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# MANE 4240 & CIVL 4240

## Introduction to Finite Elements

Prof. Suvranu De

Development of Truss
Equations

Chapter 3: Sections 3.1-3.9 + Lecture notes
Summary:
Stiffness matrix of a bar/truss element
Coordinate transformation
Stiffness matrix of a truss element in 2D space
Problems in 2D truss analysis (including multipoint
constraints)
3D Truss element

## Trusses: Engineering structures that are composed only

of two-force members. e.g., bridges, roof supports
Actual trusses: Airy structures composed of slender
members (I-beams, channels, angles, bars etc) joined
together at their ends by welding, riveted connections or
large bolts and pins

## A typical truss structure

Gusset plate

Ideal trusses:
Assumptions
Ideal truss members are connected only at their ends.
Ideal truss members are connected by frictionless pins (no
moments)
The truss structure is loaded only at the pins
Weights of the members are neglected

Frictionless pin

## These assumptions allow us to idealize each truss

member as a two-force member (members loaded only
at their extremities by equal opposite and collinear
forces)
member in
compression

member in
tension

Connecting pin

## FEM analysis scheme

Step 1: Divide the truss into bar/truss elements connected to
each other through special points (nodes)
Step 2: Describe the behavior of each bar element (i.e. derive its
stiffness matrix and load vector in local AND global coordinate
system)
Step 3: Describe the behavior of the entire truss by putting
together the behavior of each of the bar elements (by assembling
their stiffness matrices and load vectors)
Step 4: Apply appropriate boundary conditions and solve

E, A

## 2002 Brooks/Cole Publishing / Thomson Learning

L: Length of bar
A: Cross sectional area of bar
E: Elastic (Youngs) modulus of bar
u(x) :displacement of bar as a function of local coordinate x of bar
The strain in the bar at x
du
(x)
dx
The stress in the bar (Hookes law)

(x) E (x)

d 2x

## Tension in the bar

T(x) EA

d1x

x
x

u(x) 1 d1x d 2x
L
L

L
Assume that the displacement u(x) is varying linearly along the bar

x
x
u(x) 1 d1x d 2x
L
L

du d 2x d1x
Then, strain is constant along the bar: dx
L
E
Stress is also constant along the bar: E d 2x d1x
L

EA
T EA
d 2x d 1x
L
k

L

E, A

## 2002 Brooks/Cole Publishing / Thomson Learning

Two nodes: 1, 2
Nodal displacements: d1x d 2x
Nodal forces: f1x f2x
EA
Spring constant: k
L

Element force
vector

f1x
k - k d1x
f k d

- k k d 2x
f 2x

Element nodal

Element
stiffness
matrix

displacement
vector

E1, A1

E2, A2
L2

L1

## This is equivalent to the following system of springs

k1

E1A1
L1

k2

E 2A 2
L2

Element 1 2 Element 23
1
d1x
PROBLEM

d2x

d3x

## Problem 1: Find the stresses in the two-bar assembly loaded as

shown below
E, 2A
E, A
P
1
2
3
L
L
Solution: This is equivalent to the following system of springs
2EA
k1
L

k2

EA
L

Element 1 2 Element 23
1
d1x

d2x

d3x

## We will first compute the displacement at node 2 and then the

stresses within each element

## The global set of equations can be generated using the technique

developed in the lecture on springs

k1
k1
k k k
1 1 2
0
here

k2

0 d 1x

k2 d 2 x
k2 d 3 x

F1x

F2 x
F

3x

d1x d3 x 0 and F2 x P

## Hence, the above set of equations may be explicitly written as

k1d 2 x F1x

(1)

(k1 k2 )d 2 x P (2)
k2 d 2 x F3 x

(3)

P
PL

k1 k2 3EA

## To calculate the stresses:

For element #1 first compute the element strain

(1)

d 2 x d1x d 2 x
P

L
L 3EA

## and then the stress as

(1)

(1)

