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Unit 6

Captive Power
Plant and other
Renewable Energy
Sources
BY:-

AMI VORA

ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT
ATMIYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE

INDEX
I. INTRODUCTION
II. CAPTIVE POWER PLANT
III. DIESEL POWER PLANT
IV. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF DIESEL POWER STATION
V. ADVANTAGES OF DIESEL POWER PLANT
VI. DISADVANTAGES OF DIESEL POWER PLANT
VII.APPLICATION OF DIESEL POWER PLANT
VIII.GAS BASED POWER PLANT
IX. CLASSIFICATION OF GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT
X. BASIC OPEN CYCLE GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT
XI. METHODS OF IMPROVING EFFICIENCY OF GAS TURBINE POWER
PLANT
XII.OPEN CYCLE GAS TURBINE PLANT USING REGENERATOR

INTRODUCTION
Energy Source can be divided in to two
source
1. Conventional Energy Source

Like: Coal, Oil, Gas, Water.


2. Non Conventional Energy Source

Like: Wind, Solar, Biomass,


Ocean.

Contd
Energy Source Further classify as:

1. Non Renewable Energy Source


The energy sources once used cannot be taken in
use again, are called non renewable energy
source. Ex:. Gas, Oil, Coal etc.

2. Renewable Energy Source


The energy sources which can be reused again,
are called non renewable energy source. Ex:.
Solar, Wind, Ocean, etc.

CAPTIVE POWER PLANT


All power plants are normally connected to grid system. And all
grid system are owned by state electricity board (PGVCL,
MGVCL, DGVCL, GETCO, GSECL).
Many industries required continues power supply even for small
periods interruption is not tolerated.
Such type of industries generates its own power by installing the
power plant, this type of power plan is known as captive power
plant.
Captive power plant operate independent of the grid system.
The industries can not sale this power to other.
Normally diesel power plant is used as a captive power plant.
But now or days co generation power plant is favorite as a captive
power plants.

DIESEL POWER PLANT


Chemical
Energy

Electrical
Energy

Mechanical
Energy

Diesel
Engine

Alternator

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF DIESEL


POWER STATION
2

FUEL
OIL
SYSTEM

ENGINE START
SYSTEM

6
ENGINE

Altenato
r

AIR
SYSTEM

LUBRICATIN
G SYSTEM

COOLING
WATER
SYSTEM

8
Exciter

DIESEL POWER PLANT

ADVANTAGES
Simple plant layout
Less initial cost and
space
Water need is small so no
require at river
Reduced standby losses
Efficiency is more
Start and stop quickly

DIS-ADVANTAGES

Fuel has to be imported


Running cost is high
limited plant capacity
Lubrication oil is costly
Life of plant is not so
long

APPLICATION OF DIESEL
POWER PLANT
Central Station
Peak load station
Emergency Plant
Standby plant
House service set
Nursery station
For power supply to hospital, cinema.

GAS BASED POWER PLANT


FUEL
Chemical
Energy

Combustion
chamber

Compressed
H.T.
Air
H.P GAS
Heat
Energy

Mechanical
Energy

Electrical
Energy

CLASSIFICATION OF GAS TURBINE


POWER PLANT
1. Based on state of fuel.
. Solid
. Liquid
. Gas
2. Based on operating cycle
. Open cycle
. Closed cycle
2. Based on the type of load
. Base load
. Peak load
. standby

BASIC OPEN CYCLE GAS TURBINE


POWER PLANT

METHODS OF IMPROVING EFFICIENCY OF


GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT

Use of Regenerator
Reheating
Inter cooling

OPEN CYCLE GAS TURBINE


PLANT USING REGENERATOR

SIMPLE GAS TURBINE


PLANT MAKING USE OF
HEATER

OPEN CYCLE GAS TURBINE PLANT


MAKING USE OF INTER COOLER

CLOSED CYCLE GAS


TURBINE POWER PLANT

GAS TURBINE POWER


PLANT
ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Quick start and stop


Easy control
Compressor
Less space
should start
Less auxiliaries
Less capital cost
before the plant
Less operating staff
starts
Simple lubrication system Efficiency is
Weight power ration is less
less

Less life

DISADVANTAGES OF GAS TURBINE


POWER PLANT

Compressor should start before the plant starts


Efficiency is less
Less life
APPLICATION OF GAS TURBINE
POWER PLANT
Peak load plant
Standby plant
Auxiliary plant

BIOMASS BASED POWER PLANT

Biomass, :
Plant And Animal Organic Matters Are
Called Biomass.
Form of biomass
1. solid: wood, leaves, etc
2. liquid: cow dung, animal waste..
3.Gas

BIOMASS

ADVANTAGES
Its the renewable
energy source
No pollution
No transportation cost
Waste after obtaining
bio gas is used
Solid biomass can
convert in to liquid or
gas.

