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Air

conditioning

INTRODUCTION
Definition

- Air conditioningis the


process of altering the properties
ofair(primarilytemperatureandhu
midity) to more favorable conditions.
The control of these conditions may
be desirable to maintain the health
and comfort of the occupants, or to
meet the requirements of industrial
processes irrespective of the external
climatic conditions

PRINCIPLES OF AIR-CONDITIONING
The

goal is to keep it more comfortable inside the


house than it is outside.

TYPE OF AIR-CONDITIONING
1)
2)
3)
4)

Window air-conditioning system


Split air-conditioning system
Centralised air-conditioning system
Package air-conditioning system

1) Windows Air-conditioning System


Window air conditioners are one of the most
commonly used and cheapest type of air
conditioners.
To install one of these units, you need the space
to make a slot in the wall, and there should also
be some open space behind the wall.
Window air-conditioner units are reliable and
simple-to-install solution to keep a room cool
while avoiding the costly construction of a central
air system.
Better yet, when the summer heat dies down,
these units can be easily removed for storage,
and you can use the window sill for other purpose

2) Split Air-Conditioning System


The

split air conditioner comprises of two parts:


the outdoor unit and the indoor unit.
The outdoor unit, fitted outside the room,
houses components like the compressor,
condenser and expansion valve.
The indoor unit comprises the evaporator or
cooling coil and the cooling fan. For this unit you
dont have to make any slot in the wall of the
room.
Further, the present day split units have
aesthetic looks and add to the beauty of the
room. The split air conditioner can be used to
cool one or two rooms

Centralised Air-Conditioning System


The

central air conditioning plants or the systems


are used when large buildings, hotels, theaters,
airports, shopping malls etc. are to be air
conditioned completely.
The window and split air conditioners are used for
single rooms or small office spaces.
If the whole building is to be cooled it is not
economically viable to put window or split air
conditioner in each and every room.
Further, these small units cannot satisfactorily
cool the large halls, auditoriums, receptions areas
etc.

4) Packaged Air-Conditioning System


The

window and split air conditioners are usually


used for the small air conditioning capacities up to
5 tons.
The central air conditioning systems are used for
where the cooling loads extend beyond 20 tons.
The packaged air conditioners are used for the
cooling capacities in between these two extremes.
The packaged air conditioners are available in the
fixed rated capacities of 3,5, 7, 10 and 15 tons.
These units are used commonly in places like
restaurants, telephone exchanges, homes, small
halls, etc.

APackagedTerminalAir

Conditioner(often
abbreviated PTAC) is a type of self-contained
heating andair conditioningsystem commonly
found in hotels, motels, senior housing facilities,
hospitals, condominiums, apartment buildings,
add-on rooms & sunrooms

New Invented Technology


for Air-Conditioning System

DISTRICT
COOLING
SYSTEM

CHILLED BEAM
SYSTEM

District Cooling System

District Cooling Systems (DCS) is a system which


distribute chilled water or other media, usually
provided from a dedicated cooling plant, to multiple
buildings for air conditioning or other uses.

The Objectives :
To centralized production of chilled water by
using district cooling plant. The generated
chilled water will then be channeled to various
building blocks thru pre-insulated seamless
underground pipes.

District Cooling System

The Advantages
1. Improve energy efficiency
2. Protect environment
3. Save spaces
4. Improve urban view
5. Reduce manpower for
operation and maintenance

District Cooling System

How The System Work ?


DC means the centralized production and distribution
of cooling energy. Chilled water is delivered via an
underground insulated pipeline to office, industrial
and residential buildings to cool the indoor air of the
buildings within a district. Specially designed units in
each building then use this water to lower the
temperature of air passing through the buildings ACS.
The output of one cooling plant is enough to meet the
cooling-energy demand of dozens of buildings. DC
can be run on electricity or natural gas, and can use
either regular water or seawater. Along with
electricity and water, DC constitute a new form of
energy service.

