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DC

MACHINES

Maxwells Cork screw


Rule :

Maxwells Cork screw


Rule
:
Hold the cork screw in yr
right hand and rotate it in
clockwise in such a way
that it advances in the
direction of current. Then
the direction in which the
hand rotates will be the
direction of magnetic lines
of force .

Flemings left hand


rule

Flemings left hand


rule
Used to determine the direction of force
acting on a current carrying conductor
placed in a magnetic field .
The middle finger , the fore finger and
thumb of the left hand are kept at right
angles to one another .
The middle finger represent the direction
of current
The fore finger represent the direction of
magnetic field
The thumb will indicate the direction of
force acting on the conductor .

This rule is used in motors.

Flemings Right hand


rule

Flemings Right hand


Used to determine the direction of emf
rule

induced in a conductor
The middle finger , the fore finger and thumb
of
the left hand are kept at right angles to
one another.
The fore finger represent the direction of
magnetic field
The thumb represent the direction of motion
of the conductor
The middle finger will indicate the direction of
the inducted emf .
This rule is used in DC Generators

Lens Law
The direction of induced emf is
given by Lenzs law .
According to this law, the induced
emf will be acting in such a way so
as to oppose the very cause of
production of it .

e = -N (d/dt) volts

DC Generator
Mechanical energy is converted to
electrical energy
Three requirements are essential
1. Conductors
2. Magnetic field
3. Mechanical energy

Working principle
A generator works on the principles of
Faradays law of electromagnetic
induction
Whenever a conductor is moved in
the magnetic field , an emf is induced
and the magnitude of the induced emf
is directly proportional to the rate of
change of flux linkage.
This emf causes a current flow if the
conductor circuit is closed .

DC Machine

Commutato
r

Sectional view of a DC
machine

Construction of DC
Generator
Field
system
Armature core
Armature
winding
Commutator
Brushes

Field
winding

Rotor and rotor


winding

Working principle of DC
motor

Working principle of DC
motor

Force in DC
motor

Armature winding
There are 2 types of
winding
Lapwinding
and Wave winding
Lap
Wave winding
A=P
The armature
windings are
divided
into
no.
of sections
equal to the no
of poles

A=2
It

is used in low
current
output
and high voltage.
2 brushes

Field system
It is for uniform magnetic field
within which the armature
rotates.
Electromagnets are preferred in
comparison with permanent
magnets
They are cheap , smaller in size ,
produce greater magnetic effect
and Field strength can be varied

Field system consists of


the following parts
Yoke
Pole cores
Pole shoes
Field coils

Armature core
The armature core is cylindrical
High permeability silicon steel
stampings
Impregnated
Lamination is to reduce the eddy
current loss

Commutator
Connect with external circuit
Converts ac into unidirectional current
Cylindrical in shape
Made of wedge shaped copper segments
Segments are insulated from each other
Each commutator segment is connected
to armature conductors by means of a cu
strip called riser.
No of segments equal to no of coils

Carbon brush
Carbon brushes are used in DC
machines because they are soft
materials
It does not generate spikes when they
contact commutator
To deliver the current thro armature
Carbon is used for brushes because it
has negative temperature coefficient of
resistance
Self lubricating , takes its shape ,
improving area of contact

Brush rock and holder

Carbon brush
Brush leads (pig tails)
Brush rocker ( brush gear )
Front end cover
Rear end cover
Cooling fan
Bearing
Terminal box

Principle of Operation
The operation of a synchronous generator is based on Faraday's law of
electromagnetic induction, and in an ac synchronous generator the
generation of emf's is by relative motion of conductors and magnetic flux.
These machines can be used as either motors or generators but their
predominant use is in generation.
There are a number of sources of energy used to turn the turbines:(a) Gas
(b) Steam
(c) Combined cycle
(d) Nuclear
(e) Hydro
(f) Wind
(g) Wave
(h) Photovoltaic

Principle of Operation

Multiple
Pole
Rotor

Principle of Operation
In
constructing
a
synchronous
machine
a
point to note is that the
stator is fixed and the poles
rotate.
2-pole Cylindrical Rotor

There are two categories of


Synchronous machines:
(a) those with salient or projecting
poles
(b) those
with cylindrical
rotors
A Cylindrical
Rotor

Principle of Operation

4-Pole Salient Rotor

A Salient Pole Rotor

Principle of Operation
Its characteristic feature is that the
armature rotates through a stationary
magnetic field, and the generated AC
is brought to the load by means of slip
rings and brushes.
The revolving-armature alternator is
found only in alternators of small
power rating and is not generally used.
This is because a rotating armature
requires slip rings and brushes to
conduct the current from the armature
to the load.

Principle of Operation
The revolving-field type alternator
has a stationary armature and a
rotating magnetic field.

The generated voltage can be


connected directly to the load
without having to pass across the
slip rings and brushes.

