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Presented by:

Prachee.Ratnaparkhi.
S.Y.Bsc, IFS

TOPICS COVERED
What is BIOMETRICS??
Why is it needed??
What are its VARIOUS TYPES??
IRIS RECOGNITION IN
DETAIL.
(its
Strength,Weakness,Advantage
s,Disadvantages, S.W.A.D.)

What is BIOMETRICS??
Derived from the Greek words
bio: life metrics: to measure
BIOMETRICS studies the
statistical and mathematical
methods of recognizing people
based on PHYSICAL or
BEHAVIOURAL properties.

IT is the SCIENCE OF
IDENTIFYING AND ESTABLISHING
THE IDENTITY of an individual

WHY IT IS NEEDED??
PASSWORDS ARE WEEK
BIOMETRICS IS IMPOSSIBLE TO
SHARE WITH OTHERS
CANNOT BE LOST OR STOLEN
DIFFICULT TO FORGE
UNIQUE- NON-REPUDIABLE
UNIVERSAL
INCREASED SECURITY

WHAT ARE ITS VARIOUS TYPES??


BIOMETRICS IS CLASSIFIED UNDER THREE BASIC
CATEGORIES
1.PHYSICAL

fingerprint
hand geometry
face recognition
iris recognition
2.BEHAVIOURAL

handwriting
signature
speech
gait
3.CHEMICAL/BIOLOGICAL

skin spectroscopy
DNA
blood-glucose

WHAT
EXACTLY AN
IRIS OF THE
IRIS IS THE PART AROUND
HUMAN
EYE
THE
PUPIL OF OUR
EYES
IS.
ITS THE ONLY FEATURE OF
THE HUMAN EYE THAT
DOSNT CHANGE ITS FINE
TEXTURE EVEN AFTER ANY
MEDICAL OR SURGICAL
PROCEDURES (LIKE
CATERACT ETC), AND
REMAINS STABLE OVER MANY
DECADES.
IT IS AN INTERNAL ORGAN
THAT IS WELL PROTECTED
AGAINST DAMAGE AND WEAR
BYA HIGHLY TRANSPARENT
AND SENSITIVE MEMBRANE
(THE CORNEA)

VISIBLE WAVELENGTH (VW) v/s


NEAR INFRARED
(NIR)
IMAGING
NIR IS DONE
BY EMITTING

750nm OF WAVELENGTH LIGHT


SOURCE
THIS IS DONE TO AVOID THE
LIGHT REFLECTIONS AS IT
MAKES THE IMAGE NOISY
GIVES BETTER QUALITY IMAGES
BUT LOSS OF MELANIN
INFORMATION WHICH IS A RICH
SOURCE FOR IDENTIFICATION
MELANIN IS OF TWO TYPES
EUMELANIN (BROWN-BLACK) AND
PHEOMELANIN (YELLOWREDDISH)
THIS FEATURE IS NOT SEEN
DITINCTLY IN NIR IMAGING
WHEREAS IN VW THIS
INFORMATION REMIANS INTACT
AND ALSO THE INFORMATION
GIVEN IS IN CODED SHAPES OF
THE IRIS PATTERNS..

VISIBLE
WAVELENGTH

NIR IMAGING

OPERATING
PRINCIPAL
IDENTIFY THE APPROXIMATE
CONCENTRIC CIRCULAR BOUNDERIES
OF THE IRIS AND THE PUPIL IN THE
PHOTO
SET OF PIXELS COVERIN ONLY THE
IRIS IS CONVERTED INTO A BIT
PATTERN
THIS PRSERVES THE ESSENTIAL
INFORMATION FOR STATICAL AND
COMPARISION PURPOSES BETWEEN
TWO IRIS IMAGES
MATHEMATICAL ALGORITHMS ARE
USED FOR COMPARION .
RESULT IS A SET OF COMPLAEX NUM
BERS WHICH INDICATE THE AMPLITUDE
AND PHASE INFORMATION OF THE IRIS
IMAGE
TO AUTHENTICATE VIA
IDENTIFICATION (ONE TO MANY
TEMPLATE COMPARISON) OR
VERIFICATION (ONE TO ONE TEMPLATE
COMPARISION), IS DONE USIN G THE
DATS SRORED IN THE DATABASE.
PRACTICAL PROBLEM EYELIDS AND
EYELASHES COVERIN THE
IRIS.VARIOUS ALGORITHMS ARE
USED..