District Cooling System


Why It Is Environmental Friendly ?
District cooling helps the environment by
increasing energy efficiency and reducing
environmental emissions including air
pollution, the greenhouse gas (GHG) carbon
dioxide(CO2) and ozone-destroying
refrigerants. District cooling can reduce
annual CO2emissions by about 1 ton for
every ton of district cooling refrigeration
demand served

DCS Network Diagram

DCS Network Diagram

DCS - COMPONENTS
Central

Chiller Plant generate chilled water


for cooling purposes
Distribution Network distribute chilled water
to building
User Station interface own building airconditioning circuit

CHILLED BEAM SYSTEM


It is a type of convection HVAC system designed to
heat or cooled high rise building such as
commercial building.
Its primarily gives off its cooling effect through
convection by using water to remove heat from a
room.
Pipes of water passed through the beam suspended
short distance from the ceiling of a room.
As the beam chills the air around it, the air
becomes denser and falls to the floor.
It is replaced by warmer air moving up from below,
causing a constant flow of convection and cooling
the room.

ADVANTAGES
Simple

to design and control


Smaller ductwork
Less mechanical space
Less maintenance
Increase comfort

DISADVANTAGES

Not well known in our industry


Higher construction cost
Many engineers arent familiar with this
technology
Dew point concerns, building must have a
good control of humidity to prevent
condensation on chilled beam surface.

DEFINITION a cycle that shows how the refrigerant


vapor is inhaled and discharged by the compressor
to the condenser.

Compressor
Cold refrigerant vapor
-Inhaling the
and low pressure
refrigerant from the
suction channel
Evaporator
-Liquid turns to vapor
- Compressing to the
-Cold air flows out room
discharge channel.
Hot refrigerant vapor
and high pressure
Cold refrigerant vapor
and low pressure

ondenser
emove heat from condenser
efrigerant vapor turn to liquid.

Hot refrigerant vapor


and high pressure

Expansion Valve
-Low the temperature and
pressure of liquid
-Control the flow rate in
-to the evaporator.

COMPRESSOR

CONDENSER

EVAPORATOR

EXPANSION VALVE

THE COOLANT
Heat

is removed from the cooling by


coolant.
Functions as a heat absorber from the
evaporator
Good coolant must have features ;
1. Non toxic
2. Not explosive
3. Non-corrosive components

THE COOLANT
Not

explosive
Soluble in oil to lubricate effectively
Harmless when responding to oil even in
the presence of moisture
Have a high resistance to electricity.

Type of coolant
R-22
MONOKLORODIFLUOROMETANA

R-11
TRIKLOROMONOFLUROMETANA

R-12
DIKLORODIFLUOROMETANA

Basic Concepts of Air Conditioning

COIL

COOL
AIR

HEAT

SOURCE OF
COOL AIR
COIL

TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM

S.A. DUCT

COIL

S.A.
FAN

COOL
AIR

HEAT

TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM

S.A.
TERMINAL

S.A. DUCT

COIL

S.A.
FAN

COOL
AIR

HEAT

TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM


R.A. GRILL
S.A.
TERMINAL

S.A. DUCT

COIL

S.A.
FAN

COOL
AIR

WARM AIR

HEAT

TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM


R.A DUCT
S.A.
TERMINAL

S.A. DUCT

COIL

S.A.
FAN

R.A. GRILL

COOL
AIR

HEAT

TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM


R.A.
FAN

R.A DUCT
S.A. DUCT

COIL
S.A.
FAN

R.A. GRILL
S.A.
TERMINAL

COOL
AIR

HEAT

TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM


R.A.
FAN

R.A DUCT
S.A. DUCT

R.A. DAMPER
COIL
FRESH
OUTDOOR
AIR

S.A.
FAN

O.A.
DAMPER
FILTER

R.A. GRILL
S.A.
TERMINAL

COOL
AIR

HEAT

TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM


EXHAUST
AIR

E.A.
DAMPER

R.A.
FAN

R.A DUCT
S.A. DUCT

R.A. DAMPER
COIL
FRESH
OUTDOOR
AIR

S.A.
FAN

O.A.
DAMPER
FILTER

R.A. GRILL
S.A.
TERMINAL

COOL
AIR

HEAT

Economizer
Aneconomizeris a mechanical device used to reduce
energy consumption
Provides

cooling to space when outdoor air


temperatures are below 55 degrees
Switches over automatically from mechanical
cooling
Adjusts R.A. and F.A. dampers to maintain space
temp
May incorporate enthalpy control
Mandatory in some states based on unit capacity

TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM


EXHAUST
AIR

E.A.
DAMPER

R.A.
FAN

R.A DUCT
S.A. DUCT

R.A. DAMPER

HEAT

S.A.
FAN

O.A.
DAMPER

WATER PIPING
FILTER

CHILLED
WATER
PUMP

S.A.
TERMINAL

COOL
AIR

COIL
FRESH
OUTDOOR
AIR

R.A. GRILL

WATER
CHILLER

TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM


EXHAUST
AIR

E.A.
DAMPER

R.A.
FAN

R.A DUCT
S.A. DUCT

R.A. DAMPER

HEAT

S.A.
FAN

O.A.
DAMPER

S.A.
TERMINAL

COOL
AIR

COIL
FRESH
OUTDOOR
AIR

R.A. GRILL

WATER PIPING
FILTER

HEAT

CHILLED
WATER
PUMP

COOLING
TOWER
WATER
CHILLER
CONDENSER
PUMP

TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM


EXHAUST
AIR

E.A.
DAMPER

R.A.
FAN

R.A DUCT
S.A. DUCT

R.A. DAMPER

HEAT

S.A.
FAN

O.A.
DAMPER

S.A.
TERMINAL

COOL
AIR

COIL
FRESH
OUTDOOR
AIR

R.A. GRILL

WATER PIPING
FILTER

HEAT

BOILER

CHILLED
WATER
PUMP

COOLING
TOWER
WATER
CHILLER
CONDENSER
PUMP

Equipment Types
ROOFTOP

PACKAGE UNIT
SPLIT SYSTEM
CHILLED WATER AIR HANDLER
VARIABLE AIR VOLUME (VAV)
AIR TO AIR HEAT PUMP
Life expectancy 10 to 12 yrs for rooftop
and split systems
Expect increase in repair costs as
equipment ages
Typically largest expense to operation of
store, energy/repair costs
Repair or Replace?

Single Package Roof Top Unit


Most common
Entire hvac system is
located on mall roof

Most common to have roof

leaks from roof curb,


condensate overflow or roof
punctures

Single Package Roof Top Unit


HEAT

CONDR

COMP

O.A.

COIL
FAN

E.A.

S.A. DUCT

R.A. DUCT

S.A.
TERMINAL

HEAT

ELECTRIC
HEATER

Single Package Roof Top Unit


Rooftop

package unit
Mounted on adaptor
curb
Power exhaust and
economizer installed

Split System
HVAC

system split into 2 pieces


Condensing unit located on roof (houses
compressor, condenser coil, condenser fan
motor)
Air handler located in space above ceiling
(houses blower assembly, evap coil, air filters)
Connected electrically and with refrigerant piping
Most prone to refrigerant leaks especially if long
distance between components
Many times refrigerant lines are buried in
construction and inaccessible

SPLIT SYSTEM
CONDENSING UNIT
REFRIGERANT
LINES

O.A.

HEAT

C
O
M
P

C
O
N
D
R

AIR
AIR HANDLING
UNIT

COIL

POSSIBLE
ELECTRIC
HEAT

FAN

E.A.