The voltage applied to generate the


rotating field is a small DC voltage
(called a field excitation voltage)

Single Phase Alternator


A single-phase alternator has all
the
armature
conductors
connected in series
The stator is two pole. The
winding is wound in two distinct
pole groups, both poles being
wound in the same direction
around the stator frame.
The rotor also consists of two pole
groups, adjacent poles being of
opposite polarity.

Single Phase Alternator


The two poles of the stator
winding are connected to each
other so that the AC voltages
are in phase, so they add.

As the rotor (field) turns, its poles will induce AC voltages in the
stator (armature) windings. Since one rotor pole is in the same
position relative to a stator pole as any other rotor pole, both the
stator poles are cut by equal amounts of magnetic lines of force at
any time. As a result, the voltages induced in the two poles of the
stator winding have the same amplitude or value at any given
instant.

Three Phase Alternator


The three-phase alternator has
three single-phase windings spaced
so that the voltage induced in any
one is phase-displaced by 120
degrees from the other two.

120

V
O
L
T
A
G
E

120

120

The
voltage
waveforms
generated across each phase
are drawn on a graph phasedisplaced 120 degrees from
each other.

Three Phase Alternator


The three phases are independent of each other.
One point from each winding can be connected to form a neutral and
thus make a wye connection.
The voltage from this point to any one of the line leads will be the phase
voltage. The line voltage across any two line leads is the vector sum of
the individual phase voltages. The line voltage is 1.73, (3 ), times the
phase voltage.
Since the windings form only one path for current flow between phases,
the line and phase currents are equal.

Three Phase Alternator


A three-phase stator can also be connected so that the phases form a
delta connection.

In the delta connection the line voltages are equal to the phase
voltages, but the line currents will be equal to the vector sum of the
phase currents.
Since the phases are 120 degrees out of phase, the line current will be
1.73, (3 ), times the phase current. Both "wye" and the "delta"
connections are used in alternators.

Three Phase Stator


Connection

A
B

T h re e P h a s e S T A R
C o n n e c te d

T h re e P h a s e
D E L T A C o n n e c te d

Three Phase Alternator


The frequency of the AC generated by an alternator depends upon the
number of poles and the speed of the rotor
When a rotor has rotated through an angle so that two adjacent rotor
poles (a north and a south) have passed one winding, the voltage
induced in that one winding will have varied through a complete cycle
of 360 electrical degrees.

A two pole machine must rotate at twice the speed of a four-pole


machine to generate the same frequency.
The magnitude of the voltage generated by an alternator can be
varied by adjusting the current on the rotor which changes the
strength of the magnetic field.

Three Phase Alternator


A two pole alternator produces one electrical cycle for
each complete mechanical rotation.
A four pole alternator will produce two electrical
cycles for each mechanical rotation because two north
and two south poles move by each winding on the
stator for one complete revolution of the rotor.
f = (nRotor)(p/2)/60 = (nRotorp)/120
where
nRotor is the speed of the rotor in revolutions
per minute,
p is the number of poles
is the
electrical
line
frequency
produced
by the
The fspeed
of the
rotor must be
divided
by 60 to change
from revolutions
per minute to revolutions per second.
alternator.

Three Phase Alternator

Three Phase Alternator


In an alternator the output voltage varies with the load.
There are two voltage drops.{ IR & IXL }
The IXL drop is due to the inductive reactance of the armature windings.

Both the IR drop and the IXL drop decrease the output voltage as the
load increases.
The change in voltage from no-load to full-load is called the voltage
regulation of an alternator.
A constant voltage output from an alternator is maintained by varying
the field strength as required by changes in load.

OPEN CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTICS

DC
S o u rc e

Field Regulator

ZZ
FL
F
Z
L

Zs
Zs

E
a

a .c .

A rm a tu re
C ir c u it
Zs

F ie ld C u r r e n t

To obtain the open circuit characteristics the machine is driven at rated


speed without the load. Readings of the line-to-line voltage are taken for
various values of field current. The voltage, except in very low voltage
machines, is stepped down by the means of a potential transformer.

Arm ature Phase


Voltage/V

OPEN CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTICS

F ie ld C u r r e n t /A

If not for the magnetic saturation of the


iron, the open circuit characteristics
would be linear as represented by the air
gap line

OPEN CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTICS


On open circuit IL = Ia = 0
Vt = E - ILZs

where Zs = Ra + jXs

and Xs = XL + Xar
On open circuit Vt = E
Alternating current produces a flux which is proportional to I L (reduces the
total flux).

This is called the armature reactance effect represented by Xar
On open circuit Xar = 0.

SHORT CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTICS

S o u rc e

ZZ
FL
F
Z
L

Z
Z

A rm a tu re
C ir c u it

E
a

F ie ld C u r r e n t

The three terminals of the armature are short circuited


The machine is driven at approximately synchronous rated speed and
measurements of armature short circuit currents are made for various
values of field currents usually up to and above rated armature current.

short circuit

DC

Field Regulator

a .c .

