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Chapter 1

Introduction

Contents

  • Engineering drawing

  • Drawing standards

    • Drawing sheet

    • Scale

    • Lettering

      • Line types

Engineering

Drawing

The words of the language, as they are written or spoken, do not seem to play any role in my mechanism of thought. The psychical entities which seem to serve as elements in thought are certain signs and more or less clear images which can be “voluntarily” reproduced and combined--this combinatory play seems to be the essential feature in productive thought before there is any connection with logical construction in words or other kinds of signs which are communicated to others

--Albert Einstein

Effectiveness of Graphic Language

1. Try to write a description of this object.

2. Test your written description by having someone attempt to make a sketch or visualize from your description.

You can easily understand that …

Effectiveness of Graphic Language 1. Try to write a description of this object. 2. Test your
The word language is inadequate for describing the size, shape and features completely as well as
The word language is inadequate for describing the size,
shape and features completely as well as concisely.

Graphic Language in Engineering Drawing

  • “Engineering drawing” or “blueprint” uses lines to represent the features of an object.

  • Features of an object are surface (include plane) and edge.

Surface Edge
Surface
Edge

Ways to Create an Engineering Drawing

A drawing can be created in 3 ways

  • 1. Freehand sketch

  • 2. Using typical drawing instruments

  • 3. Using a computer

Create a Drawing : Freehand sketch

Create a Drawing : Freehand sketch The lines are drawn using only pencil and erasers on

The lines are drawn using only pencil and erasers on a blank or grid paper.

Example
Example

Pictorial sketch

Create a Drawing : Freehand sketch The lines are drawn using only pencil and erasers on

Orthographic sketch

Create a Drawing : Using instruments

  • Drawing instruments are used to draw straight lines, circles, and curves concisely and accurately.

  • Drawings are usually made to scale.

Example

Create a Drawing : Using instruments Drawing instruments are used to draw straight lines, circles, and
Create a Drawing : Using instruments Drawing instruments are used to draw straight lines, circles, and

Create a Drawing : Using a computer

Create a Drawing : Using a computer Computer aided drafting (CAD) software is used. Example Solid

Computer aided drafting (CAD) software is used.

Example

Create a Drawing : Using a computer Computer aided drafting (CAD) software is used. Example Solid
Create a Drawing : Using a computer Computer aided drafting (CAD) software is used. Example Solid

2D drawing

Solid modeling

Elements of a Drawing

A clear and precise engineering drawing requires both graphics and word languages.

Graphics language

Describe a shape (mainly).

Word language

Describe an exact size, location and specification of the object.

Elements of a Drawing A clear and precise engineering drawing requires both graphics and word languages.
Text on drawings : Example Dimensions & Notes General notes Title block
Text on drawings : Example
Dimensions
&
Notes
General
notes
Title
block

Knowledge and Skills Require

Engineering Drawing

Knowledge and Skills Require Engineering Drawing Graphics language Geometric construction Projection method Using line types Visualization

Graphics

language

Knowledge and Skills Require Engineering Drawing Graphics language Geometric construction Projection method Using line types Visualization

Geometric

construction

Knowledge and Skills Require Engineering Drawing Graphics language Geometric construction Projection method Using line types Visualization
Knowledge and Skills Require Engineering Drawing Graphics language Geometric construction Projection method Using line types Visualization
Knowledge and Skills Require Engineering Drawing Graphics language Geometric construction Projection method Using line types Visualization

Projection

method

Using line types

Visualization

Word

language

Dimensions & Notes

Visualization is the ability to mentally picture things that do not exists.

Drawing Standard

Drawing Standard

Definition and Necessity

  • Drawing standards are set of rules that govern how technical drawings are represented.

  • Drawing standards are used so that drawings convey the same meaning to everyone who reads them.

Standard Code

Country

Code

Full name

USA

ANSI

American National Standard Institute

Japan

JIS

Japanese Industrial Standard

UK

BS

British Standard

Australia

AS

Australian Standard

Germany

DIN

Deutsches Institut für Normung

ISO

International Standards Organization

Examples of JIS Standard

Code number

Contents

JIS Z 8311 JIS Z 8314 JIS Z 8312 JIS Z 8313 JIS Z 8315 JIS Z 8316 JIS Z 8317

Sizes and Format of Drawings Scales Line Conventions Lettering

Projection methods Presentation of Views and Sections Dimensioning

Drawing Standard Drawing Sheet

Drawing Standard

Drawing Sheet

Drawing Sheet : Standard size

  • Trimmed paper of a size A0 ~ A4.

