Sie sind auf Seite 1von 52

The Functions of Lubrication

Lubricants reduce wear and friction by


Lubricating all true rolling contacts
elastohydrodynamically
Lubricating sliding contacts between the raceways and
rolling elements
Lubricating sliding contact between the rollers and
guiding elements

SKF Reliability Systems

The Functions of Lubrication

Lubricants also

Protect highly finished surfaces of rolling elements


and rings from corrosion
Help prevent intrusion of foreign matter, (done with
grease pack)
Provide a heat transfer medium

SKF Reliability Systems

The Functions of Lubrication

SKF Reliability Systems

Base Oil Viscosity


VISCOSITY="resistancetoflow"ofafluid

Water: low viscosity


(1cSt at 20C)
SKF Reliability Systems

Honey: high viscosity


(~1200 cSt at 20C)

Lubrication Regimes

Boundary layer lubrication

SKF Reliability Systems

Hydrodynamic lubrication

Elasto-Hydrodynamic Regime

SKF Reliability Systems

How Does Good Lubrication Work?

Just like aqua planing!


Rollers surf on a thin lubricant film
No metal-metal contact
SKF Reliability Systems

How Does Good Lubrication Work?

SKF Reliability Systems

Incredible Performance of a Lubricant

Lubricant film
thickness 1/100th of a
paper sheet
SKF Reliability Systems

Withstanding pressure of 10
cars on a finger nail

Contamination Particles

SKF Reliability Systems

Contamination Particles

SKF Reliability Systems

Minimum Required Lubricant Viscosity

SKF Reliability Systems

Viscosity Minimums

SKF Reliability Systems

Viscosity - Temperature Chart

Viscosity classification numbers are


according to International Standard ISO
3448-1975 for oils having a viscosity
index of 95. Approximate equivalent
SAE viscosity grades are shown in
parentheses.
SKF Reliability Systems

Synthetic ISO VG 32
oil having a viscosity
index of 138.

SAE grades
gear oil

SAE grades
crankcase oil

AGMA grades

ISO VG

Kinematic
viscosities

Viscosity
Equivalents

Viscosities based on 95 VI singlegrade oils.


ISO grades are specified at 40 C.
AGMA grades are specified at 100 F.
SAE 75W, 80W, 85W, and 5 and 10W
Specified at low temperature (below 17
F
= 0 C). Equivalent viscosities for 100 F
And 210 F are shown. SAE 90 to 250
and
20 to 50 specified at 210 F (100 C).

SKFReliabilitySystems

Saybolt
viscosities

Composition of a Lubricant

SKF Reliability Systems

Oil Types
Petroleum Oils
Napthenic
Paraffinic

Synthetic Oils

Diesters
Silicones
Fluorocarbons
Synthetic Hydrocarbons

SKF Reliability Systems

Oil Additives
Anti-Corrosion
Anti-Foam
Anti-Oxidant

EP (Extreme Pressure)

SKF Reliability Systems

AW (Anti-Wear)

Detergent
Dispersant

VI-improvement

Additives
Antifoam
Anticorrosion

VI-improvement

Anti-oxidant

without

SKF Reliability Systems

with

without

with

with, but sheared to


smaller molecules after
long use

Additives
E.P.

Polar

Temperature
Phosphorus
Chlorine
Sulphur

With oil
additive

Solid

Load
SKF Reliability Systems

SolidAdditives

SKF Reliability Systems

Grease Vs. Oil

SKF Reliability Systems

What is Grease?
A grease is 90 % oil held in a thickener (10 %)

Think of the
thickener as a
sponge holding
the oil

It is not: a thick oil


a solid oil (wax)
SKF Reliability Systems

Grease Grades

SKF Reliability Systems

NLGI Consistency Numbers


NLGI
Number

Penetration
[* 0.1 mm]

Appearance

Use

gear boxes
etc.

000
00
0

445 - 475
400 - 430
355 - 385

Very Fluid
Fluid
Semi-Fluid

1
2
3

310 - 340
265 - 295
220 - 250

Very Soft
Soft
Medium Hard

bearings

4
5
6

175 - 205
130 - 160
85 - 115

Hard
Very Hard
Extremely Hard

sealing

SKF Reliability Systems

Incompatibility of Greases

A lithium
grease...

which is mixed
with a sodium grease

gives a softer grease


than the two in isolation.
The grease leaks out and,
moreover, has a lower
maximum operating
temperature.