Short Circuit Current(I

s.c ) /A

SHORT CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTICS


On short-circuit the machine runs at
it synchronous speed (n = ns)
and IL = IFL

For s/c Vt = 0,
Therefore E / IL = Zs
and Isc = IL = E / Zs

F ie ld C u r r e n t ( I f) /A

In conventional synchronous machines the short circuit characteristics is


practically linear because the iron is unsaturated up to rated armature
current

LOAD CONDITIONS
A

DC
S o u rc e

Field Regulator

ZZ
FL
F
Z
L

Zs
Zs

a .c .

E
a

a .c .

Load
B ank

Zs
A rm a tu re
C ir c u it

F ie ld C u r r e n t

The machine is introduced to normal working conditions

D e lta /S ta r
C o n n e c te d

Per Phase Equivalent Circuit

Ra => armature resistance per phase


XL => leakage reactance.

Power flow out of a Synchronous


Machine

Generator power
flow => out
Motor power flow
=> in

Power flow out of a Synchronous


Machine
= Load angles

E Vt 0 I L . jX s

In practical synchronous machines, except for small ones, X s


>> Ra so we could assume that Zs = jXs in the analysis.
Therefore we get E = Vt + jILXs

Power flow out of a Synchronous


Machine

Power = VIcos
Considering the diagram
Therefore

ILXscos = Esin

h = ILXscos = Esin

Power flow out of a Synchronous


Machine

For maximum power sin = 1


Therefore = 90
In which case

EMF equation
Let,
= flux per pole in weber
Z = Total number of conductor
P = Number of poles
A = Number of parallel paths
N =armature speed in rpm
Eg = emf generated in any on of
the parallel path

EMF equation
Flux cut by 1 conductor
in 1 revolution
=P
*
Flux cut by 1 conductor in
60 sec
=P
N /60
Avg emf generated in 1
conductor
=
PN/60
Number of conductors in

Types of DC Generator
DC generators are generally
classified according to their
method of excitation .
Separately excited DC generator
Self excited D C generator

Further classification of DC
Generator
Series wound generator
Shunt wound generator
Compound wound generator
Short shunt & Long shunt
Cumulatively compound
&
Differentially compound

Characteristics
No load saturation characteristic
(Eo/If)
Internal or Total characteristic (E/
Ia)
External characteristic (V/I)

Critical field resistance


For appreciable generation of
emf, the
field resistance must be always
less
certain resistance, that
resistance is
called as the critical resistance

General terms used in


Armature reaction

Magnetic neutral axis :


It is perpendicular to the lines of force
between the two opposite adjacent poles.
Leading pole Tip (LPT) :
It is the end of the pole which first comes
in contact with the armature.
Trailing pole tip :
It is the end of the pole which comes in
contact later with the armature.

Armature Reaction
Interaction of Main field flux with
Armature field flux

Effects of Armature
Reaction

It decreases the efficiency of the


machine
It produces sparking at the brushes
It produces a demagnetising effect
on the
main poles
It reduces the emf induced
Self excited generators some times

Armature reaction
remedies
1.Brushes
must be shifted to the new

position of the MNA


2.Extra turns in the field winding
3.Slots are made on the tips to increase
the reluctance
4. The laminated cores of the shoe are
staggered
5. In big machines the compensating
winding at pole shoes produces a flux
which just opposes the armature mmf

Commutation
The change in direction of current
takes place when the conductors
are along the brush axis .
During this reverse process
brushes short circuit that coil and
undergone commutation
Due to this sparking is produced
and the brushes will be damaged
and also causes voltage

Losses in DC
1.Generators
Copper losses or variable losses

2. Stray losses or constant losses


Stray losses : consist of (a) iron losses
or core losses and (b) windage and
friction losses .
Iron losses : occurs in the core of the
machine due to change of magnetic
flux in the core . Consist of
hysteresis loss and eddy current loss.
Hysteresis loss depends upon the

Losses
Hysteresis loss depends upon the
frequency ,
Flux density , volume and type of the
core .
Eddy current losses : directly
proportional to the flux density ,
frequency , thickness of the lamination
.

Applications
Shunt Generators:
a. in electro plating
b. for battery recharging
c. as exciters for AC generators.
Series Generators :
A. As boosters
B. As lighting arc lamps

DC Motors
Converts Electrical energy into
Mechanical energy
Construction : Same for Generator
and motor
Working principle : Whenever a
current carrying conductor is
placed in the magnetic field , a
force is set up on the conductor.

