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HEAD RACE TUNNEL THROUGH TBM

AND ITS CHALLENGES


MANAS KANSAL
Asst. Manager (Civil)

TBM
Whats it like?

Just to give an idea of its size

Essential Components of a typical


TBM

Cutter head
Main beam
Conveyor belt
Grippers
Thrusting cylinders
Shield
Gripper shoes
Guidance system

Cutter head

How does it look like?


Main components : cutters, mucking buckets
Types of cutters: gauge , main
Material of cutters
Forces acting on cutters
How does it cut the rock
Changing of cutters

A typical Cutter head


Face cutters
Centre cutters

Mucking buckets

Gauge cutters

Main components
Cutters : most commonly used are disk
shaped cutters
Mucking buckets :are usually provided at
the periphery.

Types of cutters
Based on their positioning on the cutterhead
Centre: excavate bulk of the face
Face : excavate bulk of the face
Gauge : mounted on the periphery ,cuts
final diameter of the tunnel

Cutter Forces
Normal force
Rolling force

Spacing is important..

Three possibilities arise

Spacing most often vary from 70 to 120mm

This is how the muck looks when TBM cuts efficiently

Cutter consumption
a cutter is said to have worn out if
diameter is decreased by 40mm.

Resting in peace!!!

Grippers
Grippers consists of an assembly of
Gripper pads
Thrusting cylinders
Supporting structures.

Gripper pads

Function
Main function of the grippers as the name
suggests is to grip.
How does it grip?
Gripper pads consists of curved shoes
with conical button inserts that are thrust
against the tunnel wall during excavation.

Shield
Serves following basic purposes
Provide temporary support in unstable
ground,
maintaining integrity of bore
protecting the operators and
in conjunction with other sealing devices
to prevent ingress of water.

shield
Three types of shields are there
Front shield : covers the cutter head drive,
main bearing,
Telescopic shield: inner shield, outer
shield
Gripper shield

Front shield
Gripper
shield

Telescopic
shield

Front shield
Protects cutter head support structure
Protects the cutter head drive
Protects the operator

Telescopic shield
It basically has two shields
an outer shield having dia equal to the dia
of the machine, it is welded on to front
shield.
inner shield having smaller dia and is
open in the bottom.
Smaller dia shield slides within larger dia
shields.

Gripper shield
Carries:
Gripper device
Gripper cylinders
Gripper pads.

Types

Open
Single shield
Double shield
Earth pressure balancing machine.

Open TBM
Simplest of TBMs
Has a rotating cutter head mounted on a
main bearing
This main bearing is in turn mounted on a
main beam

Working
As the cutter head turns, hydraulic propel
cylinder push cutters into the rock.
This thrust creates fractures in rock causing
chips to break.
Gripper system pushes on the side walls,
allowing main beam to advance.
Buckets in the cutter head scoop up & deposit
muck on to the conveyor.
Rear legs lowered, grippers & propel cylinders
retracted.

USE: in cases where competent rock is


available, i.e. in unlined tunnels
Advantage : being open it allows easy
access directly behind the cutter head for the
installation of rock support ( rock bolts etc.)
Disadvantage : can not be used in soft
grounds and where there is too much
variation in geology, also in cases of water
inflows.

Single shield TBM


The body of the machine is covered inside
a shield diameter of which is marginally
smaller than the dia of the tunnel.
Machine advances by thrusting against
lining.
Boring and lining is done sequentially.

Single shield Vs Double Shield


Articulated cutter head helps in steering
the machine.
Short shield length enables a small turning
radius
Minimizes exposure to squeezing ground
forces that could trap the machine.

Double shield TBM


It has a rotating cutter head mounted to
the support followed by three shields
A telescopic shield
A gripper shield
Tail shield

operation
During normal operation gripper shoes
push against the tunnel walls to react for
boring forces.
Telescopic shield extends as the machine
advances keeping everything covered.
Simultaneous erection of lining under the
protection of tail shield

Single shield mode


If the ground becomes too weak to react, it
can work in the single shield mode in
which it will advance by thrusting against
the lining.
In this mode lining and boring will be done
sequentially.
Regards less of the operating mode the
operators remain protected by shields.

Earth pressure balance


machine.
These are used where tunneling is to be
done in soft soils containing water
EPBM controls the stability of the tunnel
by monitoring and adjusting the pressure
inside the cutter head chamber.
Sealed system balances the hydrostatic &
active earth pressure in front with the
forward advance and thrust of the TBM.

EPB TBM
Machine with seals which can withstand a
water pressure up to 10 bars are
available.
EPBM erects the segmented lining as it
advances.
During change of cutters earth pressure is
balanced by using compressed air.

