Sie sind auf Seite 1von 36

WATER

PURIFICATION

METHOD OF WATER
PURIFICATION

EVAPURATION AND
CONDENSATION

STORAGE AND SETTLEMENT

AIR AND SUNLIGHT

FILTRATION THROUGH
EARTH

BIOLOGICAL FILTRATION

PURIFICATION ON A LARGE
SCALE
This method is suitable when
supply is to be done foe large
communities as in urban or
city.
Generally this method
consists of three stages.

Continue.
1) storage
2) filtration
3) chlorination

STORAGE
Physical : About the 90% of the
suspended impurities settle down
in 24 hour due to gravity.
:Thus water become
clear
: This allows
sunlight and
Help to filtrate.

CHEMICAL
Some of the chemical change
take place during storage as
the aerobic bacteria oxidize the
organic matter with the help of
dissolve oxygen, which reduces
the content free ammonia and
increase nitrates.

BIOLOGICAL
Storage help in reducing the amount
of bacteria present in water.

FILTRATION
Biological filtration
Mechanical filtration

ADVANTAGE OF
BIOLOGICAL
FILTRATION

Simple to construct and


operate.
The cost of construction is
cheaper then mechanical
filters.
The physical, chemical and
biological quality of filtered

DISADVANTAGE OF
BIOLOGICAL
FILTRATION

Large area required.


Sedimentation has to take
place before the process of
filtration.
The rate of filtration is slow.

MECHANICAL FILTRATION
It start in 1985 in USA.
It is 100 time faster then
biological filtration.
They are two type: 1)gravity
type.
2)pressure type.

ADVANTAGE OF
MECHANICAL
FILTRATION

This can deal with raw water


directly.
The filter beds occupy less
space.
40 to 50 time rapid filtration.
The washing of filter is easy.

CHLORINATION
PRINCIPLE OF CHLORINATION
water should be clear and free from
turbidity.
The chlorine demand of water has to
be estimated to prevent over doses.

Contact period should be 30 min.

PURIFICATION OF
WATER IN SMALL
SCALE

Boiling
Chemical disinfection
a) bleaching power
b) chlorine solution
c) high test
hypochlorite

Continue..
d) Chlorine tablet
e) Iodine
f)Potassium permagnate
g) Piyush / waterguard

Continue.
Filtration
Sodis (solar water
disinfection)

WATER RELATED
DISEASE

WATER RELATED DISEASE


Water-related diseases are one of the
worlds most significant health
problemsand one that is largely
preventable.
choleraand otherdiarrheal diseases
alone are responsible for some 1.8
million deaths each and every year.
Water-related diseases cause of
poverty and poor health.

CONTINUE.
There are five main types
of water-related infectious
disease.

Water-borne
Water-washed
Water-based
Water-related insect vector

CONTINUE
Water borne (or washed)
-cholera
-Typhoid
- Dysenteries
CAUSE
faecal material

CONTINUE
Water washed
- Skin and eye infections
CAUSE

Lack of water for proper hygiene


CONTROL

- Increase water supply properly


- Improve hygiene practices

Water based
-Schistosomiasis (penetrating skin)
-CAUSE

Eating insufficiently cooked


aquatic species.
CONTROL

Control snail populations


- Reduce surface water contamination
-

Continue..
Water related insect vector
-Sleeping sickness
-Filariasis
-malaria

CAUSE
Insects that bite or breed near
water

CONTROL
Destroy breeding sites
- Use mosquito netting
-