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MACROMOLECULES

CARBON BASED MOLECULES

Carbon-based molecules are the


foundation of life.

INTRODUCTION TO
BIOMOLECULES
2.3

Carbon

Atoms have unique bonding properties


Forms covalent bonds with up to four other atoms
Carbon-based molecules have three general
types of structures:
1. straight chain
2. branched chain
3. ring

Carbon

Carbon

Many carbon-based molecules are made


of many small subunits bonded together

Monomers are the individual subunits.


Polymers are made of many monomers.

* Carbon based molecules are


called organic compounds.

Organic Compound =
compound
containing C, H, O
and sometimes N, P,
S
Macromolecule =
very large molecule
made up of multiple
organic compounds

4 TYPES OF
MACROMOLECULES
1. CARBOHYDRATES
2. LIPIDS
3. PROTEINS
4. NUCLEIC ACIDS

CARBOHYDRATES

Made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen


(C,H,O)
Include sugars and starches.

CARBOHYDRATES

Monosaccharides are
simple sugars.

Monosaccharides are the building


blocks for all larger carbs

Monomers of Carbohydrates

Disaccharides &
Polysaccharides include
starches, cellulose, and
glycogen.

CARBOHYDRATE
Functions

Carbohydrates can be broken down to provide energy for cells.


Some carbohydrates are part of cell structure.

Polymer (starch)
Starch is a polymer
of glucose monomers
that often has a
branched structure.

Polymer (cellulose)
monomer

Cellulose is a
polymer of glucose
monomers that has a
straight, rigid
structure

CARBOHYDRATES

Summary 3 Types of Carbohydrates


1. monosaccharides single sugar
(monomer)

2. Disaccharide: 2 simple sugars

Ex. Glucose, fructose, galactose


Ex. Sucrose (table sugar) maltose

3. polysaccharides: 3 or more sugars


(complex carbs)

Ex. Cellulose used in cell walls


Starch stores energy in plants
Glycogen stored energy in animals

LIPIDS

Organic compounds made up of C, H, &


O, but not in any fixed ratio.
The building blocks of lipids are
fatty acids.
Usually 3 fatty acids combine with one
glycerol to form a triglyceride.
properties of fats and oils are
determined by the fatty acids that make
them up

LIPIDS

Lipids are unique because they are the


only macromolecule that are not
polymers!
Triglycerides make a group, not a chain

3 fatty acids + 1 glycerol

LIPIDS

Lipids

Saturated fat = Carbon atoms are joined


by single bonds (usually solid fats)

Unsaturated fat = Carbon chain contains


double or triple bonds (usually oils)

Saturated and Unsaturated


Fats

Lipid Function

Often called fats or oils, but are large


macromolecules with 3 primary
functions:
1. broken down as a source of energy
2. make up cell membranes (phospholipids)
3. used to make hormones

LIPIDS

Phospholipids make up all cell membranes.

Polar phosphate head


Nonpolar fatty acid tails

Phospholipid

PROTEINS

Organic compounds that contain C, H, O & N.


Every cell contains protein
Made up of amino acids (monomer)
Functions of protein:

Used in structural components.


Messengers and receptors on the cell membrane
Defend against disease
Act as facilitators for chemical reactions (ENZYMES)

PROTEINS

Amino acids the building blocks of


proteins!!
They consist of a central carbon atom
with a H, a COOH, a NH2 and a R
group attached.
The R group is different for each of the
20 different amino acids.

Amino group

Carboxyl group

PROTEINS

Peptide Bond = holds together amino acids into a


large macromolecule called a polypeptide chain.
Longer polypeptides are called proteins and can
be made up of 50 300 amino acids.

Proteins

The order of amino acids give a protein its


shape and the shape determines the
proteins function.

Incorrect amino acids change a proteins


structure and function.
Or

cause protein NOT to function

Enzymes = Proteins that speed up the rate


of chemical reactions
Without enzymes chemical reactions
would occur too slowly for life to exist.

NUCLEIC ACIDS

Organic molecule made up of C,H,O,N,& P


Passed from parent to offspring, one copy from
each parent for a total of 2 complete sets.
Nucleic acids determine amino acid sequence in
proteins which in turn control all life processes
DNA forms the genes or units of genetic material
that determine your characteristics

Nucleic Acids

Nucleotides are the building blocks


of nucleic acids (monomers)
Each nucleotide is made up of 3 parts:

A 5 Carbon sugar (deoxyribose or ribose)


A phosphate group
A nitrogen base ( a ring containing C, H, & N)

A phosphate group

deoxyribose (sugar)

nitrogen-containing molecule,
called a base

NUCLEIC ACIDS

DNA Bases: Adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine,


and uracil.
Uracil replaces Thymine in RNA

DNA
Deoxyribose NUCLEIC ACID

RNA
Ribose NUCLEIC acid

Circle a nucelotide