DIS-ADVANTAGES

Biomass is heavy, its contain 50


to 60% water
Forest can be destroyed
Installation in urban area is not
possible
Biogas plant occupies more
space.
Biomass is economical only
when the biomass
with high density is used.

CONVERSION OF BIOMASS IN TO ENERGY

Thermo chemical Process:


Process require high pressure and temperature.
There are three thermo chemical process
1. Pyrolysis: hydro carbon from biomass.
2. Hydro gasification: biomass convert in to gas
Form.
3. Hydro generation: biomass heated up to 5500C
absence of oxygen. Liquid biomass is obtain.
Hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, methanol,
Acetic acid.

CONVERSION OF BIOMASS IN TO ENERGY

BIO CHEMICAL PROCESS:


Process is carried out at atmospheric temperature.
Process is carried out by Micro-organism i.e.bacteria.
There are three bio-chemical process
1. Aerobic treatment: ethanol is produced from
the molasses.
2. Anaerobic treatment: methane gas is produced.
3. Chemical reduction: waste from plants is used
4. Pyro gasification: solid & liquid biomass is converted
To gas biomass

BIOMASS STEAM POWER PLANT

BIOMASS GAS TURBINE PLANT

OCEAN ENERGY TO
ELECTRICAL ENERGY
CONVERSION
Ocean THERMAL energy
Ocean Tidal energy
Ocean Wave energy
Ocean Biomass energy
Ocean Chemical energy
Ocean Salinity energy
Ocean Geo Thermal energy

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY


ELEMENTS
PUMP
DEGASIFIER

FLASHEVAPORATO
R

STEAMTURBINE
GENERATOR
SURFACE
CONDENSE
R

CLOSED CYCLE OCEAN THERMAL


ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEM

CLOSED CYCLE OCEAN THERMAL


ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEM
ADVATANGES
No cost of fuel
Renewable source
Fresh water produced
No pollution
No costly land required

DIS-ADVATANGES
Capital cost is high
Transmission cost is
more
Efficiency is 1% to 3%

OCEAN TIDAL POWER PLANT


TIDAL
POWER
PLANT

SINGLE
BASIN
TIDAL
CYCLE

SINGLE
BASIN
POWER
PLANT

DOUBLE
BASIN
POWER
PLANT

SINGLE
BASIN EBB
CYCLE

DOUBLE
CYCLE

SINGLE BASIN TIDAL CYCLE


POWER PLANT

EBB CYCLE TIDAL POWER


PLANT

DOUBLE CYCLE SINGLE BASIN


POWER PLANT

DOUBLE BASIN TIDAL POWER


PLANT

TIDAL POWER PLANT


ADVATANGES

DIS-ADVATANGES

Renewable type
No pollution
Less maintenance

Capital cost is high


Construction work is
difficult in see water.
Transmission cost is
more
Capital cost is high

GEO THERMAL FIELD

GEO THERMAL SOURCES


Hydro thermal source :
Vapor dominated or dry steam resources
Liquid dominated system or wet steam resources
Hot water resources

Geo pressure resources


Petro thermal or hot dry rocks
Magma resources
Volcanoes

GEO THERMAL
PLANTS

GEO THERMAL
ELECTRICAL POWER
PLANT
VAPOUR
DOMINATED
SYSTEM
LIQUID
DOMINATED
SYSTEM
BINARY VAPOUR
SYSTEM

VAPOUR DOMINATED GEO


THERMAL POWER PLANT
ELEMENTS

CENTRIFUGAL
SEPARATOR
STEAM TURBINE
GENERATOR
DIRECT CONTACT
CONDENSER
STEAM JET EJECTOR
COOLING TOWER

LIQUID DOMINATED GEO THERMAL


PLANT
ELEMENTS

FLASH SEPARATOR
STEAM TURBINE
GENERATOR
DIRECT TYPE
CONDENSER
COOLING TOWER

BINARY VAPOUR GEO THERMAL


PLANT
ELEMENTS

PUMP
HEAT EXCHANGE
TURBINE
GENERATOR
CONDENSER
COOLING TOWER

GEO THERMAL ENERGY


ADVATANGES

DIS-ADVATANGES

Efficiency is less
Gases create pollution
Causes noise
pollution(steam)
Only available at few
places

Energy available in large


quantity
No pollution
Less maintenance
Less initial cost
No transportation cost