Back emf
The induced emf in the rotating
armature conductors always acts in
the opposite direction of the supply
voltage .
According to the Lenzs law, the
direction of the induced emf is
always so as to oppose the cause
producing it .
In a DC motor , the supply voltage is

Classification of DC
motors
DC motors are mainly classified
into three types as listed below:
Shunt motor
Series motor
Compound motor
Differential compound
Cumulative compound

Torque
The turning or twisting force about
an axis is called torque .
P = T * 2 N/ 60
Eb Ia = Ta * 2 N/ 60
T Ia
Ta I2a

Characteristic of DC
motors
T/ Ia characteristic

N/ I a characteristic
N/T characteristic

Speed control of DC
motors
According to the speed equation of a dc motor
N Eb/
V- Ia Ra/
Thus speed can be controlled byFlux control method: By Changing the flux by
controlling the current through the field
winding.
Armature control method: By Changing the
armature resistance which in turn changes the
voltage applied across the armature

Flux control
Advantages of flux control:
It provides relatively smooth and easy control
Speed control above rated speed is possible
As the field winding resistance is high the field
current is small. Power loss in the external
resistance is small . Hence this method is
economical
Disadvantages:
Flux can be increased only upto its rated value
High speed affects the commutation, motor
operation becomes unstable

Armature voltage control


method
The speed is directly proportional to the
voltage applied across the armature .
Voltage across armature can be
controlled by adding a variable resistance
in series with the armature
Potential divider control :
If the speed control from zero to the rated
speed is required , by rheostatic method
then the voltage across the armature can
be varied by connecting rheostat in a

Starters for DC motors


Needed to limit the starting
current .
1. Two point starter
2. Three point starter
3. Four point starter

Testing of DC machines
To determine the efficiency of as DC motor , the
output and input should be known.
There are two methods.
The load test or The direct method
The indirect method
Direct method: In this method , the efficiency is
determined by knowing the input and output
power of the motor.
Indirect method: Swinburnes test is an indirect
method of testing DC shunt machines to
predetermine the effficency , as a motor and as a
Generator. In this method, efficiency is calculated

Applications:
Shunt Motor:
Blowers and fans
Centrifugal and reciprocating pumps
Lathe machines
Machine tools
Milling machines
Drilling machines

Applications:
Series Motor:
Cranes
Hoists , Elevators
Trolleys
Conveyors
Electric locomotives

Applications:
Cumulative compound Motor:

Rolling mills
Punches
Shears
Heavy planers
Elevators

Review of 1- AC Circuit Fundamen

Series RLC circuit

V0
j
R j L
C



C
1

tan
R

Review of 1- AC Circuit Fundament


I ICos jISin
Power factor = Cos

Re al Power
Apparent Power

Apparent Power =VI (multiply the rms value of input voltage


and current (ignore phase angle))
Real Power =I2 R (square of the rms current flowing
through the reristor times the resistor (ignore phase angle))
Series Resonance occurs when

LC
V0
I
R

1
0
C

is maximum in this case

Review of 1- AC Circuit Fundament

Parallel RLC circuit


Parallel Resonance occurs when

LC
V0
I
R

1
L
0
C

is minimum in this case

The Transformer
i1(t) S i (t)
1
1

e1(t)
Coil 1
(Primary has N1 turns)

i2(t)

S2

i2(t)

V2

e2(t)
Coil 2
(Secondary has N2 turns)

The Transformer(2)

The source side is called Primary

The load side is called Secondary

Ideally

1.

The resistance of the coils are zero.

2.

The relative permeability of the core in infinite.

3.

Zero core or iron loss.

4.

Zero leakage flux

The Transformer(2)
i)

Switch S1 is closed and S2 is open at t=0


The core does not have a flux at t=0

We will now prove the following on the greenboard:

The voltage induced across each c


proportional to its number of turns

The Transformer(3)
ii) Switch S2 is now closed
A current now starts to flow in resistance R. This current
is i2(t) (flows out of the dotted terminal).

e 2 ( t ) V 2( t )
i 2 (t)

R
R
Thus a MMF N2i2(t) is applied to the magnetic circuit. This will
immediately make a current i1(t) flow into the dot of the primary
side, so that N1i1(t) opposes N2i2(t) and the original flux in the core
remains constant. Otherwise, N2i2(t) would make the core flux change
drastically and the balance between V1 and e1(t) will be disturbed.

The Transformer(3)
We will now prove the following on the greenboard:

1)The current induced in each


coil is inversely proportional
to its number of turns.
2)Instantaneous input power to
the transformer =
Instantaneous output power
from the transformer.

The Transformer(3)
Observation: It was shown that the flux in the core is
m Sin(t). Since the permeability of the core is infinite ideally
zero current can produce this flux! In actuality, a current I m, known
as magnetizing current is required to setup the flux in the transformer.
This current is within 5% of the full load current in
a well designed transformer.

V 1rms
N12
Im
; L1
L1

L1 is the primary side self inductance.

Transformer Example(1)
N1:N2 = 1:2

i) Find I1,I2 in the above transformer. Neglect magnetizing


current.
ii) What is the reflected (referred) load impedance on the
primary side
iii) If the resistance is replaced by a) 100 mH inductor b) 10F
capacitance; what will be the reflected load impedance on the
primary side?

Transformer Example(1)

Solution on greenboard

Polarity (dot) convention


Terminals of different windings are of same polarity if currents
entering (or leaving) them produce flux in the same direction
in the core.

How to check polarity?


1) Measure e12 and e34
2) Connect 2 and 4 and measure e13
3) If e13= e12+e34, 1 and 4 have same polarity
4) If e13= e12-e34, 1 and 4 have different polarity

Parallel operation of transform

Wrong connections give circulating between the windings that


can destroy transformers.

