stream on the physical medium

Channel coding and decoding


modulation and demodulation
equalization
TDMA access scheme and
radio transmission channel characteristics.
Control functions such as power control
link monitoring
Diversity

Physical Layer
The physical layer interfaces with layer 3, RR through
MPH Primitives (management physical).
These primitive, exchanged with in the RR layer, are
related to functions such as the assignment of channel
and measurement of channel level.
Service Access Points (SAP) of a layer defined as gates
through which services are offered to the adjacent
higher layers.

DATA LINK LAYER


The main purpose of a layer 2 protocols is to provide link
connections to exchange signaling between different entities,
namely, MS, BTS, BSC, MSC, VLR, HLR, and CCIT no.7 Network.
In GSM, three types of layer 2 protocol are used LAPD M (link
access protocol for signaling channel) on the air interface, LAPD
on A-bis interface, and the MTP-2 (message transfer part)
The main function of the layer 2 protocol is establishment and
release of signaling layer 2 connections.
Multiplexing and de multiplexing of several signaling layer 2
connection on a dedicated control channel and discrimination
between them by including different Service Access Point
Identifiers (SAPI).
Detection and recovery of errors due to loss, duplication, and disorder.

APPLICATION LAYER
Layer 3 of the GSM protocol is composed of three sub
layers; RR, MM, and CM.
The RR, together with the data link layer and the
physical layer, provide the means for point-to-point
radio connections on which MM and CM message are
carried.
RR protocol applies to air (Um) interface, while MM and
CC interfaces apply between MS and MSC.

RR LAYER
The management of RR connections deals with means of
establishing, maintaining, modifying and releasing the basic
means of communications on the radio interface and through
the radio subsystem.
The RR layer can be regarded as consisting of three main
protocols.
BSC protocol, allowing the BSC to control MS actions such as channel
allocation, channels release, and handover.
The BTS-BSC protocol, allowing the BSC to control the BTS
The BSC-MSC protocol, allowing the MSC and the BSC to exchange
the necessary data for setting up, controlling and releasing the Ainterface connections.

MM LAYER
The mobility management layer is mainly concerned
with three families of functions: location, registration,
and security.
Another function of the MM-sub-layer is to provide
connection management services to the upper CM layer.
MM common procedure;
MM specific procedure.

CC LAYER
The call control sub-layer includes several protocol entities CC
itself, SS, and SMS. In particular, it covers the following
procedures.
Mobile-originating call establishment;
Mobile terminating call establishment;
Signaling procedure during active state, which includes user
notification, call re-arrangement DTMF protocol procedure, and in
call modification;
Call clearing initiated by the network;
Call clearing initiated by the mobile;
Miscellaneous procedures, including in band tones and
announcement and status enquiry procedures.

BSS APPLICATION PART


The MU and the SCCP are used to support signaling
messages between MSC and BSS.
One user function of the SCCP is the BSSAP, which use
one signaling connection per active MS, which has one or
multiple transaction for the transfer of layer 3 messages.
BSSAP is divided into two functions Direct Transfer
Application Part (DTAP) and BSSMAP.
DTAP protocol is used by BSS to transfer layer 3 messages
between MS and MSC without interpreting the message at BSS.
BSSMAP is the process within BSS (A-bis interface) that controls
RR in response to instructions from MSC; BSSMAP is used in the
assignment and switching of RR at both call setup and handover.

MAP PROTOCOL
The protocol is designed to interact with MSC, VLR /
HLR, AUC, and GMSC so that they can communicate
with each other.
MAP initiates different operations and accepts the return
of results or the return of application specific errors.

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