S.A. DUCT
R.A. DUCT

HEAT

OPTIONAL
SUPPLEMENTARY
HEATING
SYSTEM

SPLIT SYSTEM

Split System
Air

cooled
condensing unit
Compressor,
condenser coil and
condenser fans
Connected to indoor
air handler

VAV BOX
Consists of VAV terminal
box located in the space
above ceiling

May have supplemental

blower motor for positive


airflow to space

May have air filtration


Has a damper inside that
opens and closes on
demand from thermostat
to allow more or less
airflow to space

Variable Air Volume

Major System Components


Compressor
Condenser coil
Evaporator coil
Condenser fan motor
Evaporator fan motor
Thermostatic expansion valve
Evaporator blower assembly
Economizers (Optional)

HEAT REJECTION
(HIGH TEMPERATURE)

CONDITIONED
SPACE

95F

CONDENSER

105F

85F

HEAT

COOLING
TOWER

COMPRESSOR

75F

95F

95F DB
78F DB

55F
35F
COOLER
45F

HEAT GATHERING
(LOW TEMPERATURE)

REFRIGERATION
MACHINE
(REFRIGERATION CYCLE)

Compressor
This

component is the heart of the


system..
Pumps refrigerant and oil throughout
system
Separates the high pressure side of the
system from the low pressure side
If compressor fails, no cooling is possible

Condenser
Condenser

coil is what gets rid of the heat in

the system
Can be water or air cooled, however most are
air cooled in retail application
Located outdoors (air cooled)
Fins on coil are subject to corrosion in salt water
environment. Special coatings can be applied.
Fins are subject to damage from hail
Traps dirt and requires periodic cleanings

Evaporator Coil
Provides

cold air to the space


Located after the system air filters
Return air is blown over the coil and
chilled
Removes moisture from air (condensate)
Traps dirt that gets past air filters,
reducing cooling capacity (95% is
bacterial)
Requires periodic chemical cleaning

Evaporator Fan Motor


Located

behind condenser coil


Draws ambient air across condenser coil
System may have up to 4 or more motors
based on system capacity
Motors are direct drive with fan blades
attached
Requires little if any maintenance (sealed
bearings)

TXV Thermal Expansion Valve


Located

at the evaporator coil


Provides the correct amount of refrigerant to
the evaporator coil for proper cooling
Separates the high pressure side of the system
from the low pressure side
Failure could cause compressor failure and loss
of system cooling capacity
Frequently overlooked in diagnosing system
problems
Requires manual setting of superheat for proper
operation.

Evaporator Blower Assembly


Consists

of:
Blower motor
Pulleys and fan belts
Bearings
Fan shaft
Fan wheels
Housings
Can be located indoors or outdoors

Control Types
CONVENTIONAL

THERMOSTAT
DIGITAL PROGRAMMABLE THERMOSTAT
PNEUMATIC
LCD SYSTEM
MALL INTERFACE

Low Ambient Controls


Low

ambient controls
May be added to air cooled systems
that must operate when outdoor
temperatures are below 55 degrees
Cycles condenser fan/s to maintain
correct system pressures
Used when economizer is not present
Much less costly to install
Much more costly to operate

Conventional Thermostat
Completely

manual operation
Will maintain a single heat or cool setting
System must be switched from heat to cool
No energy savings
Will allow system to operate all night while
store is closed wasting energy
Easy to tamper with
Least expensive to install

Programmable Thermostat
Provides

auto
changeover from
heat to cool
Provides up to 4
heat/cool settings
per 24 hour period
Can provide
different weekend
settings
Keyboard can be
locked out
Set it and forget it

Pneumatic Thermostat
Uses

air provided by mall to operate


thermostat
Very commonly used with VAV systems
Least commonly found in malls
Parts are fairly expensive

LCD Thermostat
Used

in newer stores
Programmable type
Can be dialed into by monitoring
company for data

Rules Of Thumb
1HP = 1KW = 1KVA

1KW = 3413 BTU

1 Ton Cooling = 12,000 BTU

1 Ton = 400 CFM

Retail = 380 SQ FT/ Ton cooling


Delta T = 18F across coil cooling
heating

Delta T = 25F for

CFM = Building Volume in Cubic Feet


Minute/Air Change
Delta T = Difference between entering and leaving DB = T