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MOUNT ZION COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

AE6601 FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

6TH SEM AERO
N.NANDHINI ,AP/AERO
MZCET

UNIT 1 INTRODUTION
1.1. Review of various approximate methods
1.2. Variational approach and weighted residual
approach
1.3. Application to structural mechanics problems
1.4. Finite difference methods
1.5. Governing equation and convergence criteria of
finite element method.

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INTRODUCTION

types approaches, includes

Experimental analysis
Analytical analysis
Numerical methods or approximate
methods
- Finite Element Method
(FEM)
- Finite Difference
Method(FDM)

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Finite Element Method

Numerical approximate method
Solving problems of engineering and

mathematical physics
Classification:
Based on Applications
1. Structural problems
(stress and strain calculated)
2. Non structural problems
(heat flow, fluid flow, etc.,
calculated)
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FEM Can handle

irregular geometries in
a convenient manner
conditions without
difficulty
Non-homogenous
materials can be
handled easily
Higher order elements
may be implemented
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It require a Digital computer and fairly

extensive
It requires longer execution time
Output result will vary considerably

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Applications

Structural problems

Stress analysis : frame and truss

Buckling analysis : connecting rod

subjected to axial compression

Vibration analysis : beam

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state thermal analysis on

composite cylinder
Fluid flow analysis : fluid flow

through pipes

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Weighted Residual Methods

Powerful approximate procedure
Very useful to non-structural problems
4 types are important
Point collacation method
Subdomain collacation method
Least squares method
Galerkins method

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Weighted Residual Methods

Point

collacation method:
Residuals are set to zero at n different locations, and
the weighting function ( x- ).
( x- ) R (x; a1,a2,a3.an) dx = 0
Subdomain collocation method:
w1 =
Least square method:
dx = minimum
Galerkins method:
wi = Ni(x)
Ni (x) dx = 0 I = 1,2,3,..,n.
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Problem 1:

The following differential equation is available for a

physical phenomenon.
+ 50 = 0, 0 x 10
trial function is, y = x (10 x)
Boundary conditions are , y(0) = 0
y(10) = 0
find the value of the parameter a1 by the following
methods:

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In point collocation methods residuals are set to zero,

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Problem 2
The following differential equation is available for a physical
phenomenon.
- 10 = 5, 0 x 1
the boundary conditions are , y(0) = 0
y(1) = 0
By using Galerkins method of weighted residuals to find an
approximate solution of the above differential equation and also
compare with exact solution.

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In Galerkins method,

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Variational approach (Rayleigh Ritz

method)

It
is useful for solving complex structural problems
This is only possible if a suitable functional is
available
Otherwise Galerkins method of weight residual is
used
Total potential energy of the system is given by
= = Strain energy - work done by external
forces

=U-H
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Problem 1
A simply supported beam subjected to uniformly distributed load over
entire span. Determine the bending moment and deflection at mid span
by using Rayleigh Ritz method and compare with exact solutions.

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Problem 2
A bar of uniform cross section is clamped at one end and left free at the
other end and it is subjected to a uniform axial load P. Calculate the
displacement and stress in a bar by using two terms polynomial and
three terms polynomial. Compare with exact solutions.

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Potential energy of the bar

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Structural mechanics
applications
Elasticity equations are used for solving

structural mechanics problems

Four basic steps of elasticity equations
Strain-displacement relationship equations
Stress-strain relationship equations
Equilibrium equations
Compatibility equations

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Strain displacement relationship

equations

For 2D element,
strain displacement equations are

=
shear strain,

For 3D element,

=
=

;
; =

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Stress strain relationship

equations

1

1

x
y

E
z
0

xy (1 )(1 2 )
0
yz

zx

0
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0
0

0
0
0

0
0
1 2
2

0
0

0
0
0

0
0

1 2
2
0

1 2
2
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Equilibrium equations

For 2d element:

For 3d element:

++

= 0

++ =0
++ = 0

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Compatibility equations

There are six independent compatibility

equations, one o which is

Other five equations are similarly second

order relations.

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1.4. FINITE DIFFERENCE METHOD

It is a numerical method for solving

differential equations.
It is useful for heat transfer fluid mechanics

and structural mechanics problems.

It is a general method
It is applicable to the differential equation

along with the boundary conditions.

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STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE

The finite element method is the

representation of a body or a structure

by an assemblage of sub-divisions
called as finite elements. These
elements are interconnected at joints
which are called nodes or nodal points.
Simple functions are chosen to
approximate the distribution of actual
displacements over each finite element.
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STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE

Such assumed functions are called

displacement functions or displacement

models. The unknown magnitude
of the displacement functions are the
displacements at the nodal points. Hence
the final solutions will yield the
approximate displacements at discrete
locations in the body at the nodal points. A
displacement model can be
expressed in various forms, such as
polynomials and trigonometric functions .
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STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE

The given footing is divided into an

equivalent system of finite elements, by

a process known as Discritization.
The equivalent system may consist of
tetrahedron or hexahedron based on
whether the problem is solved as in 2-D
or 3-D plane.

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STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE

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Selection of the displacement

models
It is generally not possible to select a

displacement function that can represent

exactly the actual variation of
displacement in the element. Hence, the
basic approximation of the finite element
method is introduced at
this stage. There are three interrelated
factors, which influence the selection of a
displacement model.
The type and degree of displacement model
must be chosen
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Selection of the displacement

models
The particular displacement magnitude

that describes the model must be selected.

These are usually the
displacement at nodal points, but they may
also include the derivation of the
displacement at some or all of
the nodal points.
The displacement model must specify
certain requirements, which ensure that the
numerical result approach
the correct solution.
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Selection of the displacement

models

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Selection of the displacement

models
The particular displacement magnitude

that describes the model must be selected.

These are usually the
displacement at nodal points, but they may
also include the derivation of the
displacement at some or all of
the nodal points.
The displacement model must specify
certain requirements, which ensure that the
numerical result approach
the correct solution.
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Selection of the displacement

models

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Derivation of the element

stiffens matrix
The stiffness matrix consists of the co-

efficient of the equilibrium equations

derived from the material and
properties of an element and obtained
by the use of minimum potential energy.
The stiffness relates the
displacements at the nodal points (the
nodal forces) to the applied forces at the
nodal points. The distributed
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Derivation of the element

stiffens matrix.
The distributed forces applied to the structure

are converted into equivalent concentrated

forces at nodes. The equilibrium
relates the stiffness matrix [K], nodal force

vector [F], and the nodal displacement vector

[d] is expressed as a set of simultaneous lin
ear algebraic equations.

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Derivation of the element

stiffens matrix.

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Assembling
This process includes the assemblage of

the overall or global stiffness matrix for

the entire body from the
individual element stiffness matrices
and the overall or global forces or load
victor from the element nodal
vectors. The most common assemblage
technique used is called as the direct
stiffness matrix [K].
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Assembling

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Solution for the unknown

displacement
The algebraic equations obtained in the

above step are solved for the unknown

displacements. In linear
equilibrium equations, this is a
straightforward application of matrix algebra
techniques. However, for
nonlinear problems the desired solutions are
obtained by sequence of steps, each step
involving the
modification of the stiffness matrix and/ or
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Computations of the element stresses

and strains at the nodal points
In some cases the magnitude of the

primary unknowns, that is the nodal

displacements, will be all that is
required for an engineering solution.
More often, however, the other
quantities derived from the primary
unknown like stresses, strains must be
computed.

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