3A

Similarly, in element # 2

(element in tension)

d3 x d 2 x
d2 x
P

L
L
3EA
P
(2)
(2)
E
(element in compression)
3A
(2)

member in
compression

member in
tension

Connecting pin

d 2y , f 2y
d 2y , f2y 0
d 2x , f2x

d 2x , f 2x

d1y , f1y

d 1y , f1y 0

d1x , f1x

d1x , f1x

x
At node 1:

d1x

d1x

f
1x

f1x

d 1y

d1y
f1y 0

f1y

At node 2:

d 2x

d 2x

f 2x

f 2x

d 2y

d 2y
f2y 0

f 2y

d1x
d
1y
d
;
d 2x

d 2y

f1x
f
1y
f
f 2x

f 2y

f k d

41

44 41

system

## The key is to look at the local coordinates

y

d 2y , f2y 0

d 1y , f1y 0

d 2x , f2x

f1x
k - k d1x

f 2x
- k k d 2x

d1x , f1x

x
Rewrite as f
1x

0
f1y

-k
f2x

0
f2y

0 - k 0 d1x

0 0 0 d1y

0 k 0 d 2x

0 0 0 d
2y

EA
L

f k d

NOTES
1. Assume that there is no stiffness in the local^y direction.
2. If you consider the displacement at a point along the local x
direction as a vector, then the components of that vector along the
global x and y directions are the global x and y displacements.
3. The expanded stiffness matrix in the local coordinates is
symmetric and singular.

NOTES
5. In local coordinates we have

f k d

41

44 41

f k d

41

44 41

## Hence, need a relationship between d and d

d 1y
and between f and f

d1x
d

d 1y d
d 2x

d 2y

d1x

1y

d1x

d1x

d
2x
d
2y

d 2x

d 2x

d1y
d 2y

d 2y

Need to understand
how the components
of a vector change
with coordinate
transformation

## Transformation of a vector in two dimensions

y

y
v x

v y cos

vx

v y

vy

v x cos

v y sin

v x sin

Angle is
measured positive
in the counter
clockwise direction
from the +x axis)
x

The vector v has components (vx, vy) in the global coordinate system
^
and (v^x, vy) in the local coordinate system. From geometry

v x v x cos v ysin
v y v x sin v ycos

In matrix form
v x
cos sin v x

v
sin cos v y
y

Or

v x
l m v x

v

m
l

y
vy

Direction cosines
where

l cos
m sin

## Transformation matrix for a single vector in 2D

*
m
l

T
v
relates
T

m
l

v x
v x are components of the same
where v and v
v y
v y vector in local and global
*

coordinates, respectively.

d 1y

At node 1

At node 2

d1x
* d1x
T

d
d1y
1y

d1x

d
2x

1y

d 2x
d
2y
d

l
m

l
0

0
l

0
0
m

d1x
d
1y
d
2x

d
0 m l 2y

T

d 2y

d 2x

d1x

d 2y

d1x

d 2x
* d 2x
T

d
d
2y
2y

d1y

T*
T
44
0

0
*
T

At node 1

At node 2

f1y

f1x
* f1x
T

f
f1y
1y

f1x

f2x
* f 2x
T

f
f
2y
2y

1y

f 2x
f
2y
f

l
m

l
0

0
l

f 2x

f 2y

f 2x

0
0
m

f1x
f
1y
f
2x

f
0 m l 2y

T

f2y

f1x

f1x

f1y

T*
T
44
0

0
*
T

## Important property of the transformation matrix T

The transformation matrix is orthogonal, i.e. its inverse is its
transpose
1

T T

## Putting all the pieces together

d 2y , f2y

d1y , f1y

d T d

d 2x , f2x

f k d

d1x , f1x

x
The desired relationship is
Where

f T f

f k d

41

Tf k Td
1
f T kTd

44 41

T

44

44 44 44

m 0
0
l
m l

0
0

T
0
0
l
m

0 m l
0
l2
lm

2
lm
m
EA
T

k T k T
L l 2 lm

2
lm m

k
0

0 - k 0

0
0
0

k
- k 0 k 0

0 0 0 0
l 2 lm
2
lm m
l2
lm
lm

x2 x1
L
y y
m sin 2 1
L

l cos

2 (x2,y2)

1 (x ,y )
1 1

## What happens if I reverse the node numbers?

x1 x2
l ' cos
l
L
y1 y2
m' sin
m
L

2 (x ,y )
2 2
Question: Does the stiffness matrix change?

