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SIPROTEC 4

7SA522
Distance Protection
for Transmission Lines
Productmanager Distance Protection
Michael Claus
EV S V 13 Nrnberg H
Phone: +49 911 433 8261
Fax: +49 911 433 8301
Email: Michael.Claus@nbg6.siemens.de

7SA522
Distance Protection for Transmission Lines

Distance protection

Info - 3
EV S V13/ Claus/ 21.08.00

SIPROTEC 7SA522
Front design
Navigation Keys
convenient menu
operation

4-line back-lit display


Measured values
Fault data

4 freely assignable
function keys with slot
for legend text
Turning ON/OFF of
functions
Control of switchgear
(plant)

14 LEDs for user


assignment and slot
to insert legend text
9-pole
service interface
standard cable
DIGSI 4

Distance protection

Proven numeric keypad


secure entry of numbers
easy password entry

Width of housing
1/2 of 19" or 1full 19 rack
Info - 4
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SIPROTEC 7SA522
Terminals and Communication Interfaces
Width of housing
1/2 of 19" or full 19"
Binary inputs 8 (16*, 24*)
Output contacts 16 (24*,32*)
(*in full 19 rack housing)

Open to new techniques


(methods)
electric or fibre optic (FO)
process or 2nd remote relay
interface
Remote relay interface (plan)
electric or fibre optic (FO)
for protection signalling

System interface
electric or fibre optic
IEC60870-5-103 or Profibus
4 Current Transformers (CT)
FMS (approx. 12/00)
option with
in future DNP3.0, MODBUS
Ienormal or Iesensitive
and Profibus DP
Service interface
Time synchronization
electrical or fibre optic (FO) GPS
DIGSI 4 via Modem
with IRIG-B and DCF-77

4 Voltage Transformers (VT)

Distance protection

Info - 5
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7SA522
Connection Diagram: Basic Version

Optional
Sensitivity:
normal
high (5mA)

Connection:
Ven
Vsync
Vx

Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q5
Q6
Q7
Q8
R15
R16
R17

IL1
IL2
IL3
I4
VL1
VL2

R18

VL3

R13
R14

V4

K17
K18
J1
J2
J3

Fast BO5
Fast BO6
Fast BO7
BO8
BO9
BO10
BO11

R1
R2
R3
R4
R5
R6
R7
R8
R9
R10
R11
R12

BO12

BI 1
BI 2
BI 3

J4
J5
J6

BI 4

J7
J8
J9
J10
J11
J12

BI 6

Distance protection

K5
K6
K7
K8
K9
K10
K11
K12
K13
K14
K15
K16

Fast BO1
Fast BO2
Fast BO3
Fast BO4

BO 13
BO 14
BO 15
Live status contact
NC or NO with Jumper

BI 5
=

=
(~)

BI 7
BI 8

Serial
Interfaces

K3
K4
+
-

K1
K2

Remote Relay
Interface #2

Remote Relay
Interface #1

Service Port
DIGSI, Modem

System/Scada

Front Port
IRIG-B

Version

Width

No. of No. of
Binary Output
Inputs Relays
Basic
x 19
8
16
Medium 1/1 x 19
16
24
Maximum 1/1 x 19
24
32
Info - 6
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7SA522
Single Line Diagram

Gnd
Fault
Distance Locator O/C

52

21

21N

FL

Local/Tele Ctrl.
Commands
CB Indications

Directional Over- STUB


Ground
current O/C

50N
51N

67N

50 50N-2
51 51N-2

Trip Circuit
supervision

50STUB

74TC

86

Lockout

68
68T

85-21

27WI

85-67N

Power
Swing

Pilot
Dist.

Weak
infeed

Pilot
Gnd

Teleprotection schemes
can use one channel or
two redundant channels to
the remote end

Distance protection

50HS

50BF

59

25

SynchroSwitch Bkr. Overonto- fail. voltage check


Flt. O/C

Operat.
values

Supervision

79

Autoreclosure

CFC Logic

Serial Communication
Interfaces

Info - 7
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SIPROTEC 7SA522
Scope of functions (1)
Distance Protection

quadrilateral and/or MHO characteristic

full scheme measurement with sophisticated loop selection

three phase and single phase tripping

five independent zones and one controlled overreach zone

all zones can be set forward/reverse/non-directional

with/without parallel line compensation

special filtering for CVT transients

special algorithm for detection and compensation of CT


saturation

Fault Locator with/without parallel line compensation


Universal teleprotection interface
(PUTT, POTT, Blocking, Unblocking, DTT...)