Transformer Equivalent circuit (


I2

I1
INL
E1

E2

Transformer Equivalent circuit (

I2
I1

INL

Transformer Equivalent circuit (

I1
INL

I2

Transformer Equivalent circuit (

I1
INL

I2'

Open circuit Test


It is used to determine Lm1 (Xm1)and Rc1
Usually performed on the low voltage side
The test is performed at rated voltage and frequency under
no load

Short circuit Test


It is used to determine Llp (Xeq) and Rp(Req)
Usually performed on the high voltage side
This test is performed at reduced voltage and rated frequency with
the output of the low voltage winding short circuited such that rated
current flows on the high voltage side.

Transformer Regulation
Loading changes the output voltage of a transformer.
Transformer regulation is the measure of such a deviation.

Definition of % Regulation

| Vno load | | Vload |

*100
| Vload |
Vno-load =RMS voltage across the load terminals without load
V load = RMS voltage across the load terminals with a specified
load

Maximum Transformer Regulation

V1 V2 '00 I 2 ' 2 0 .Z eq1 eq10


Clearly V1 is max imum when

2 eq1 0; or 2 eq1

Transformer Losses and Efficien


Transformer Losses
Core/Iron Loss =V12 / Rc1
Copper Loss = I12 R1+ I22 R2
Definition of % efficiency

V2 I 2Cos 2
*100
Losses V2 I 2Cos 2
V2 I 2Cos 2

V1 / Rc1 I1 R1 I 2 R2 V2 I 2Cos 2

V2 I 2Cos 2
2

V1 / Rc1 I 2 Req 2 V2 I 2Cos 2


Cos 2

= load power factor

*100

*100

Maximum Transformer Efficienc


The efficiency varies as with respect to 2 independent quantities
namely, current and power factor

Thus at any particular power factor, the efficiency is maximum if


core loss = copper loss .This can be obtained by differentiating the
expression of efficiency with respect to I2 assuming power factor, and
all the voltages constant.
At any particular I2 maximum efficiency happens at unity power factor.
This can be obtained by differentiating the expression of efficiency
with respect to power factor, and assuming I2 and all the voltages
constant.
Maximum efficiency happens when both these conditions are satisfied.

Maximum efficiency point


100

pf=1
pf= 0.8
pf= 0.6

At this load current


core loss = copper loss
0
% full load current

Another Transformer Example


The following are the open circuit and short circuit test data of a
single phase, 10 kVA, 2200/220V, 60 Hz transformer
O/C Test (HV side
Open)

S/C Test (LV side


Shorted)

Voltmeter

220V

150V

Ammeter

2.5A

4.55A

Wattmeter

100W

215W

i)Find the equivalent circuit with respect to HV and LV side


ii) Find the efficiency and regulation of the transformer when
supplying rated load at 0.8 pf lag.
iii) Maximum efficiency and regulation.

Autotransformer

Primary and secondary on the same winding. Therefore


there is no galvanic isolation.

Features of Autotransformer
Lower leakage
Lower losses
Lower magnetizing current
Increase kVA rating

No galvanic Isolation

Autotransformer Theory and Exam

Explained and worked out on Greenboard

Review of balanced three phase c


Two possible configurations: Star (Y) and delta ()
Star has neutral, delta does not

Star (Y) connection


Line current is same as phase current
Line-Line voltage is 3 phase-neutral voltage
Power is given by 3 VL-LI Lcos or 3VphIphcos

Delta () connection
Line-Line voltage is same as phase voltage
Line current is 3 phase current
Power is given by 3 VL-LI Lcos or 3VphIphcos

Typical three phase transformer


connections

Other possible three phase


transformer Connections
Y- zigzag
- zigzag
Open Delta or V
Scott or T

How are three phase


transformers made?
Either by having three single phase transformers connected as three
phase banks.
Or by having coils mounted on a single core with multiple limbs
The bank configuration is better from repair perspective, whereas the
single three phase unit will cost less ,occupy less space, weighs less and
is more efficient

Phase-shift between line-line


voltages in transformers

Vector grouping of transformer


Depending upon the phase shift of line-neutral voltages between
primary and secondary; transformers are grouped. This is done for
ease of paralleling. Usually transformers between two different
groups should not be paralleled.
Group 1 :zero phase displacement (Yy0, Dd0,Dz0)
Group 2 :1800 phase displacement (Yy6, Dd6,Dz6)
Group 3 : 300 lag phase displacement (Dy1, Yd1,Yz1)
Group 4 : 300 lead phase displacement (Dy11, Yd11,Yz11)
(Y=Y; D= ; z=zigzag)

Calculation involving 3-ph transfor

An example involving 3-ph transfo

Open delta or V connection

Open delta or V connection


Power from winding ab
is Pab=VabIacos(300+)
Power from winding bc
is Pcb=VcbIccos(300-)
Therefore total power is
=2VL-LILcos300cos or 57.7% of total power
from 3 phases

Harmonics in 3- Transformer
In absence of neutral connection in a Y-Y transformers 3 harmonic
Banks
current cannot flow
rd

This causes 3rd harmonic distortion in the phase voltages (both primary
and secondary) but not line-line voltages, as 3rd harmonic voltages get
cancelled out in line-line connections (see hw problem 2.22, where the
voltage between the supply and primary neutrals is due to the third
harmonic. This voltage can be modeled as a source in series with the
fundamental voltage in the phase winding)

Remedy is either of the following :


a) Neutral connections, b) Tertiary winding c) Use zigzag secondary d)
Use star-delta or delta-delta type of transformers.

a) The phenomenon is explained using a star-delta transformer.

