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History of the USA

Mureed Hussein Jasra


40th CTP (OMG)

Syllabus
From ancient times to 1492
Discovery
Advent of the Europeans to British supremacy (1492-1606) or

Period of Colonization
USA as a British Colony (1606-1783)
War of Independence
Declaration
Founding Fathers
Constitution Making and its salient Features
US Presidential Election
The US Congress: Role and Functions
Separation of Powers: Check and Balances

Syllabus
Important

Wars

1. Independence (1775-83)/Revolutionary
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

War
War of 1812
American Civil War (1861-65)
WWI & WWII
Cold War
Korean War
Vietnam War
War on Terror

Syllabus

Important Presidents
1. George Washington
2. John Adams
3. Thomas Jefferson
4. Andrew Jackson
5. Abraham Lincoln
6. Woodrow Wilson
7. Franklin D. Roosevelt(Progressive Era: Reforms of Theodore

Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson)


8. Harry S. Truman
9. Eisenhower
10. John F. Kennedy
11. Richard Nixon
12. Bush Jr.

Syllabus (Events)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

The Great Depression


Uni-Polar World (New World Order)
Cuban Missile Crisis
U-2 Incident
Watergate Scandal
Afghanistan, Iraq
Missouri Compromise
Miscellaneous Scandals
Marshal Plan
United States role in International Conflicts
Industrialization and its emergence as one of the world
powers (1870 -1916)
American Role in patronizing UNO and International
Organizations 1945 2012
United States role in International Conflicts

Syllabus (Issues)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Slavery ( Civil Rights Movement )


Women
Muslims in USA
Hegemonic Designs
Blacks Movement
Pak-US
Constitution
Monroe Doctrine
Foreign Policy

American Continents

Brief Introduction of North


American
16.3%
3rd
4th

of the earths surface


largest continent
largest in population

Physical Geography of South


America
South America is the
worlds fourth largest
country.
Part of this landmass lies
north of the equator.
South America lies just
below the continent of
North America. Today,
geography of South
America made patterns of
early settlement that
continue to influence
countries, cities, cultures,
and trade.

Migration to the Americas


Archaeologists

have unearthed remains


pointing to the arrival of humans in America at
about 35,000 B.C.E.
Scientists generally agree that the first
inhabitants of the Americas were nomadic
travelers from Asia.
These peoples traversed an ancient land bridge
which connected northeast Asia with Alaska.
These early groups that settled in America are
known as Hohokam, Adenans, Hopewellians
and Anasazi.

Culture
Diversified

Culture (2000 Tribes)


Tribal in Nature
Nomadic life
Agriculture Society (Farming,
Hunting and Fishing)
Nature; the Supreme Authority

Discovery
Advent of the Europeans to British
supremacy
(1492-1606)
Discovery
Discovery
Adven
Or Period
of Colonization
Advent
of the Europeans
to British supremacy (1492-1606) or Period
of Colonization t of the Europeans to British supremacy (1492-1606)
or Period of Colonization

World in 1492

Europe in 1492

Geographical Division
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Northwest Coast
California
The Plateau
The Great Basin
The Southwest
The plains
The Northeast
The Southeast

Geographical Division

Northwest Coast
The Native Americans of the Northwest had no
need to farm. The land was full of animals; the
sea was full of fish. Most of the villages were
located near the Ocean. Wood was plentiful, and
the natives of the areas used the woods to build
large homes.
California
California's natives were blessed with mild
weather. Over 100 Native American groups lived
there. Those that lived by the sea were able to
live off fishing and native plant life. Those that
lived inland like the Pomo hunted small game.

The

Plateau
The Plateau Native Americans lived in the area between
Cascade Mountains and the Rocky Mountains. The area had
many large Rivers and was the main source of food and
travel. The area was cold in the winter and to protect them
the Natives build homes that were partly underground,
Approximately 20 groups lived in this area.
The Great Basin
The Great Basins is located in what includes all of Nevada
and Utah, most of western Colorado. It was the home of the
Shoshone, Paiute and Utes Indians. It was a land that was
hot and dry. Those that lived there were called diggers
since they were forced to dig for most of their food.

The

Southwest
The Natives of the Southwest were divided into two groups
some were hunter gathers and some were farmers. The
Pueblos were the best known of the natives of the area.
They were skilled farmers and grew a many crops. The
Pueblos used irrigations canals to bring water for their
farming. The Apache and Navajo entered the southwest
around 1500 and were hunter-gatherers.
The Plains
The Plains stretch from the Mississippi River to the Rocky
Mountains. The areas had large herds of Buffalo and
antelope, which provided abundant food. The Native
Americans of the plains included the Sioux, Pawnee, Crow
Cheyenne and Comanche.

Northeast

The Native Americans of the Northeast lived in an area


rich in rivers and forests. Some groups were constantly on
the move while others built permanent homes. The two
main cultures of the Northeast were the Iroquois and
Algonquin. For many years the Native Americans of the
northeast were at war with each other.
The Southeast.
The Southeast was the most populated of all the
regions of North America. It was home to the Cherokee,
Creek Choctaw, Seminole, and Natchez. Many of the
natives of the southeast hunted buffalo deer and other
animals. The majority of the Native Americans of the
Southeast were famers.

Process of Discovery and


Colonization
The

first Europeans to arrive in North America, at


least the first for whom there is solid evidence were
Norse.
They traveled west from Greenland, where Erik the
Red had founded a settlement around the year 985. It
would be almost 500 more years before other
Europeans reached North America and another 100
years after that before permanent settlements were
established
The first explorers were searching for a sea passage
to Asia. Others chiefly British, Dutch, French, and
Spanish came later to claim the lands and riches of
what they called the New World.