SIMPLE FLOW CHART TO


UNDERSTAND THE
WORKING

ADVANTAGES
INTERNAL ORGAN, PROTECTED
FROM DAMAGE, SO DISTINGUISED
FROM FINERPRINTS AS THEY CAN
BE DIFFICULT TO VERIFY AFTER
YEARS OF MANUAL LABOUR
IRIS IS FLAT, DEFINITE GEOMETRIC
STRUCTURE, DEPENDS ON THE
SPHINCTER AND DIALATOR
MUSCLES, THUS MAKING THE IRIS
SHAPE MORE PREDICTABLE THAN

HAS FINE TEXTURE FORMED DURING EMBYRONIC


GESTATION, TEXTURE IS UNIQUE AND INDEPENDENT
TEXTURES UNIQUE FROM DNA FINGERPRINTING,
ESPECIALLY OF THE TWINS WHO ARE GENETICALLY
INDENTICAL
TAKING A PHOTOGRAPH FROM A FEW METERS AWAY,
SO NO TOUCHING THE MACHINE OR INTERMINGLING
OF THE RESULTS AS IN FINGERPRINTS SOME SAY
THAT DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPH WITH AN IRIS OF 200
PIXELS CONTAINS MUCH MORE LONG TERM STBLE
INFORMATION THAN THE FINGERPRINTS
THE FINE TEXTUTRES OF THE IRIS REMAIN THE SAME
AND STABLE THROUGHOUT ONES LIFE TIME, EVEN
AFTER THE MEDICAL OR SURGICAL PROCEDURES LIKE
LASER TREATMENTS ,CATERACTS ,ETC

DISADVANTAGES
IRIS RECOGNITION TECHNIQUE IS A
NAIVE TECHNOLOGY, HENCE UNLIKE
FINGERPRINTS THE LAW ENFORCEMENT
AND IMMIGRATION AUTHORITES ARE
INCOMPATIBLE WITH THIS NEW
TECHNIQUE.
STAND- OFF IRIS OR IRIS AT A
DISTANCE.ITS DIFFICULT TO PERM
IRIS RECOGMITIOM AT ALARGER
DISTANCE AND ALSO CERTAIN TIMES
THE PEOPLE REFUSE TO CO OPERATE,
AT SUCH TIMES SEVERAL BIOMETRIC
VENDORS ARE TRYIN TO COME UP WITH

SPECTRAL ANALYSIS INSTEAD OF


MONOCHROMATIC PHOTOGRAPHY IS USED TO
DISTINGUISH BETWEEN THE REAL TISUR OF THE
IRIS FORM ANY OTHER MATERIAL LIKE A PHOTO
ALSO CERTAIN CIVIL RIGHTS ACTIVISTS HAVE
VOICED THAT IRIS RECOGNITION IS A TECHNIQUE
THAT CAN TRACK PEOPLE EVEN WITHOUT THEIR
WILL AT TIMES UNLIKE THE ID CARDS
IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM ETC..