Distance protection

ANSI-No.
21, 21N

FL
85-21

Info - 8
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17.10.97
en513all7

SIPROTEC 7SA522
Scope of functions (2)
High resistance earth fault protection
for earthed systems

directional and/or non-directional

4 stages

definite-time and/or inverse-time characteristic

high sensitivity (3 mA secondary)

backup protection running in parallel to the distance


protection

Teleprotection interface for earth fault protection


(Directional comparison, Blocking, Unblocking)
Weak infeed protection
(Echo and Trip)
Power swing blocking/out-of-step tripping
Distance protection

ANSI-No.
50N, 51N,
67N

85-67N
WI
68
Info - 9
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en513all8

SIPROTEC 7SA522
Scope of functions (3)

ANSI-No.

Overcurrent protection DMTL/IDMTL as parallel or


emergency function

50, 51
50N-2, 51N-2

Overvoltage protection

59

Fast tripping with switch-onto-fault condition

50HS

STUB Bus Overcurrent protection

50-STUB

Single and three pole multishot automatic reclosure

79

Synchro-check

25

Circuit-breaker failure protection

50BF

Distance protection

Info - 10
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SIPROTEC 7SA522
Scope of functions (4)

ANSI-No.

Trip Circuit Supervision

74TC

Lock Out

86

Oscillographic Fault Recording

FR

Voltage Phase Sequence

47

Interfaces

Time synchronization (IRIG-B, DCF77)

User interface#1 (on the front for DIGSI 4)

User-(Service-)interface #2 (on the rear, DIGSI 4/Modem)

System interface (IEC60870-5-103/Profibus FMS*/others)

Remote relay interfaces #1 (planned for teleprotection)

Remote relay interfaces #2 (planned for teleprotection)

* available in Version 4.2 approx. 1. Q/01


Distance protection

Info - 11
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SIPROTEC 7SA522
Quadrilateral Zone Characteristic
X

Line

Z5
Z4
Z2
Z1B

Z1

Load

Load

Z3

Distance protection

Info - 12
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SIPROTEC 7SA522
MHO Zone Characteristic
X

Line
Z5
Z4
Z1B
Z2
Z1

Load

Load
R

Z3 (if revers)

Distance protection

Info - 13
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MHO characteristic
Effect of polarization
Im( V )
Example: 2 phase fault B-C
delta V = Z R x (I B - I C) - V BC
a > 90 and b < 90
--> internal fault

Z R x ( I B - I C)
b
a
kpol x (V BC, memory - V BC)

V BC

Without memory
polarization
With memory
polarization

V Pol

Re( V )

Distance protection

Symbols:
ZR

zone setting

V BC

measured fault voltage

I B, I C

measured fault currents

k pol

polarization factor (0.15%)

Info - 14
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7SA522 - Trip time curves at SIR = 1


SIR=1 (A-G)
50

45

40

trip p in g tim e (m s)

35

30

EPAC 3000 Doku


SEL321 Doku

25

7SA522 gemessen
EPAC31/35

20

15

10

0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

% of zone setting

Distance protection

Info - 15
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7SA522 - Parallel-line compensation: connection and setting


L1 (A)
L2 (B)
L3 (C)

Busbar
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q5
Q6
Q7
Q8

52

Line

Distance protection

Circuit
breaker

IL1(A)
IL2(B)
IL3(C)
I4
52

Circuit
breaker

Parallel line

Info - 16
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7SA522 - Fault locator

Distance protection

Info - 17
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7SA522 - Teleprotection Schemes

Configuration

Distance protection

Info - 18
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7SA522 - Phase segregated Teleprotection


2

L2-E

Z1

Z1B
A

L1-E

Z1

B
Z1B

A1 trips single-phase in L1 with a phase-segregated L1-receive-signal


Maximum of Selectivity
Note: 3 binary channels for both directions are requested or (in preparation) one serial
link

Distance protection

Info - 19
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7SA522 - Teleprotection with three-terminal lines

Software provides
teleprotection of threeterminal lines without
additional logic

Distance protection

Info - 20
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7SA522 - Echo and Tripping in case of no-infeed or weak-infeed


Configuration
Settings

Matrix
The receive signal is derived from :
and
*Three-terminal schemes are supported as well

Phase segregated weak-infeed tripping


Note: The echo signal must be marshalled
in addition to the send signal on the
transmission signal contact

