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An Experimental Study of HCCI
Engine

Contents

Importance
Working principle
Starting of HCCI engines
Control methods of HCCI
Dual mode transitions
Characteristics
Recent developments
Conclusion
Reference

HCCI
Importance

SI engines have very low NOx and PM


emissions
CI engines have high efficiency
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition
(HCCI) is
a promising alternative combustion
technology with high efficiency and lower NOx
and particulate matter emissions

Principle

HCCI is characterized by the fact that the fuel


and air are mixed before combustion starts
and the mixture auto-ignites as a result of the
temperature increase in the compression
stroke

Optical diagnostics research shows that HCCI


combustion initiates simultaneously at
multiple sites
within the combustion chamber and that there
is no discernable flame propagation.

Comparison of SI and HCCI


combustion
Spark Ignition

HCCI

HCCI Concept

HCCI

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

POTENTIAL
High efficiency, no knock limit on compression
ratio.
Low NOx and no NOx after treatment systems
required.
Low PM emissions, no need for PM filter.
HCCI provides up to a 15-percent fuel savings,
while meeting current emissions standards.
HCCI engines can operate on gasoline, diesel fuel,
and most alternative fuels.
In regards to CI engines, the omission of throttle
losses improves HCCI efficiency.

HCCI

1.

2.

3.

BARRIERS
The auto-ignition event is difficult to
control, unlike the ignition event in spark
-ignition(SI) and diesel engines which
are controlled by spark plugs and incylinder fuel injectors, respectively.
HCCI engines have a small power range,
constrained at low loads by lean
flammability limits and high loads by incylinder pressure restrictions
High HC and CO emissions.

Starting HCCI engines

Charge does not readily auto ignite cold


engines.
Early proposal was to start in SI mode and run
in HCCI mode.
It involves the risk of knocking and cylinder
failure at high compression ratios.
Now intake air pre-heating with HE and burner
system allows startup in HCCI mode with
conventional starter.

Starting HCCI engines

Control methods of HCCI


combustion

The spontaneous and simultaneous


combustion of fuel-air mixture need to be
controlled.
No direct control methods possible as in SI or
CI engines.
Various control methods are:

Variable compression ratio

Variable induction temperature

Variable valve actuation

Control methods of HCCI


combustion

Variable compression ratio method

The geometric compression ratio can be changed


with a movable plunger at the top of the cylinder
head. This concept used in diesel model aircraft
engine.

Variable induction temperature

The simplest method uses resistance heater


to vary inlet temperature. But this method is
slow
Now FTM (Fast Thermal Management) is
used. It is accomplished by rapidly varying
the cycle to cycle intake charge

FTM system
Rapid mixing of cool and hot intake air
takes place achieving optimal temperature
as demanded and hence better control.

FTM Control method


Combustion timing can be controlled
by adjusting balance of hot and cold
flow

Control methods of HCCI


combustion

Variable valve actuation (VVA)

This method gives finer control within


combustion chamber
Involves controlling the effective pressure
ratio. It controls the point at which the
intake valve closes. If the closure is after
BDC, the effective volume and hence
compression ratio changes.

Control methods of HCCI


combustion

Dual mode transitions

When auto-ignition occurs too early or


with too much chemical energy,
combustion is too fast and high incylinder pressures can destroy an
engine. For this reason, HCCI is typically
operated at lean overall fuel mixtures
This restricts engine operation at high
loads.

Dual mode transitions

Practical HCCI engines will need to


switch to a conventional SI or diesel
mode at very low and high load
conditions due to dilution limits

Two modes:

HCCI-DI dual mode


HCCI-SI dual mode

SI mode transitions

It equips VVA and spark ignition system


Operates in HCCI mode at low to medium
loads and switches into SI mode at higher
loads
Transition is not very stable and smooth

DI-HCCI

Long ignition delay and rapid mixing are


required to achieve diluted homogeneous
mixture.
Combustion noise and NOx emissions were
reduced substantially without an increase in
PM.
Combustion phasing is controlled by injection
timing.
Thus DI-HCCI proves to be promising
alternative for conventional HCCI with good
range of operation.