Specifications of TBM at TVHPP

Cutterhead Diameter

6550 mm

Nominal Over Cut

210 mm

Max Over Cut

250 mm

Cutterhead Power

2100 kW

Drive Units

6 No x 350 kW

Cutterhead Speed

0-10 rpm

Disc Cutter Diameter

17

Total Number of Discs

42 No

Single cutter discs (Face)

38

Double cutters at Center

Total installed power

3581 KW

Specifications of TBM at TVHPP


Length TBM + Trailer : 235 m
No. of Trailers : 21
Weight of Cutterhead : 101 MT
Weight TBM : 502 MT
Weight Trailers : 508 MT

Excavation cycle
Excavation Cycle activities for 1.5 mtr advance.
1.

For Hard Rock:- ( Excavation with double shield mode)


1. Probe Drilling:- To understand rock strata in advance, probe hole
drilling upto 60 mtr ahead of the face need to be done. No. of probe
drilling holes depend upon type of rock strata.
2. Penetration & segment erection:- Open the gripper cylinders,
start the cutter rotation, set the machine position and start
advance. During advance segment erection may be completed.
3. Advancing the Gripper forward.
4. Pea gravel on top & side and grount- mortar on bottom just
behind the tail skin.
5. Primary contact grouting behind 30 rings.
6. Consolidation grouting behind the machine.
7. Positioning of machine
8. Repeat the cycle

Excavation cycle
2. For Soft Rock ( Excavation with Single shield mode)
1. Probe Drilling:- To understand rock strata in advance,
probe hole drilling up to 60 mtr ahead of the face need
to be done. No. of probe drilling holes depend upon type
of rock strata.
2. Pregrounting if necessary.
3. Penetration :- start the cutter rotation, set the machine
position and start advance with the help of aux. thrust
cylinders against segment face.
4. Segment erection:-. Erection the segment ring.
5. Pea gravel on top & side and grount- mortar on
bottom just behind the tail skin.
6. Contact grouting at least behind 30 rings behind.
7. Consolidation grouting behind the machine.
8. Positioning of machine
9. Repeat the cycle

ACTIVITIES INVOLVED FOR EACH OPERATION CYCLE FOR HRT BY TBM


Probe Drilling

Analysis of
Geology for
further advance
Advance Grouting
if Required

Face Advancement
max. 1.5m Stroke

Segment Erection
if Operation is in
Single Shield
Mode

NEXT FACE ADVANCE IF


PROBE DRILL COVER IS
AVAILABLE OTHERWISE
START OF PROBE DRILL

Segment Erection if
Operation is in Double
Shield Mode

Pea Gravel Filling


between 4th to 5th segment
from Front at top area
from 8o clock to 4o clock

Primary Cement Grouting


between segment 6th to
8th at bottom side from
4o clock to 8o clock

Secondary Cement
grouting From Segment
6th number to Backward
at top side from 8o clock
to 4o clock.

Reasons for Grouting


1.To provide full and tight contact to the surrounding
rock thereby supporting the segmental ring
2.To cement the joints between segments to provide
long term load distribution
3.To heal broken rock in the perimeter of the excavation
4.Tightening of open waterways to stop long term
erosion
5.Improvement of the surrounding rock mass around
the tunnel to withstand external rock loads and
excessive internal water pressure

Stages of Grouting
1.Invert Mortar
2.Pea Gravel
3.Contact or Primary Grouting
4.Consolidation Grouting

Invert Mortar Grouting


Grouting takes place
once the ring is
erected.
With the lining
completed the Invert
Segment is
consolidated with a stiff
cement mortar
I n v e r t M o r t a r I n je c t io n

The mortar is injected


through the 2 No grout
holes in provided in the
segment

Pea Gravel Grouting


After the invert mortar is injected
the remaining annular void is filled
by the injection of pea gravel.
The pea gravel is blown in by
compressed air using an Aliva
type pump
P e a G r a v e l I n je c t io n

The pea gravel can be rounded


or cubic, but must be constant
dimension and thoroughly washed
Injection take place through the 6
No remaining grout holes, two at a
time, moving on when the hole
reaches refusal.

Contact Grouting
The pea gravel affords
instant support to the
segmental ring.
The cement grout is
injected at a later stage,
normally
some
20-70m
back.
C e m e n t G r o u t I n je c t io n
F i ll in g V o id s in
P e a G ra v e l

This is injected through the


same grout holes in the
segments
A cement water mix is
preferable, with a high
water/cement ratio

Tunnel lining
Segmental ring consist
of 4 No hexagonal
segments
3 No normal segments
with one invert segment
Ring width 1500mm
Internal Diameter
5640mm
Segment Thickness
300mm
Reinforcement
approximately 90110kg/cum
Concrete Grade M40

Inside view of TBM Trailers

MAI PUMP FOR INVERT GROUTING

OCMER PUMP FOR PEA GRAVEL

HANY PUMP FOR CONTACT GROUTING

Control Cabin

Segments being taken inside

Segments over segment feeder

Conveyor Belt

Conveyor belt outside portal

Muck Dumping Point

Final product

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