Harmonics in 3- Transformer
Banks(2)

Harmonics in 3- Transformer
Banks(3)

Per-Unit (pu) System


Quantity in pu=

actual value of quantity


base value of quantity

Values fall in a small zone and computational burden is le

Easy to go from one side of a transformer to another witho


resorting to turns ratio multiplication and subsequent sourc
Rated quantities ( voltage,current,power) are selected as
quantities.
Losses, regulation etc. can also be defined in pu.

Per-Unit (PU) System(2)


A single phase transformer is rated at 10kVA, 2200/220V, 60Hz.
Equivalent impedance referred to high voltage side is 10.4+ j31.3 .
Find Ibase, Vbase, Pbase, Zbase on both sides. What is the pu equivalent
impedance on both sides? If magnetizing current Im is 0.25 A on
high voltage side what is its value in pu?

HV side;
Pbase=10,000VA =1 pu, Vbase=2200V =1 pu
Ibase=Pbase/ Vbase=4.55A=1 pu
Zbase=Vbase/Ibase=2200/4.55=483.52 =1 pu
Zeq(pu)= Zeq/Zbase =10.4+j31.3/483.52=0.0215+j0.0647 pu
Im(pu)= Im/Ibase = 0.25/4.55=0.055 pu

Per-Unit (PU) System(3)


LV side;
Pbase=10,000VA =1 pu, Vbase=220V
=1 pu
Ibase=Pbase/ Vbase=45.5A=1 pu
Zbase=Vbase/Ibase=220/45.5=4.84 =1
pu
Zeq(pu)= Zeq/Zbase
=0.104+j0.313/4.84=0.0215+j0.06
47 pu
Im(pu)= Im/Ibase = 2.5/45.5=0.055 pu

Transformer Construction

Transformer Construction(2)

Left: Windings shown only on one leg


Right: Note the thin laminations

3- Transformer Construction (3)

3- Transformer Construction(4)

Left: A 1300 MVA, 24.5/345 kV, 60Hz transformer with forced oil
and air (fan) cooling.
Right: A 60 MVA, 225/26.4 kV, 60 Hz showing the conservator.

AC Machine Stator
b phase axis

1200
1200

a phase axis
1200

c phase axis

Currents tin different


phases
of
AC
M
t
01

12

Amp

t0

t1
1 Cycle

t2

t3

t4

time

MMF Due to a phase current


1

Axis of phase a

0.8

t0

0.6
0.4

t01

0.2

Fa

t12

-0.2
-0.4
-0.6

t2

-0.8
-1
-90

-40

10

60

110

160

Space angle (theta) in degrees

210

260

Fc

RMF(Rotating Magnetic Fie

b
Fa

1.5

b
Fb

Fa

0.5
0

t = t0= t4

Fc

Fb

-0.5

t = t0= t4

-1
-1.5
-93

F
Fb

Fc

Fb

b
c

a
t = t1

113

216

Space angle () in degrees

c
Fa

10

b
Fc
a
t = t2

b
c

a
c

b
c

b
Fc a

t = t3

Fb

Video of the unfolded rotating magnetic field

RMF(Rotating Magnetic Fie


-Analogy with DC machines
The salient field structure in DC
machines is mimicked along with speed in
an AC machines by a multiphase (2 or more)
winding. The number of poles are
determined by winding distribution and is
independent of the number of phases.

The rotational speed is determined by the supply frequency and


the number of poles, such that an observer in air-gap counts same
number of poles per second, meaning the more the number of poles
the slower the machine will run and vice-versa.

Induction Motor
Most popular motor today in the low and medium horsepower range
Very robust in construction
Speed easily controllable using V/f or Field Oriented Controllers
Have replaced DC Motors in areas where traditional DC Motors
cannot be used such as mining or explosive environments
Of two types depending on motor construction: Squirrel Cage
or Slip Ring
Only Disadvantage: Most of them run with a lagging power factor

Squirrel Cage Rotor

Slip Ring Rotor


The rotor contains windings similar to stator.
The connections from rotor are brought out using slip rings that
are rotating with the rotor and carbon brushes that are static.

