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Introductory Chemistry:

Concepts & Connections

4th Edition by Charles H. Corwin

Chapter 1

to Chemistry
Christopher G. Hamaker, Illinois State University, Normal IL
2005, Prentice Hall

Chemistry: The Central Science

Most other sciences demand an understanding of
basic chemical principles, and Chemistry is often
referred to as the
Central Science

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Evolution of Chemistry
The Greeks believed in
four basic elements,
Earth, Air, Fire, and Water
All substances were
combinations of these
four basic elements

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Scientific Investigations
Science is the methodical exploration of nature
followed by a logical explanation of the
Scientific investigation entails:

planning an investigation
carefully recording observations
gathering data
analyzing the results

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The Scientific Method

The scientific method is a systematic
investigation of nature and requires proposing an
explanation for the results of an experiment in the
form of a general principle.
The initial, tentative proposal of a scientific
principle is called a hypothesis.
After further investigation, the original hypothesis
may be rejected, revised, or elevated to the status
of a scientific principle.
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Conclusions Continued
After sufficient evidence, a hypothesis becomes a
scientific theory.
A natural law is a measurable relationship.

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Modern Chemistry
Chemistry is a science that studies the
composition of matter and its properties.
Chemistry is divided into several branches:
Organic chemistry is the study of substances
containing carbon
Inorganic chemistry is the study of all other
substances that dont contain carbon
Biochemistry is the study of substances derived from
plants and animals
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Learning Chemistry
Different people learn
chemistry differently.
What do you see in the
Some people see a vase on a
dark background, some people
see two faces.

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Problem Solving
Connect the 9 dots using only four straight lines.
Experiment until
you find a solution.
However, we have
used 5 straight
No matter which
dot we start with,
we still need 5

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Problem Solving
Are we confining the
We need to
go beyond
the 9 dots
to answer
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Scientists use the scientific method to investigate
the world around them.
Experiments lead to a hypothesis, which may lead
to a scientific theory or a natural law.
Chemistry is a central science with many
The impact of chemistry is felt in many aspects of
our daily lives.
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1. What is the difference between a hypothesis and
2. According to the ancient Greeks, which of the following
are not basic elements found in nature:
I. Air
II. Coal
III. Fire
IV. Earth
V. Gold
VI. Water
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