1 (x1,y1)

E 30 106 psi

A 2 in 2
L 60 in

30

30 10 2

60

3
4
3
4
3

4
3

3
4
1
4
3

4
1

4
3

4
3
4
3
4

4
1

4
3
4
1
4

lb
in

3
l cos 30
2
1
m sin 30
2

## Computation of element strains

2002 Brooks/Cole Publishing / Thomson Learning

d 1x

d 1y
d 2x d 1x 1

1 0 1 0

L
L
d 2x
d
2y
1
1 0 1 0 d
L
1
1 0 1 0 T d
L

m 0
0
l
m l

0
0
1
d
1 0 1 0
0
0
l
m
L

0 m l
0
1
l m l m d
L
d 1x
d
1

l m l m 1y
d
L
2x
d 2y

## Computation of element stresses stress and tension

Recall that the element stress is

E
E
d 2x d 1x l
L
L

EA
T EA
l
L

m l

m d

m l

m d

## Steps in solving a problem

Step 1: Write down the node-element connectivity table
linking local and global nodes; also form the table of
direction cosines (l, m)
Step 2: Write down the stiffness matrix of each element in
global coordinate system with global numbering
Step 3: Assemble the element stiffness matrices to form the
global stiffness matrix for the entire structure using the
node element connectivity table
Step 4: Incorporate appropriate boundary conditions
Step 5: Solve resulting set of reduced equations for the unknown
displacements
Step 6: Compute the unknown nodal forces

## Node element connectivity table

ELEMENT Node 1 Node 2
1

1
El 1
2

60

60

L
El 3
60

El 2

1 (x ,y )
1 1

2 (x2,y2)

d1x d1y d2x d2y

d1x

(1)

d1y

d2x

d2y

d3x d3y d1x d1y

d3x

( 3)

d1x

d3y

d1y

d2x d2y d3x d3y

d2x

( 2)

d3x

d2y

d3y

## There are 4 degrees of

freedom (dof) per
element (2 per node)

(1)

## Global stiffness matrix

d1x d1y d2x d2y d3x d3y

d1x

d1y
d2x
d2y

d3x
d3y
66

( 2)

( 3)

Example 2
y

## The length of bars 12 and 23 are equal (L)

E: Youngs modulus
A: Cross sectional area of each bar
Solve for
P1 (1) d and d
2x
2y
(2) Stresses in each bar

El#2 P2

El#1
45o
1

2
x

Solution

## Step 1: Node element connectivity table

ELEMENT Node 1 Node 2
1

Node

Lcos45

Lsin45

2Lsin45

ELEMENT
Length

x2 x1
y y
m 2 1
length
length

cos45

sin45

-cos45

sin45

## Step 2: Stiffness matrix of each element in global coordinates

with global numbering
Stiffness matrix of element 1
l2
lm

2
lm
m
EA
(1)

k
L l 2 lm

lm

d1x

l 2 lm
2
lm m
l2
lm
2
lm
m

d1y d2x

d2y

1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
EA

2L 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

d1x
d1y
d2x
d2y

d2x d2y

(2)

d3x

d3y

1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
EA

2L 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

d2x
d2y
d3x
d3y

## Step 3: Assemble the global stiffness matrix

1 1 1 1 0 0
1 1 1 1 0 0

EA 1 1 2 0 1 1
K

2L 1 1 0 2 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1

0 0 1 1 1 1
The final set of equations is

Kd F

0
0
d 2 x

d 2 y
0

## Hence reduced set of equations to solve for unknown

displacements at node 2
EA 2
2 L 0

0 d 2 x
P 1
2 d P
2 y
2

d 2 x

d
2 y

P1L
EA

P2 L
EA

## Step 6: Obtain stresses in the elements

For element #1:
E
1
(1)

L
2

1
2

E
PP
(d 2 x d 2 y ) 1 2
2L
A 2

d1x
d
1 1y
2 d
2 x
d 2 y

0
0

## For element #2:

E 1
1
(2)

L 2
2

1
2

E
P1 P2

(d 2 x d 2 y )
2L
A 2

1
2

d 2 x
d
2y

d3 x
d3 y

0
0

Multi-point constraints

## Figure 3-19 Plane truss with inclined boundary

conditions at node 3 (see problem worked out in class)

## Problem 3: For the plane truss

y
P

El#2
2

El#1

El#3
45

P=1000 kN,
L=length of elements 1 and 2 = 1m
E=210 GPa
A = 610-4m2 for elements 1 and 2
= 6 2 10-4 m2 for element 3

## Determine the unknown displacements

and reaction forces.