SKF Reliability Systems

N a soap

Li com pl

C a com pl

Calcium soap

Sodium (Na) soap

Lithium complex

Calcium complex

Sodium complex

Barium complex

Aluminum complex

Clay

Polyurea

SKF Reliability Systems

C la y

Al com pl

Ba com pl

P o ly u re a

C a soap

Lithium soap

N a com pl

Thickners

Li soap

Grease Compatibility Table

+ = Compatible
- = Incompatible
0 = Individual testing
required

Grease Thickeners
Thickener
Sodium soap
Lithium soap
Lithium complex
soap
Calcium soap
Aluminum soap
Sodium complex
soap
Calcium or barium
complex soap

SKF Reliability Systems

Base oil

Temperature
Range, C

Reaction
to Wear

Mineral oil
Mineral oil
Mineral oil

-20 to 100
-20 to 130
-20 to 150

dissolves
resistant up to 90C
resistant

Mineral oil
Mineral oil
Mineral oil

-20 to 50
-20 to 70
-20 to 140

Mineral oil

-20 to 140

highly resistant
resistant
resistant up to
approx. 80C
highly resistant

Grease Thickeners
Thickener

Base oil

Temperature
Range, C

Reaction
to Wear

Bentonite
Aluminum
complex soap
Polyurea
Polyurea
Lithium soap
Lithium soap
Lithium soap

Mineral oil
Mineral oil

-20 to 150
-20 to 150

resistant
resistant

Mineral oil
SHC oil
di-Ester oil
Poly-Ester
Silicone oil

-20 to 150
-40 to 160
-50 to 110
-40 to 160
-40 to 170

resistant
resistant
resistant
resistant
highly resistant

SKF Reliability Systems

Standard Greasing Practice

SKF Reliability Systems

Grease Run-in

SKF Reliability Systems

Lubrication Modes
Greased for life
Sealed bearings
Initial grease selection important

Occasional relubrication /
replenishing
Open bearings
Consult SKF / general catalogue

Continuous relubrication
For highly demanding
applications, or for sealing
purposes
Consult SKF / general catalog
SKF Reliability Systems

Grease Lubrication Interval Chart

SKF Reliability Systems

Grease Relubrication Amount


By adding small quantities of fresh grease at regular
intervals the used grease in the bearing arrangement will
be partially replaced. Suitable quantities to be added can
be obtained from:

GP (oz) = D (in) x B (in)


10
GP = Grease Quantity to be added when Replenishing
D = Bearing Outside Diameter
B = Bearing Width
SKF Reliability Systems

Grease Replenishment
RelubricationintervalsfromSKFChartsarebased
onL01
99% of bearings will still be reliably lubricated
L10 Grease lives are approximately twice the L01
Grease life

SKF Reliability Systems

Grease Replenishment
IftheGreaserelubricationintervalislessthan
sixmonths,topoffathalftherecommended
interval
ForGreaserelubricationintervalsoversix
months,completelyremoveandreplaceold
greasewithfreshgrease
Greasechartsdonotapplyincontaminated
environments

SKF Reliability Systems

Grease Paths

SKF Reliability Systems

Grease Escape

SKF Reliability Systems

Greasing Bearings on Vertical Shafts

SKF Reliability Systems

SKF System 24 Automatic Lubricator

SKF Reliability Systems

Static Oil Lubrication

SKF Reliability Systems

Oil Lifting Ring and Flinger

SKF Reliability Systems

Circulating Oil

SKF Reliability Systems

Oil Lubrication Schemes

SKF Reliability Systems

Air-Oil Delivery System


Metered Oil Supply (cc/Hour)

Oil Film

Compressed
Air

SKF Reliability Systems

Air/Oil
Stream

Life of an Oil

SKF Reliability Systems

Cleanliness Control Oil Lubrication


Water Extraction
Water is extremely detrimental to bearings:
One teaspoon or water in on gallon of oil reduces the oil
viscosity approximately 50%
This is just over 0.1% water content, or 1000 ppm

Aim for 200 ppm (0.02%) water content in filtered,


circulating systems

SKF Reliability Systems

Cleanliness Oil Filtration


Filters use a Beta rating to define their
effectiveness:
Bx = n1 / n2
n1 = No. of particles per volume unit larger than
x microns upstream from the filter
n2 = No. of particles per volume unit larger than
x microns downstream from the filter

B6 = 75 means only 1 in 75 particles greater than


6 microns will pass the filter
SKF Reliability Systems

Cleanliness Classifications
Two Cleanliness Classification systems are in use:
NAS 1638
ISO 4406

These systems rank the oil cleanliness by the


number of particles of certain sizes present in the
oil. Tables are available from SKF.
SKF recommends ISO 4406 Class 15/12 or NAS
Class 6 for circulating oil systems.
SKF Reliability Systems

Flushing New Circulating Oil Systems


Bearings can be damaged in the first few minutes
of operation by hard contaminants in the system
Flushing should be accomplished before the first
startup of the machine
Recommend using a low viscosity oil and
maximum flow rates to achieve the highest
turbulence in the system
Lower flow rates should not dislodge contaminants
during normal operation

SKF Reliability Systems

Oil Sampling
Regular sampling gives best results
Samples from Pressurized Piping is preferred
On-line Particle Counters are also available

Oil Condition: Check the following:

Viscosity
Oxidation
Particle Distribution by size
Particle type and shape (by microscope)
Water Content
Loss of Additive Content

SKF Reliability Systems

Standstill Precautions
Free Water in the Oil or Grease is the greatest
danger
Avoid High-Pressure Cleaning
Explore New Seals and Sealing Methods
New Labryinth-type seals are available

Purge or Replace contaminated Lubricant with


Fresh and Clean Lubricant
In Circulating Oil Systems, remove Free Water
before shutdown with extractors

SKF Reliability Systems