Distance protection

Info - 21
EV S V13/ Claus/ 21.08.00
17.10.97
en513ase2

7SA522
High Resistance Earth Fault Protection (1)
Earth (zero sequence) current protection, 4 stages
3 definite-time stages
1 inverse-time stage: IEC, logarithmic inverse or ANSI characteristic
this stage can also be used as a 4th definite-time stage
Directional determination with 3V0 and/or Ipol of an earthed power
transformer
Directional determination with V2 and I2 (negative sequence)
Sensitive 3I0-measurement with a dynamic from 0.005 A to 100 x In
Elimination of higher harmonics with special digital filters
Inrush-stabilisation with I0/100Hz
Teleprotection: Directional comparison, Blocking or Unblocking
Operation with weak infeed trip and echo
Instantaneous trip after switch-onto-fault

Distance protection

Info - 22
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7SA522
High Resistance Earth Fault Protection (2)
T
Definite-time characteristic

T3I0>
T3I0>>

T3I0>>>
3I0>
Distance protection

3I0>>

3I0>>>

3I0
Info - 23
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7SA522
High Resistance Earth Fault Protection (3)
T
Inverse-time characteristic: IEC
Tp =1

Pickup: a = 1.1 x 3I0/IP


Reset: b = 1.045 x 3I0/IP

0 ba
Distance protection

20

3I0/Ip
Info - 24
EV S V13/ Claus/ 21.08.00

7SA522
High Resistance Earth Fault Protection (4)
IEC-characteristic:
normal inverse: t s
extremly inverse: t s

0.14

0.02

Ip

1
80

Ip

ANSI-characteristic:

A
t s

B
*D
N
I

Ip

very inverse: t s

* Tp

long time inverse: t s

* Tp

13.5
* Tp
I
1
Ip

Inverse
short inverse
long inverse
moderately inverse

120
* Tp
I
1
Ip

very inverse
extremly inverse
definite inverse

Logarithmic-inverse characteristic:
t s T 3I 0P max T 3I 0P * ln

Distance protection

3I 0
for t>T3I0Pmin, otherwise: t[s]=T3I0Pmin
3I 0P
Info - 25
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7SA522
High Resistance Earth Fault Protection (5)
Earth fault
direction
Inrushstabilisation

EF IE> Echo
EF Fault Det.

SOTF

Teleprotection

>EF Trip rel.

Direc. 3I0>>>

3I0>>>

=
&
EF>>> Trip

&

3I0>>> Def. Time Stage

>EF>>> block

3I0>> Def. Time Stage


3I0> Def. Time Stage
P Direc. 3I0p
P 3I0p

&

=
&

EFp Trip

P3146 AddTdelay
T(3I0/IN)

Inverse Time Stage

>EFp block

= Input signal
(binary input)

Distance protection

= Parameter

= Output Signal
(alarm, command)
Info - 26
EV S V13/ Claus/ 21.08.00

7SA522
High Resistance Earth Fault Protection (6)
t

10

Tripping characteristic Logarithmic Inverse


T3I0pmax (P3145)

9
8

T3I0p (P3144)

3I0p(P3140)

Example: t = 5.8 - 1.35 ln(3I0 / 3I0p)


5
4
3

T3I0min
(P3141)

2
1
0

10

3I0p Startpoint(P3154)

Distance protection

15

20

25

30

35

3I0 / 3I0p
Info - 27
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7SA522
High Resistance Earth Fault Protection (6)
Filter characteristic for stages 3I0>>> and 3I0>>

dB
10
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
-90
-100
-110
-120
-130
-140
-150
-160
0

Distance protection

10

f/fn

11

Info - 28
EV S V13/ Claus/ 21.08.00

7SA522
High Resistance Earth Fault Protection (7)
Filter characteristic for stages 3I0> and Inverse time stage
dB

10
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
-90

-100
-110
-120
-130
-140
-150
-160
-170
0

Distance protection

10

f/fn

11
Info - 29
EV S V13/ Claus/ 21.08.00

7SA522 - STUB protection for 11/2-circuit breaker arrangement


Busbar A

CB
(A)

Ik = IA+ IB

line isolator 1

feeder 1

IA

stub fault
CB
(C)

IB

feeder 2

line isolator 2

CB
(B)

Release of STUB-stage with open line isolator:

Busbar B

Distance protection

Info - 30
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7SA522 - Monitoring
Operating system monitoring

Plausibility monitoring

Auxiliary voltage failure

Measured value detection

Buffer battery

HardwareWatchdog

SoftwareWatchdog

Working memory

Program memory

Parameter memory

Sampling frequency

Voltage sum
Voltage symmetry

1/5 Asetting

Calibration data

Voltage phase rotation

Earth current
transformer
sensitive/normal

Modules (I/O Boards)

Distance protection

Current sum
Current symmetry
Open conductor
Fuse Failure

new

1- / 2-pole failures

3-pole failures

Info - 31
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