Christopher Columbus

Until the 15th century nobody knew that there was a continent
across the Atlantic
The first and most famous of these explorers was
Christopher Columbus whose voyage of exploration finally brought
the Americans and Europeans in contact
Columbus was born in 1451 in Italy
He convinced King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain to
finance him.
1st voyage, 1492: San Salvador, The Bahamas, Cuba, Hispaniola
2nd voyage, 1493: Dominica, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Cuba,
Jamaica
3rd voyage, 1498: St. Vincent, Grenada, Trinidad, Margarita,
Venezuela
4th voyage, 1502: St. Lucia, , Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica,
Panama

Discovery of USA

After

the death of Columbus in 1506,


Amerigo Vespucci, another Italian
navigator, sailed extensively along
the American coast and is
considered to be the first to realize
that the Indies were in fact a New
World and not part of Asia and Pedro
lvares Cabralreached Brazil and
both established claim for Portugal

England
Before

Europeans there were four civilizations


living in America and they were; Red
Indians, Mayas,Aztecs and Incas
John Cabot of Venice came five years later on
a mission for the king of England. His journey
was quickly forgotten, but it provided the
basis for British claims to North America.
Name of America in Beginning
New World
Strange Land
Golden Land

Permanent Settlement
The

first permanent European settlement in what was to


become the United States was established by the Spanish
in the middle 1500s at St. Augustine in Florida.
Spain claims all lands west of an imaginary line through
the Atlantic. Portugal was not satisfied. Through the Treaty
of Tordesillas (1494), the two countries agreed to move
the line further west and give Portugal exclusive right to
the territory to the east. Although the result of the shift
was unknown at the time, the change put the eastern
quarter of South America (Brazil) in the Portuguese sphere.
That story took place in settlements farther north along
the Atlantic coast in Virginia, Massachusetts, New York and
the 10 other areas colonized by a growing tide of
immigrants from Europe.

Settlement of Different
Colonies

Settlement by England
Colony Name

Year Founded

Founded By

Became Royal
Colony

1.Virginia (James
town)
2.Massachusetts

1607

London Company

1624

1620 - Plymouth
Colony

Puritans

1691

3.New Hampshire

1630Massachusetts Bay
Colony
1623
John Wheelwright 1679

4.Maryland

1634

Lord Baltimore

N/A

5.Connecticut

1635

Thomas Hooker

N/A

6.Rhode Island

1636

Roger Williams

N/A

7.Delaware

1638

Peter Minuit and


New Sweden
Company

N/A

8.North Carolina

1653

Virginians

1729

9.South Carolina

1663

Eight Nobles with a 1729


Royal Charter from
Charles II

10New Jersey

1664

Lord Berkeley and 1702


Sir George Carteret

11.New York

1664

Duke of York

1685

12.Pennsylvania

1682

William Penn

N/A

13.Georgia

1732

James Edward
Oglethorpe

1752

The Colonies
Each colony was unique in its characteristics.
However, they are grouped together based on
location, reasons they were founded, and what
types of industries they had.
New England
Colonies
Rhode Island
Connecticut
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
Middle
Colonies
Delaware
Pennsylvania
New York
New Jersey
Southern
Colonies
Maryland
Virginia
North Carolina
South Carolina
Georgia

Causes of Colonization
1. Improvement in Technology
In Europe, there occurred a rebirth of classical learning.
Columbus and other navigators lived in the time when the
creativity was vitally at the peak and navigator and mariners
were being financed to find out the shortest and safest routes to
Asia. Europeans were proving in technology from gun powder to
the sailing compass. There were also major improvements in
ship building and map makings.
2. Renaissance in Europe
1400 AD onwards is considered that to be the rising time of
European after the Dark Age which was 200 to 1200 AD. The
Europeans now were making progress in every field of life and
were keenly involve in learning and exploring. The technology of
printing press after 1450 also spread the knowledge across
Europe which played a very important role in educating the
common man in Europe

3. Religious Conflicts in Europe


The later years of renaissance were a time of religious
zeal and conflict in Europe. The dominant Roman Catholic
culture was threatened by Othman empire while the
Protestants revolted against the popes authorities in Rome
led to a series of war between Protestants and Catholic
Christians. The reforms by Protestants were known as
Protestants Reformation.
4. Expanding Trade
Roots to Asia were blocked after Othman had taken over
the city of Constantinople in 1453. Europe were dependant
on Asian for trade, herbs and agriculture therefore they
were in extensive need to find any other route to Asia

5. Search for New Routes


To maintain the trade relation with Asia Europeans wanted to
find out the shortest possible root which can again connect
them to the sub-continent. They started financing navigators
for exploration of new sea routes, which ultimately led them to
the discovery of America. Although in 1448 Vasco De Gama
was the 1st person to reach India by the route of Africa.
6. Pressure of population
15million Peoples were living in Europe before America
7. Trade and Agriculture
Since Europe is not an agrarian continent therefore it heavily
depended on the agriculture of Asia to fulfill the demands for
their huge population. But the discovery of America gives them
a land where they were able to cultivate the crops themselves
with ideal weather and big rivers i.e. Mississippi and Missouri.

8. Desire for wealth


By the time America was discovered it was known as a Golden
Land. The normal perception was as if there is a lot of gold in
America which can be easily excavated. This was another
important factor leading toward the colonization of the New Land.
9. Imperial Race
The Imperial powers of Europe were in race of having more and
more land of America. As in older days the country with most
colonies and vast majority of land was considered to be a super
power. Which today is been replaced by economy and technology.
10. Royal Proclamation
Treaty of Westphalia was signed in 1648, between Spain and Dutch
Republic by which each state would have the right to determine
the religion of his own state and also colonial claims were
adjusted.