  • Standard sheet size (JIS)

A4

210 x 297

A3

297 x 420

A2

420 x 594

A1

594 x 841

A0

841 x 1189

(Dimensions in millimeters)

A4 A3 A2 A1 A0
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0

Drawing

Sheet : Orientation & Margin

1. Type X (A0~A4) d c Border Drawing space lines Title block c c
1. Type X (A0~A4)
d
c
Border
Drawing space
lines
Title block
c
c
2. Type Y (A4 only) d Drawing space
2. Type Y (A4 only)
d
Drawing
space

Title block

Sheet size

c (min)

d (min)

A4

10

25

A3

10

25

A2

10

25

A1

20

25

A0

20

25

Drawing Standard Drawing Scale

Drawing Standard

Drawing Scale

Drawing Scales : Definition

Drawing Scales : Definition Length, size Scale is a ratio between the linear dimension of a

Length, size

Scale is a ratio between the linear dimension of a

drawn representation of an object and the actual object.

1 Drawing
1
Drawing

:

2 Actual
2
Actual

Drawing Scales : Designation

Designation of a scale consists of the word “ SCALE ” followed by the indication of

Designation of a scale consists of the word “SCALE” followed by the indication of its ratio, as follows

SCALE 1:1 SCALE X:1 SCALE 1:X

for full size (X > 1) for an enlargement scales (X > 1) for a reduction scales

Drawing scale is commonly found in a title block.

Drawing scale is commonly found in a title block.

Drawing Scales : Notes

Drawing Scales : Notes Dimension numbers shown in the drawing represent the “ true size ”

Dimension numbers shown in the drawing represent the “true size” of an object and they are independent of the drawing scale used.

Drawing Scales : Standard scale

  • Standard reducing scales are 1:2, 1:5, 1:10, 1:20, 1:50, 1:100

  • Standard enlarging scales are 2:1, 5:1, 10:1, 20:1, 50:1, 100:1

Drawing Standard Lettering

Drawing Standard

Lettering

Recommendation

Recommendation Text’s style on the drawing must have the following 2 properties Legibility - Shape -

Text’s style on the drawing must have the following 2 properties

Legibility

  • - Shape

  • - Space between letters

  • - Space between words

Uniformity

  • - Size (or text height)

  • - line thickness

Examples

Recommendation Text’s style on the drawing must have the following 2 properties Legibility - Shape -

GOOD

Not uniform in style.

Not uniform in height.

Not uniformly vertical.

Not uniform in thickness of stroke.

Inappropriate space between letters

Style (this course)

  • Gothic vertical style.

  • Begin the sentence, phrase or word with a capital letter.

  • Text height 2~3 mm.

  • Space between lines of text is about of text height.

  • Height of the lower-case letter is about 2/3 of that of a capital letter.

Basic Strokes

Straight Slanted Horizontal Curved
Straight
Slanted
Horizontal
Curved
Examples “I” letter “A” letter “B” letter 4 5 1 1 1 2 6 3 3
Examples
“I” letter
“A” letter
“B” letter
4
5
1
1
1
2
6
3
3
2

Upper-case Letters & Numerals

Suggested Strokes Sequence

Upper-case Letters & Numerals Suggested Strokes Sequence Straight line letters Curved line letters & Numerals
Upper-case Letters & Numerals Suggested Strokes Sequence Straight line letters Curved line letters & Numerals

Straight line letters

Curved line letters & Numerals

Lower-case Letters

Lower-case Letters
Lower-case Letters
Lower-case Letters
Lower-case Letters
Lower-case Letters
Lower-case Letters
Lower-case Letters
Lower-case Letters
Lower-case Letters
Lower-case Letters
Lower-case Letters
Lower-case Letters
Lower-case Letters
Lower-case Letters
Lower-case Letters
Lower-case Letters
Lower-case Letters
Lower-case Letters
Lower-case Letters

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case

I L E H
I
L
E
H
Stroke Sequence : Upper-case I L E H T F
Stroke Sequence : Upper-case I L E H T F

T

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case I L E H T F

F

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case I L E H T F

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case

V

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case V X W

X

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case V X W

W

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case V X W

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case

N

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case M K Z Y A 4

M

K

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case M K Z Y A 4
Stroke Sequence : Upper-case M K Z Y A 4