Combustion characteristics

Emission characteristics

Emission characteristics

Emission characteristics

Engine performance

Engine performance

Recent developments in HCCI

Turbo charging initially proposed to


increase power

1.

2.

3.

Challenges for turbo charging


Exhaust gas temperatures low (300 to 350 c)
because of high compression ratio.
Post turbine exhaust gas temperature must be high
enough to preheat intake fuel-air mixture in HE.
Low available compressor pressure ratio.

Recent developments in HCCI

1.

2.

Solution for turbo charging


Use VGT (Variable Geometry Turbine) which allows
for a greater range of turbine nozzle area, better
chance to achieve high boost.
Combining turbo charging and super charging may
be beneficial.

EGR (Exhaust Gas Re-circulation) Can


be adopted for higher efficiencies and
lower HC and CO emissions.

Recent developments in HCCI

The exhaust has dual effects on


HCCI combustion.

It dilutes the fresh charge, delaying ignition and


reducing the chemical energy and engine work.
Reduce the CO and HC emissions.

HCCI prototypes

General Motors has demonstrated Opel Vectra and Saturn


Aura with modified HCCI engines.
Mercedes-Benz has developed a prototype engine called
Dies Otto, with controlled auto ignition. It was displayed in
its F 700 concept car at the 2007 Frankfurt Auto Show
Volkswagen are developing two types of engine for HCCI
operation. The first, called Combined Combustion System
or CCS, is based on the VW Group 2.0-litre diesel engine
but uses homogenous intake charge rather than traditional
diesel injection. It requires the use of synthetic fuel to
achieve maximum benefit. The second is called Gasoline
Compression Ignition or GCI; it uses HCCI when cruising
and spark ignition when accelerating. Both engines have
been demonstrated in Touran prototypes, and the company
expects them to be ready for production in about 2015.

HCCI prototypes

In May 2008, General Motors gave Auto Express access


to a Vauxhall Insignia prototype fitted with a 2.2-litre
HCCI engine, which will be offered alongside their
ecoFLEX range of small-capacity, turbocharged petrol
and diesel engines when the car goes into production.
Official figures are not yet available, but fuel economy is
expected to be in the region of 43mpg with carbon
dioxide emissions of about 150 grams per kilometre,
improving on the 37mpg and 180g/km produced by the
current 2.2-litre petrol engine. The new engine operates
in HCCI mode at low speeds or when cruising, switching
to conventional spark-ignition when the throttle is
opened

Conclusions

HCCI-DI combustion with nheptane/diesel dual fuel is a 3-stage


combustion process consisting of cool
flame, HCCI combustion and diffusive
combustion.
Increase of premixed ratio, shortens the
NTC, increases the peak in-cylinder
pressure and temperature and rises the
highest heat release rate of HCCI
combustion phase

Conclusions

NOx emissions decrease firstly at low


premixed ratios and exhibit a trend of
increasing at higher premixed ratios.

Pre-mixed ratio has no significant effect


on soot emission and the soot emission
could remain at the same level but then
have a peak value with a certain higher
premixed ratio relating to the
equivalence ratio.

Conclusions

The change of CO with premixed ratio is


mainly depending on whether the
premixed equivalence ratio exceeds the
critical value. UHC increases almost
linearly with the premixed ratio mainly
due to the incomplete oxidation in the
boundary layer and the crevices.

Conclusions

The IMEP increases with the increase of


premixed ratio at low to medium loads.
The indicated thermal efficiency shows
deterioration at high load with large
premixed ratios.

Reference

http://www.wikipedia.com
^ Zhao, Fuquan; Thomas W. Asmus, Dennis N. Assanis, John E. Dec,
James A. Eng, Paul M. Najt (2003). Homogeneous Charge Compression
Ignition (HCCI) Engines: Key Research and Development Issues.
Warrendale, PA, USA: Society of Automotive Engineers. pp.1112.
ISBN 076801123X
http://www.howstuffworks.com
^ Pitz, William J.; SM Aceves, JR Smith, CK Westbrook (1999).
"Compression ratio effect on methane HCCI combustion". JOURNAL OF
ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER-TRANSACTIONS OF THE
ASME 212 (3): 569-574.

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