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Definitions and Meanings

Hull shapes
The hull is the watertight body of a ship. Above the hull is the
superstructure and/or deckhouse, where present. The line where the hull
meets the water surface is called the waterline.
The structure of the hull varies depending on the vessel type. In a
typical modern steel ship, the structure consists of watertight and nontight decks, major transverse and watertight (and also sometimes nontight or longitudinal) members called bulkheads, intermediate members
such as girders, stringers and webs, and minor members called ordinary
transverse frames, frames, or longitudinals, depending on the structural
arrangement. The uppermost continuous deck may be called the "upper
deck", "weather deck", "spar deck", "main deck", or simply "deck". The
particular name given depends on the contextthe type of ship or boat,
the arrangement, or even where it sails.
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Passenger Liner

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General cargo ship

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Definitions

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Definitions and Meanings


After Perpendicular (AP): A perpendicular drawn to
the waterline at the point where the after side of the
rudder post meets the summer load line. Where no
rudder post is fitted it is taken as the center line of the
rudder stock.
Forward Perpendicular (FP): A perpendicular drawn
to the waterline at the point where the fore-side of the
stem meets the summer load line.
Length Between Perpendiculars (LBP): The length
between the forward and aft perpendiculars measured
along the summer load line.
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Definitions and Meanings


Amidships: A point midway between the after and
forward perpendiculars.
Length Overall (LOA): Length of vessel taken over all
extremities.
Lloyds Length: Used for obtaining scantlings if the
vessel is classed with Lloyds Register. It is the same as
length between perpendiculars except that it must not
be less than 96% and need not be more than 97% of the
extreme length on the summer load line. If the ship has
an unusual stem or stern arrangement the length is
given special consideration.
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Definitions and Meanings


Registered Length: The length of ship measured from the fore-side of the
head of the stem to the aft side of the head of the stern post or, in the case
of a ship not having a stern post, to the fore-side of the rudder stock. If the
ship does not have a stern post or a rudder stock, the after terminal is taken
to the aftermost part of the transom or stern of the ship. This length is the
official length in the register of ships maintained by the flag state and
appears on official documents relating to ownership and other matters
concerning the business of the ship.
Another important length measurement is what might be referred to as the
IMO Length. This length is found in various international conventions such
as the Load Line, Tonnage, SOLAS and MARPOL conventions, and
determines the application of requirements of those conventions to a ship. It
is defined as 96% of the total length on a waterline at 85% of the least
moulded depth measured from the top of keel, or the length from the foreside of stem to the axis of rudder stock on that waterline, if that is greater.
In ships designed with a rake of keel the waterline on which this length is
measured is taken parallel to the design waterline.
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Definitions and Meanings


Moulded dimensions are often referred to; these are
taken to the inside of plating on a metal ship.
Base Line: A horizontal line drawn at the top of the keel
plate. All vertical moulded dimensions are measured
relative to this line.
Moulded Beam: Measured at the midship section, this is
the maximum moulded breadth of the ship.
Moulded Draft: Measured from the base line to the
summer load line at the midship section.
Moulded Depth: Measured from the base line to the
heel of the upper deck beam at the ships side amidships.
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Definitions and Meanings


Extreme Beam: The maximum beam taken over all
extremities.
Extreme Draft: Taken from the lowest point of keel to
the summer load line. Draft marks represent extreme
drafts.
Extreme Depth: Depth of vessel at ships side from
upper deck to lowest point of keel.
Half Breadth: Since a ships hull is symmetrical about
the longitudinal centre line, often only the half beam or
half breadth at any section is given.

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Definitions and Meanings


Freeboard: The vertical distance measured at the
ships side between the summer load line (or service
draft) and the freeboard deck. The freeboard deck is
normally the uppermost complete deck exposed to
weather and sea that has permanent means of closing
all openings, and below which all openings in the ships
side have watertight closings.

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Definitions and Meanings


Sheer: A rise in the height of the deck (curvature or in a
straight line) in the longitudinal direction. Measured as the
height of deck at side at any point above the height of deck
at side amidships.
Camber (or Round of Beam): Curvature of decks in the
transverse direction. Measured as the height of deck at
center above the height of deck at side. Straight line
camber is used on many large ships to simplify
construction.
Rise of Floor (or Deadrise): The rise of the bottom shell
plating line above the base line. This rise is measured at the
line of molded beam. Large cargo ships often have no rise of
floor.
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Definitions and Meanings


Half Siding of Keel: The horizontal flat portion of the
bottom shell measured to port or starboard of the ships
longitudinal center line. This is a useful dimension to
know when drydocking.
Tumblehome: The inward curvature of the side shell
above the summer load line. This is unusual on modern
ships.
Flare: The outward curvature of the side shell above
the waterline. It promotes dryness and is therefore
associated with the fore end of ship.

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Definitions and Meanings


Stem Rake: Inclination of the stem line from the
vertical.
Keel Rake: Inclination of the keel line from the
horizontal. Trawlers and tugs often have keels raked aft
to give greater depth aft where the propeller diameter is
proportionately larger in this type of vessel. Small craft
occasionally have forward rake of keel to bring
propellers above the line of keel.
Tween Deck Height: Vertical distance between
adjacent decks measured from the tops of deck beams
at ships side.
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Definitions and Meanings


Parallel Middle Body: The length over which the midship
section remains constant in area and shape.
Entrance: The immersed body of the vessel forward of the
parallel middle body.
Run: The immersed body of the vessel aft of the parallel middle
body.
Tonnage: This is often referred to when the size of the vessel is
discussed, and the gross tonnage is quoted from Lloyds Register.
Tonnage is a measure of the enclosed internal volume of the
vessel (originally computed as 100 cubic feet per ton). Gross
tonnage is a measure of the internal capacity of the ship and net
tonnage is intended to give an idea of the earning or useful
capacity of the ship. Various port dues and other charges may be
assessed on the gross and net tonnages.
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Definitions and Meanings


Displacement is made up of lightweight plus
deadweight. The lightweight is the weight of vessel as
built and ready for sea. Deadweight is the difference
between the lightweight and loaded displacement, i.e. it
is the weight of cargo plus weights of fuel, stores, water
ballast, fresh water, crew and passengers, and baggage.
bilge radius
the radius of the rounded portion of a vessel's shell that
connects the bottom to the sides.

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Definitions and Meanings


1. Ship length is controlled normally by the space
available at the quayside.
2. Ship breadth is controlled by stability or canal
width.
3. Ship depth is controlled by a combination of draft
and freeboard.
4. Ship draft is controlled by the depth of water at the
Ports where the ship will be visiting. Exceptions to this
are the ULCCs and the Supertankers. They off-load
their cargo at single point moorings located at the
approaches to Ports.
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Length and Breadth


From a study of a large number of Merchant ships, it has
been shown that in modern ship design practice, the
parameters L and B can be linked as follows:

Definitions and Meanings


The ratio of length and beam can differ quite darmaticly
depending on the type of vessel. Common values:
Passenger ships : 6-8
Freighters

: 5-7

Tug boats

: 3-5

A larger L/B value is favourable for speed but


unfavaurable for manoeuvrability.

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Definitions and Meanings

Thank You

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