Z

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case M K Z Y A 4

Y

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case M K Z Y A 4

A

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case M K Z Y A 4

4

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case M K Z Y A 4

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case

O

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case Q C G

Q

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case Q C G

C

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case Q C G

G

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case Q C G

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case

D

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case U P B R J

U

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case U P B R J

P

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case U P B R J

B

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case U P B R J

R

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case U P B R J

J

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case U P B R J

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case

1

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case 1 2 5 7

2

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case 1 2 5 7

5

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case 1 2 5 7

7

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case 1 2 5 7

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case

S

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case 0 3 6 8 9

0

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case 0 3 6 8 9

3

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case 0 3 6 8 9

6

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case 0 3 6 8 9

8

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case 0 3 6 8 9

9

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case 0 3 6 8 9

Stroke Sequence : Lower-case

l i
l
i

Stroke Sequence : Lower-case

v

w

Stroke Sequence : Lower-case w x k z
Stroke Sequence : Lower-case w x k z

x

k

Stroke Sequence : Lower-case w x k z
Stroke Sequence : Lower-case w x k z

z

Stroke Sequence : Lower-case w x k z

Stroke Sequence : Lower-case

j y f t r
j
y
f
t
r
Stroke Sequence : Lower-case j y f t r

Stroke Sequence : Lower-case

c

Stroke Sequence : Lower-case o a b d p q e

o

Stroke Sequence : Lower-case o a b d p q e

a

b

Stroke Sequence : Lower-case o a b d p q e
Stroke Sequence : Lower-case o a b d p q e

d

Stroke Sequence : Lower-case o a b d p q e

p

Stroke Sequence : Lower-case o a b d p q e

q

Stroke Sequence : Lower-case o a b d p q e

e

Stroke Sequence : Lower-case o a b d p q e

Stroke Sequence : Lower-case

g

Stroke Sequence : Lower-case n m h u s

n

Stroke Sequence : Lower-case n m h u s

m

h

Stroke Sequence : Lower-case n m h u s
Stroke Sequence : Lower-case n m h u s

u

s

Stroke Sequence : Lower-case n m h u s
Stroke Sequence : Lower-case n m h u s

Word Composition

  • Space between the letters depends on the adjacent contour of the letters.

Non-uniform

spacing

DRAWING

Uniform

spacing

  • D R

Word Composition Space between the letters depends on the adjacent contour of the letters. Non-uniform spacing
Word Composition Space between the letters depends on the adjacent contour of the letters. Non-uniform spacing

A W

Word Composition Space between the letters depends on the adjacent contour of the letters. Non-uniform spacing
I
I

N G

Word Composition Space between the letters depends on the adjacent contour of the letters. Non-uniform spacing
  • Word having non-uniform spacing is more readable.

Word Composition

DRAWING Contour
DRAWING
Contour

Contour can be denoted as “straight”, “slant” and “curve”. Adjacent contour can be

Word Composition DRAWING Contour Contour can be denoted as “ straight ”, “ slant ” and

1. straight-straight

:

II, IN, IM, IP etc.

  • 2. straight-curve (or curve-straight) : IO, QR etc.

  • 3. straight-slant (or slant-straight)

:

IV, IW etc.

  • 4. curve-curve

:

  • 5. slant-curve (or curve-slant)

OO, OG etc. VO, WG, VC etc.

:

  • 6. slant-slant

:

VW, VX etc.

Spacing
Spacing

Sentence Composition

Sentence Composition Leave the space between words equal to the space requires for writing a letter

Leave the space between words equal to the space requires for writing a letter “O”.

Example

ALL O

DIMENSIONS O ARE O IN

MILLIMETERS O UNLESS

OTHERWISE O SPECIFIED.

Drawing Standard Line Types

Drawing Standard

Line Types

Basic Line Types & Name according to application

Thickness 1. Dimension line Thick Thin 2. Extension line Visible line Style 3. Leader line Continuous
Thickness
1. Dimension line
Thick
Thin
2.
Extension line
Visible line
Style
3.
Leader line
Continuous
Hidden line
Dash
Chain
Center line

1. Visible line

represent features that can be seen in the current view.

  • 2. Dimension line Extension line Leader line

indicate the sizes and location of features.

  • 3. Hidden line

represent features that can not be seen in the current view.
represent features that can not be seen in the current view.

Example

Example