Torque Production in an Induction M


In a conventional DC machine field is stationary and the
current carrying conductors rotate.
We can obtain similar results if we make field structure
rotating and current carrying conductor stationary.
In an induction motor the conventional 3-phase winding
sets up the rotating magnetic field(RMF) and the rotor
carries the current carrying conductors.
An EMF and hence current is induced in the rotor due to the
speed difference between the RMF and the rotor, similar to
that in a DC motor.
This current produces a torque such that the speed
difference between the RMF and rotor is reduced.

Slip in Induction Motor


However, this speed difference cannot become zero because that would
stop generation of the torque producing current itself.
The parameter slip s is a measure of this relative speed difference

ns n s
s

ns
s

ns

120 f1
; p # of poles
p

where ns,s,f1 are the speeds of the RMF in RPM ,rad./sec and supply
frequency respectively
n, are the speeds of the motor in RPM and rad./sec respectively
The angular slip frequency and the slip frequency at which voltage is
induced in the rotor is given by

2 s , f 2 sf1 , E2 s

N2
s
E1
N1

N1 Stator turns

N 2 Rotor turns

Induction Motor Example


A 100 hp, 460V, 8 pole, 60 Hz, star connected
3 phase induction motor runs at 891 rpm under full load.
Determine the synchronous speed in rpm, slip, slip
frequency (frequency of the rotor circuit),slip rpm at full load.
What is the speed of the rotor field relative to (i) rotor structure, (ii)
stator structure, (iii) stator rotating field?
Voltage induced in rotor under full load? N2/N1=0.5

Solution on Greenboard

Induction motor Equivalent Circu

Relation between air-gap, gross mec


power and rotor copper loss
Pag : Pmech : P2 1 : 1 s : s
Internal efficiency =

Pmech
1 s
Pag

Implies lower the slip higher is the induction motor efficiency

Approximate Equivalent Circuit


j

Assumes negligible magnetizing current


Note Rc has been removed.
The sum of core losses and the windage and friction loses are treated
as constant. This is because as speed increases rotor core loss
decreases (lower f2) but windage and frictionloses increase.With
decrease of speed the converse is true. Thus the sum is constant at
any speed and is termed as rotational loss.

IEEE Equivalent Circuit

Assumes 30-50% magnetizing current and drop across R1+jX1 not


negligible
As before, the sum of core losses and the windage and friction loses are
treated as constant.

Thevnins equivalent of the


IEEE Equivalent Circuit

This is done by applying Thevenins theorem and treating the rotor


side as load

Vth K thV1 , Rth

K th2 R1 ,

Xm
X th X 1 , K th
X m X1

Determining equivalent circuit para

Uses no-load test and blocked rotor tests to determine them

Basics of a Electric Motor

A Two Pole DC Motor

A Four Pole DC Motor

Operating Principle of a DC Mach

Action of a Commutator

Armature of a DC Motor

Generated Voltage in a DC Machin

Armature Winding in a DC Machin

Lap Winding of a DC Machine


Used in high current
low voltage circuits
Number of parallel
paths
equals
number
of
brushes
or poles

Wave Winding of a DC Machine


Used in high voltage
low current circuits
Number of parallel
paths
always equals 2

Magnetic circuit of a 4 pole DC Mac

Magnetic circuit of a 2 pole DC Mac

Summary of a DC Machine
Basically consists of

1. An electromagnetic or permanent magnetic structure


field which is static
2. An Armature which rotates

The Field produces a magnetic medium


The Armature produces voltage and torque under the
of the magnetic field

Deriving the induced voltage in a


DC Machine

Deriving the electromagnetic


torque in a
DC Machine

Voltage and Torque developed in


DC Machine
Induced EMF, Ea = Kam (volts)
Developed Torque, Tdev = KaIa
(Newton-meter or Nm)
where m is the speed of the armature
in rad/sec., is the flux per pole in
weber (Wb)
Ia is the Armature current
Ka is the machine constant

Interaction of Prime-mover DC Gene


and Load
Tdev
m
Tpm

Ea
DC Generator
-

Load

Prime-mover
(Turbine)

Ia

Ea is Generated voltage
VL is Load voltage
Tpm is the Torque generated by Prime Mover
Tdev is the opposing generator torque

VL

Interaction of the DC Motor


and Mechanical Load
+

VT
- -

Ia

Tload
+

Ea DC Motor
-

m
Tdev

Mechanical
Load
(Pump,
Compressor)

Ea is Back EMF
VT is Applied voltage
Tdev is the Torque developed by DC Motor
Tload is the opposing load torque

Power Developed in a DC Machin


Neglecting Losses,
Input mechanical power to dc
generator
= Tdev m= KaIam =Ea Ia
= Output electric power to load
Input electrical power to dc
motor
= Ea Ia= Ka m Ia = Tdev m
= Output mechanical power
to load

Equivalence of motor and genera

In every generator there is a motor (Tdev opposes


In every motor there is a generator (Ea opposes

Example of winding specific


motor and generator

Worked out on greenboard

Magnetization Curve
Ea K a m
Flux is a non-linear
function of field current
and
hence Ea is a non-linear
function of field current
For a given value of flux
Ea
is directly proportional to
m