A BASIC IRIS SCANNER

A VIEW OF
THE IRIS
AFTER ITS
SCANNED

THE IMAGE SHOWS


HOW THE IRIS
SCANING IS CARRIED
OUT AT THE
COMPUTER LEVEL
USING VARIOUS
SOFTWARES

SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS
RELIABILITY OF ANY BIOMETRICC SYSTEM
DEPENDS ON ENSURING THAT THE SIGNAL THAT IS
ACQUIRED IS RECOREDE FROM THE LIVE BODY OR A
MANUFACTUTRED TEMPLATE
MANY IRIS SCANNING SYSTEMS ARE FOOLED BY
SHOWING A HIGH DEFDINITION IMAGE OF THR FACE
INSTEAD OF A REAL OR LIVE FACETHUS THERE
ARE CAHNCES OF THE RESULTS BEING NOT
CORRECT AND UNRELIABLE
VARIOUS METHODS ARE BEING TRIED TO
OVERCOME THESE WEAKNESS

LIKE THE SPECTRAL ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE IS


USED INSTEAD OF MONOCHROMATIC
PHOTOGRAPHY TO DISTINGUISH THE REAL IRIS
TISSUE FROM THE MATERIAL..
ALSO THE 3D IMAGING IS USED TO VERIFY
THE POSITION AND SHAPE OF THE IRIS
RELATIVE TO THE OTHER EYE
AS EVERY GOOD THING AS BAD THINGS TOO
EFFORTS ARE BEING TAKEN TO OVERCOME THE
PROBLEMS AND MAKE THE BEST USE OF
TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE

APPLICATIONS OF IRIS
RECOGNITION

MARINE CORPS SERGEANT USES AN IRIS


SCANNER TO POSITIVELIU IDENTIFY A
NUMBER OF THE BAGHDADIS PRIOR TO A
MEETING WITH THE LOCAL TRIBAL
LEADERS

IRIS GUARD Inc. A COMPANY SPECIALIZED IN LARGE SCALE


SECURITY SOLUTIONS BASED ON IRIS RECOGNITION USES
THIS METHOD AT THE UAE ENROLLMENT STATION

AN IMAGE SHOWING HOW THE TWO IRIS ARE BEING


COMPARED, VERIFIED, AND IDENTIFIED

Suitability of iris recognition

How suitable is iris recognition as a biometric solution?


We use the following 7 criteria to evaluate the suitability of iris
Iris recognition is said to have a very low
Universali FER (Failure to Enroll Rate), i.e. the
ty
smallest group of people which cannot
use the technology.
The patterns of the iris are highly
variable, and considered unique for each
Uniquene individual. The patterns are formed
ss
randomly during embryonic gestation;
therefore even genetically identical
twins have different iris patterns.
The iris has the great advantage that it is
internal, and thus well protected, but
externally visible. Furthermore the iris does
Permanen
not change with ageing, one enrolment
ce
should be sufficient for a lifetime with the

The shape of the iris is almost completely flat and


thus very predictable, much more than that of the
face. Also an image can be taken from 10 cm up to
a few meters away. Therefore no expensive 3D
cameras are needed and the impact of a different
viewing angle is far less than for example with face
Collectabil recognition.
ity
An issue however is the lighting, because the eyes
are a reflective surface and also subjects do not
want to lose their sight due to excessive lighting.
Furthermore the iris is often partially obscured by
eyelids; this must be compensated by the matching
algorithm.
Contrary to retina scans the iris can only reveal
very little medical information about the subject.
Furthermore subjects do not have to be in direct
contact with the biometric device or camera, which
Acceptabil is an objection that is often raised against
ity
fingerprint recognition.
A concern that some people might have is eye

A common issue with all biometric


solutions is liveliness detection, for nonsupervised applications liveliness
detection is absolutely required. There
Circumventi are some possibilities for liveliness
on
detection on iris scanners: verification of
changing pupil size upon light intensity
variation, verification of the natural
movement of the eyeball, using the redeye effect, etc.
Iris recognition using Iris Code , which
is used in most commercial iris
recognition products, is well suited for
Performanc
one-to-many identification because of
e
high speeds of comparison. Furthermore
the Iris Code matching algorithm has a
very low, even unprecedented false

THUS EVERY SYSTEM HAS


ITS PROS AND CONS.IT
DEPENDS ON US HOW DO
WE OVERCOME THEM AND
MAKE USE OF OUR
KNOWLEDEGE..