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The Health Polytechnic of Health Ministry of Pontianak


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Anatomy and Physiology

What is Endoscopy?
Endoscopy is a procedure that allows a doctor
to view inside of a persons body. Originally,
endoscopy was only used in the esophagus,
stomach and colon. Now, doctors can use
endoscopy to diagnose disease of the ear,
nose, throat, heart, urinary tract, joints and
abdoment.

How does endoscopy


work?
During an endoscopy, the doctor inserts a tool
called an endoscope into a persons body.
Most endoscopes are thin tube with a powerful
light and tiny camera at the end. There are
several different types of endoscopes.

The length and flexibility of the endoscope


depends the part of the body the doctor needs
to see. For example, an endoscope that helps
a doctor examine the joints if often rigid.
However, one used to view the inside of the
colon in flexible.

An endoscope also often has a channel so the doctor can


insert tools to collect tissue or provide treatment. Some of
the tools a doctor may use during an endoscope include:
Flexible forceps, for taking a tissue sample
Biopsy forceps for removing a tissue sample or a suspicious
growth
Cytology brush for taking cell samples
Suture removal forceps for removing stitches inside the body

Why you might need an


endoscopy?
To screen for and prevent cancer.
To diagnose a disease or find out the cause of
symptoms
To give treatment

Symptoms
Dysphagia
Persistent abdominal pain
Chest pain that isnt causes by heart-related conditions
Persistent nausea and vomiting
Unexplained weight loss
Vomiting blood
Persistent diarrhea
Blood in your stools

Types of Endoscopy
Arthroscopy
Bronchoscopy
Colonoscopy
Colposcopy
Cystoscopy
Esophaguscopy
gastroscopy

Laparoscopy
Laryngoscopy
Neuroendoscopy
Proctoscopy
Sigmoidoscopy
thoracoscopy

mouth
mouth

Upper GI track
(gastroscopy)
fundus
fundus
atrium
atrium

pharynx
pharynx

esophagus
esophagus

stomach
stomach

pylorus
pylorus

Upper
Upper
sphicnter
sphicnter
Lower/car
Lower/car
diac
diac
sphicnter
sphicnter
Pyloric
Pyloric
sphincte
sphincte
rr
II

duodenum
duodenum
IIII

anus
anus
rectum
rectum

Lower GI track
(colonoscopy)

Colon
Colon
sigmoid
sigmoid

Colon
Colon
decenden
decenden
ss

Hepatic
Hepatic
flexure
flexure

Eksternal
Eksternal
sphincter
sphincter
Internal
Internal
sphincter
sphincter

Splenic
Splenic
flexure
flexure

Colon
Colon
transversum
transversum
Colon
Colon
acendens
acendens
cecum
cecum
appendict
appendict

Illeacecal
Illeacecal
spchinter
spchinter

Getting ready for


endoscopy
Not to eat or drink anything for several hours (6-8 hrs)
Stop taking blood-thinning medications several days
before the procedure, to reduce the risk of bleeding
Take a laxative or use an enema to clean out stool
from your bowels, depending on the type on
endoscopy
Informed consent.

During the procedure


Throughout the procedure, your healthcare
team will monitor your temperature, blood
pressure, and heart rate. Your doctor will
review and, in some cases, record the images
from the endoscope. The doctors will also
perform any procedure, such as collecting
tissue for testing.

Medicine use for


endoscopy
Xylocin spray : local anesthesia for throat (kebas)
Midazolam : obat tidur
Buscopan : anti-spasm
Pethidine : analgesic
Mixolon : anti-vomit
Anti-koagulan
Atrophine :

After the procedure


After the endoscopy, you will rest in a
recovery area. You may have mild side effects
afterwards. This depends on the type of the
endoscopy but can include a sore, dry throat
or bloating and gas. If you received anesthesia
during the procedure, you will need to have
someone drive you home.

Complications from endoscopy are


uncommon, but they can happen. They can
inlcude a hole or tear in the area being
examined, bleeding and infection.

Talk with your doctor if:


You have any of the following symptoms:
- Fever
- Vomitting
- Chest pain
- Abnormal stool
- SOB
- Abdominal pain

Wireless capsule
endoscopy
New type of endoscopy. It involves swallowing
a capsule thats able to wirelessly transmit
images of the inside of your stomach and
digestive system.

References
Cancer.Net (approved by the Cancer.Net
Editorial Board, 02/2016)
www.nhs.uk