Separately Excited DC Machine


RA

+
Vf

Field Coil

Armature

Shunt Excited DC Machine

Shunt Field Coil

Armature
RA

Series Excited DC Machine


RA

Armature

Series Field Coil

Compound Excited DC Machine


Series Field Coil

Shunt Field Coil

Armature
RA

If the shunt and series field aid each other it is called a cum
excited machine
If the shunt and series field oppose each other it is called a
excited machine

Armature Reaction(AR)

AR is the magnetic field produced by the


armature current
AR aids the main flux in one half of the
pole and opposes the main flux in the
other half of the pole
However due to saturation of the pole
faces the net effect of AR is demagnetizing

Effects of Armature Reaction

The magnetic axis of the


AR is 900 electrical (cross)
out-of-phase with the main
flux.
This
causes
commutation problems as
zero of the flux axis is
changed
from
the
interpolar position.

Minimizing Armature Reaction


Since AR reduces main flux,
voltage in generators and torque in
motors reduces with it. This is
particularly objectionable in steel
rolling mills that require sudden
torque increase.
Compensating windings put on
pole
faces can effectively negate the
effect
of
AR.
These
windings
are
connected
in series with armature winding.

Minimizing commutation problem


Smooth transfer of current during
commutation is hampered by
a) coil inductance and
b) voltage due to AR flux in the
interpolar axis. This voltage is called
reactance voltage.
Can be minimized using interpoles.
They
produce an opposing field that
cancels out the AR in the interpolar
region. Thus this winding is also
connected in series with the
armature winding.
Note: The UVic lab motors have
interpoles in them. This should be
connected in series with the
armature winding for experiments.

Question:
Can interpoles be
replaced by
compensating
windings and viceversa?
Why or why not?

Separately Excited DC Generato


Rf

If

Vf

+
-

Ra

RL
Ea

Field Coil

Armature

Field equation: Vf=RfIf

+
Vt
Ia

Armature equation: Vt=EaIaRa


Vt=IaRL, Ea=Kam

Shunt Generators
If

Ia If

Ia
+
Ea

Shunt Field Coil

Field coil has Rfw :


Implicit field resistance

Armature
RL
Ra

Rfc
Field equation: Vt=Rf If

Armature equation: Vt=Ea-Ia Ra

Rf=Rfw+Rfc

Vt=(Ia If) RL, Ea=Kam

Vt

Voltage build-up of shunt genera

Example on shunt generators bu


For proper voltage build-up the
following are required:
Residual magnetism
Field MMF
magnetism

should

aid

residual

Field circuit resistance should be


less than critical
field circuit resistance

Separately Excited DC Motor


If

Ra

Rf

+
Vf

+
-

Ea

Field Coil

Armature

Field equation: Vf=RfIf

Vt
Ia

Armature equation: Ea=VtIaRa


Ea=Kam

Separately Excited DC Motor


Torque-speed Characteristics
RA

Armature

+
Vf

+
Mechanical Load

Field Coil
m

Vt
Ra

T
2
K a ( K a )

Separately excited DC Motor-Exam

A dc motor has Ra =2 , Ia=5 A, Ea = 220V, Nm = 1200 rp


Determine i) voltage applied to the armature, developed
developed power . ii) Repeat with Nm = 1500 rpm. Assum
Ia.
Solution on Greenboard

Speed Control of Separately Excite


DC Motor(2)

By Controlling Terminal Voltage Vt and keeping If or


constant at rated value .This method of speed control is
for speeds below rated or base speed.
T1<T2< T3

m
T1

T2

V1<V2<V3

T3

V1

V2

V3

Vt
Ra

T
K a ( K a ) 2

VT

Speed Control of Separately Excite


DC Motor

By Controlling(reducing) Field Current If or and keeping


Vt at rated value. This method of speed control is applicab
for speeds above rated speed.
T1<T2<
T3

m
1

T1

2
3

T3

1> 2> 3

Vt
Ra

T
2
K a ( K a )

T2

Regions of operation of a Separate


Excited DC Motor

Separately excited dc motor Exam

A separately excited dc motor with negligible armature res


operates at 1800 rpm under no-load with Vt =240V(rated
The rated speed of the motor is 1750 rpm.
i) Determine Vt if the motor has to operate at 1200 rpm un
ii) Determine (flux/pole) if the motor has to operate at 24
under no-load; given that K = 400/.
iii) Determine the rated flux per pole of the machine.

Series Excited DC Motor


Torque-Speed Characteristics
Ra

Rsr

Rae

Armature
Series Field Coil

Vt
R Rsr Rae
a
K sr
K srT

Losses in dc machines

Losses in dc machines-shunt mot


example
If

Ia If

Ia
+

+
Ea

Shunt Field Coil

Field coil has Rfw :


Implicit field resistance

Rf=Rfw+Rfc

Armature

Mechanical Load

Ra

Rfc

Field equation: Vt=Rf If

Vt

Armature equation: Vt=Ea+Ia Ra


Ea=Kam