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PENGANTAR KULIAH

ANATOMI

Dr. Thontowi Djauhari NS, M.Kes


Laboratorium Anatomi
Fakultas Kedokteran
Univ. Muhammadiyah Malang

Sine Anatomi Nihil


Medicine
Tidak Ada Ilmu Kedokteran Tanpa
Anatomi

Pembagian anatomi
Mikroskopik Anatomi
( Histologi = Ilmu Jaringan).
Ilmu yang mempelajari struktur tubuh dengan
menggunakan mikroskop
Makroskopik Anatomi
( Gross Anatomy = Ilmu Urai.)
Ilmu yang mempelajari struktur tubuh tanpa alat
pembesar.

Approaches to Studying Anatomy


Systemic Anatomy
Undergraduate courses
are taught systemically,
mainly because
physiology is taught
along with anatomy.

Regional Anatomy
Medical school courses
are taught regionally.
Dissection of a cadaver
is best done in this
manner.

Regional Anatomy
This course will be divided
into 4 units:
1. Back and Upper Limb
2. Thorax and Abdomen
3. Pelvis and Lower Limb
4. Head and Neck

SISTEM TUBUH MANUSIA


Atoms
Molecule
Organelle
Cell
Tissue
Organ
Organ System
Organism

Organ Systems

Organ Systems

The urinary system, made up of kidneys, urinary


bladder, and tubes that convey urine, rids the body
of nitrogenous wastes, and regulates fluid balance
and pH.

Terminologi
Anatomi
Regio-regio Dalam Tubuh
manusia
Nama Regio
Cephalic

Nama Anatomi.
Cephalon

Cervicalis
Thoracalis

Cervicis
Thorax

Brachialis
Abdominalis

Brachium
Abdomen

Gluteus
Femoralis

Glutea
Femur

Cruris
Pedis

Crural
Pes

Abreviation
a.
v.
n.
m.
aa.
av.
aw.
ax.

= arteri
= artery
= vena
= vein
= nervus
= nerve
= musculus = muscle
= arteriae = arteries
= venae
= veins
= musculi = muscles
= nervi
= nerves.

Anatomical Terminology
Directional.

Anterior
= front
---- navel is on the anterior the trunk.
Ventral
= belly side ---- navel is on the ventral surface.
Posterior = behind ---- spine is on the posterior of the body.
Dorsal
= back = behind.
Cranial
= toward the head --- Chest is cranial to the abdomen.
Superior = above ( when referring to standing human body superior is
equivalent to cranial)
Caudal
= toward the tail ----- the hips are cudal to the waist.
Inferior
= below; at a lower level. --- the knees are inferior to hips.
Medial
= toward the mid line
Lateral
= away from midline
Proximal = toward the central of the body
Distal
= away from the central of the body.
Superficial = toward body surface.
Profundus = away from body surface.

Terms of
Relationship and
Comparison

Superficial vs. deep


Medial
vs. lateral
Superior vs. inferior
Cranial
vs. caudal
Anterior vs. posterior
Proximal vs. distal
Dorsal
vs. palmar
Dorsal
vs. plantar

Be able to use each term


in a sentence. (See figure.)

Figure 1.6

MOVEMENT

Anatomic Positions
Prone

Supine

Anatomic Positions
Trendelenburgs position

Fowlers position

SKELETON (Kerangka Tulang)


Axial skeleton :
Skull
Auditory ossicles
Hyoid bone
Vertebral column
Ribs and sternum

22
6
1
26
25
---80
Appendicular skeleton :
Upper extremity
64
Lower extremity
62
---126
Total

206

Axial Skeleton
merupakan tulang axis dari tubuh :
Contoh : cranium, vertebrae, sacrum,
costae

Appendicular Skeleton
berbungan dengan penyusun
tubuh :
Contoh : extremitas atas bawah dan
pelvis

Skeletal System
Structure:
Bones
Cartilage

Function

Protection
Support
Movement
Storage for salts (e.g., calcium)
Supply of new blood cells

Parts
Axial skeleton
(skull, hyoid, vertebrae/sacrum, ribs,
sternum)

Appendicular skeleton
(bones of limbs including pectoral/pelvic
girdles)

JENIS TULANG

Panjang
Pipih
Sesamoid

Pendek
Tak beraturan

KOMPOSISI TULANG
Water (25%)
Organic Constituent (~25%)
Collagen.
A fibrous protein that provide flexibility.
Inorganic Constituent (~50%)
Calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate.
Mineral salts that provide hardness.

Bone Cell Types

Osteogenic cells- stem cells.


Osteoblasts- bone building cells, secrete matrix & collagen
fibers.
Osteocytes- mature bone cells that no longer secrete
matrix.
Osteoclasts- bone digestion.

Anatomy of a Long Bone


Diaphysis- shaft.
Epiphysis- the distal and
proximal ends of a long bone.
Metaphysis- regions in a
mature bone where the
diaphysis joins the epiphysis.
Articular cartilage- a thin
layer of hyaline cartilage that
covers each epiphysis.
Medullary cavity- the space in
the diaphysis that contains
fatty yellow bone marrow.

Structure of Long Bone

Figure 6.3

Bone Growth in Length


Epiphyseal plate
Cartilage cells in this plate divide
rapidly.
Zone of proliferating cartilage.

Between ages 18-25, the


epiphyseal plates close.
Cartilage cells in the plate stop
dividing and bone replaces the
cartilage.

Growth in length stops at age 25.

Long Bone Formation and Growth

Slide

Factors Affecting Bone Growth


1
Nutrition
Adequate levels of vitamins and minerals.
Calcium and phosphorus for bone growth.
Vitamin C for collagen formation.
Vitamins K and B12 for protein synthesis.

Factors Affecting Bone Growth


2
Hormones
During childhood growth
factors stimulate cell
division.
Human growth hormone
(hGH)
Thyroid hormones
Insulin

Sex steroids at puberty


initiate male and female
characteristics.

Hormonal Abnormalities
Oversecretion of hGH during
childhood produces giantism.
Undersecretion of hGH or the thyroid
hormones during childhood produces
dwarfism.
The epiphyseal plate closes before
normal height is reached.

Estrogen is responsible for closing


the growth plate.
Both men and women that lack estrogen
receptors on cells grow taller than
normal.

Aging and Bone Tissue


Demineralization- loss of minerals.
Very rapid in women 40-45 as estrogen levels
decrease.
In males, begins after age 60, but is gradual.

Decrease in protein synthesis


Decrease in growth hormone.
Decrease in collagen production, which gives bone its
tensile strength, this causes bone to become brittle
and susceptible to fracture.

Cold spots
indicate
Decreased
metabolism of
decalcified
bone.
Fracture.
Bone
infection.

Common Types of Fractures

Table 5.2
Copyright2003PearsonEducation,Inc.publishingasBenjaminCummings

Slide 5.17

Stages in the Healing of a Bone


Fracture

Figure 5.5

Slide 5.19

Skeletal Muscle & Muscle Architecture

Skeletal Muscle & Muscle Architecture

Architecture of muscle
Architecture of muscle

Strap/flat

Ex : m. sartorius
m. sternocleidomastoideus

Fusiform

Ex : M. biceps brachii

Pennate :
Unipennate
m. pronator quadratus

Bipennate
m. rectus femoris

Multipennate
m. deltoideus

Circular
m. orbicularis oculi
m. orbicularis oris Sphincter

TERIMA KASIH