Solution
Step 1: Node element connectivity table
ELEMENT Node 1 Node 2
1

Node

ELEMENT
Length

x2 x1
y y
m 2 1
length
length

L 2

1/ 2

1/ 2

## Step 2: Stiffness matrix of each element in global coordinates

with global numbering
Stiffness matrix of element 1
l2
lm l 2 lm

2
2
lm
m

lm

m
EA
(1)

k
L l 2 lm l 2
lm

2
2

lm

m
lm
m

d1x

d1y d2x

0 0
9
-4
(210 10 )(6 10 ) 0 1

0 0
1

0 1

d2y

0 0
0 1
0 0

0 1

d1x
d1y
d2x
d2y

## Stiffness matrix of element 2 d2x d2y

(2)

1
9
-4
(210 10 )(6 10 ) 0

1
1

(3)

d1x

d3x

d3y

0 1 0
0 0 0
0 1 0
0

d1y

0
d3x

d2x
d2y
d3x

d3y
d3y

2

0.5

0.5
0.5
0.5

d1x
d1y
d3x
d3y

## 0.5 0.5 0 0 0.5 0.5

0.5 1.5 0 1 0.5 0.5

0
0
1 0
1
0
5
K 1260 10

1 0 1
0
0
0
0.5 0.5 1 0 1.5
0.5

## 0.5 0.5 0 0 0.5 0.5

The final set of equations is

Kd F

Eq(1)

N/m

\$
Step 4: Incorporate boundary conditions
y
y
0
0
3
P
El#2

d 2 x
2
d

0
El#1
El#3
d 3 x

o
d
45
3 y
x
1

Also,

d\$3 y 0

\$
x

coordinates?

\$
y
F1x
F
1 y
P
F

F
2 y
F3 x

F3 y

Also,

F 3 x 0

\$
x

y
P

El#2
2

El#1

El#3
45o
1

coordinates?

## Using coordinate transformations

\$3 x
d
\$
d 3 y
\$3 x
d

\$
d 3 y

d\$3 y 0

m d 3 x

l d 3 y

1
lm
2

1
2 d 3 x

1 d 3 y
2

(Multi-point constraint)

1
\$
d 3y
d3 y d3 x 0

2
Eq (2)
d3 y d3 x 0

3x
3y

1
d3 y d3 x

3 x
F

F 3 y
3 x
F

F 3 y

F 3 x 0

m F3 x

n F3 y

1
lm
2

1
2 F3 x

1 F3 y
2

F 3x
F3 y F3 x 0

2
Eq (3)
F3 y F3 x 0

3x
3y

1
F3 y F3 x

Kd F
d3 y d3 x 0

Eq(1)
Eq(2)
Eq(3)

F3 y F3 x 0

1
1260 105 1
0

1
1.5
0.5

0
0.5
0.5

d 2 x

d
3 x
d
3 y

F3 x

3y

## Write these equations out explicitly

Eq(4)
1260 105 ( d 2 x d 3 x ) P
1260 105 ( d 2 x 1.5d 3 x 0.5d 3 y ) F3 x Eq(5)
1260 105 (0.5d 3 x 0.5d 3 y ) F3 y
Eq(6)
1260 105 ( d 2 x 2d 3 x d 3 y ) F3 x F3 y 0 using Eq(3)
1260 105 ( d 2 x 3d 3 x ) 0 using Eq(2)
d 2 x 3d 3 x Eq(7)
1260 105 (3d 3 x d 3 x ) P
Plug this into Eq(4)
2520 105 d 3 x 106

d 3 x 0.003968m
d 2 x 3d 3 x 0.0119m
Compute the reaction forces
F1x

1 y

5
F2 y 1260 10

3 x

F3 y
500

500

0 kN
500

500

0
0
0
1
0

0.5
0.5
0
1.5
0.5

0.5
0.5 d 2 x

d
0
3x

0.5 d 3 y
0.5

k11
K k 21
k 31

k12
k 22
k 32

k13
k 23
k 33

## And the finite element force-displacement relation

k11 k12 k13 d1 F1
k
d F
k
k
2
22
23
2
21
k 31 k 32 k 33 d 3 F3

## Physical significance of the stiffness matrix

The first equation
is

## k11d1 k12 d 2 k13d 3 F1

Force equilibrium
equation at node 1

## Columns of the global stiffness matrix

What if d1=1, d2=0, d3=0 ?
F1 k11
F2 k 21
F3 k 31

## While d.o.f 2 and 3 are held fixed

Force along d.o.f 1 due to unit displacement at d.o.f 1
Force along d.o.f 2 due to unit displacement at d.o.f 1
Force along d.o.f 3 due to unit displacement at d.o.f 1

## Similarly we obtain the physical significance of the other

entries of the global stiffness matrix

In general
Force at d.o.f i due to unit displacement at d.o.f j
k ij = keeping
all the other d.o.fs fixed

Example
y

## The length of bars 12 and 23 are equal (L)

E: Youngs modulus
A: Cross sectional area of each bar
Solve for d2x and d2y using the physical
P1 interpretation approach

El#2 P2

El#1
45o
1

2
x

Solution

## Notice that the final set of equations will be of the form

k11
k
21

k12 d 2 x

k22 d 2 y

P1

P2

Where k11, k12, k21 and k22 will be determined using the
physical interpretation approach

## To obtain the first column

y

2 1.cos(45)

F2y=k21

El#2
El#1
1

k11

1
k

21

1 1.cos(45)

d2x=1
Force equilibrium

F
F

## k21 T1 sin(45) T2 sin(45) 0

y
T2

F2x=k11
2

apply

T1
1
2

d2 x 1
d2 y 0
F2y=k21
F2x=k11
2
x

Force-deformation relations
EA
T1 1
L
EA
T2 2
L

k11

T1 T2

k21

2
T1 T2
2

EA
1 2
2L
EA
1 2
2L

1
2
1
2 1.cos(45)
2

1 1.cos(45)

Finally
EA
EA 2
EA
k11
( )
1 2
L
2L
2L 2
EA
k21
1 2 0
2L

k12

k22

## To obtain the second column

y

3
El#2
El#1
1

2 1.cos(45)

2
2

d2y=1

y
T2
T1

1 1.cos(45)

1
2

Force equilibrium

F
F

1
2

apply

## k22 T1 sin(45) T2 sin(45) 0

d2 x 0
d2 y 1

F2y=k22
F2x=k12
2
x

Force-deformation relations
EA
T1 1
L
EA
T2 2
L

k12

T1 T2

k22

2
T1 T2
2

EA
1 2
2L
EA
1 2
2L

1 1.cos(45)

1
2

2 1.cos(45)

1
2

Finally
EA
k12
1 2 0
2L
EA
EA 2
EA
k22

(
)

1 2
L
2L
2L 2

f k d

f1x

1y

k
0

0
f1z

f 2x
k
f
0
2y

0
f
2z

0 0 k 0
0 0 0 0
0 0

0 0
0 0
0 0

k
0
0

0
0
0

d 1x
0

0 1y

0 d 1z

0 d 2x
0 d
2y
0
d 2z

*
d T d

l1
*
T l 2
l3

m1
m2
m3

n1

n 2
n3

l1 cos x
m1 cos y
n1 cos z

## Transformation matrix T relating the local and global

displacement and load vectors of the truss element
d T d

T*
T
66
0

f T f

0
*
T

## Element stiffness matrix in global coordinates

k T k T
T

66

66 66 66

l1 2

l1 m1
2

l1 n1

l1

m1
m1 n1 l1 m1
l1 m1
2

m1 n1
n1
l1 n1
EA l1 n1
T
k T kT

2
L l1 2 l1 m1 l1 n1
l1
l m m 2 m n l m
1
1 1
1 1
1 1
2
l1 n1
l1 n1 m1 n1 n1

l1 m1

l1 n1

m1 n1

m1

m1 n1

n1

l1 m1

l1 n1
m1 n1

m1

m1 n1

n1

Notice that the direction cosines of only the local ^x axis enter the
k matrix