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Applied Grammar and

Usage

Subject Verb Concord


Plurals such as jeans, pants,
scissors, trousers, belongings,
outskirts, goods, clothes take
plural verbs.
Incorrect Usage
Where is my reading
glass?
Where is my shorts?
Any interesting
newses?

Correct Usage
Where are my reading
glasses?
Where are my shorts?
Is there any
interesting news?

Subject Verb Concord


Choices
Diabetes is/are a silent
killer.
The jury gave its/their
verdict in an unbiased
manner.
The
information/informatio
ns sent by you is/are
NOTE:
Diseases
named
not really
sufficient.

Correct Usage
Diabetes is a silent
killer.
The jury gave its
verdict in an unbiased
manner.
The information sent
by you is not really
sufficient.

after the medical


scientists who discovered them follow the
structure:
Name + apostrophe s
Example: Parkinsons , Alzheimers

Subject Verb Concord


Names of subjects such as electronics,
physics, statistics, mathematics,
economics are treated as singular nouns and
take singular verbs.
Incorrect Usage
Statistics are a very
scoring subject.
Politics are a dirty
game.

Correct Usage
Statistics is a very
scoring subject.
Politics is a dirty
game.

NOTE: Statistics and Economics take a plural verb


when they mean data and economic policies.
Example:
1. Statistics reveal that more and more people are
moving to cities from villages in India.
2. The Economics of the third world countries have
always baffled most economies.

Subject Verb Concord


Collective nouns such as committee, team, fleet,
jury etc. take singular verbs.
Example:
1. Our team has won the first prize.
2. A committee is constituted to look into the problem
.

Subject Verb Concord


Expressions such as a majority of/ majority of/ the
majority of/ a number of/ a lot of/ plenty of/ all
of etc. are followed by plural nouns and take plural
verbs.
Example:
1. A lot of people have decided to abstain from
casting their votes.
2. Plenty of steps are required to be taken before we
can be sure of our security system.

Subject Verb Concord


Expressions such as
everybody, everyone,
everything, each and every etc. are followed by
singular verbs.
Example:
1. Everything was destroyed in the attack.
2. Everyone was listening to the speaker with Avid
interest.

Subject Verb Concord


When two separate singular nouns are denoted
through coordinating conjunctions such as either ..
or and neither . nor, the verb chosen is singular.
Example:
1. Either Geeta or her sister has done this.
2. Either Geeta or her sisters have done this.

Subject Verb Concord


Rules to remember:

Singular Noun + along with + Singular /


Plural Noun takes Singular Verb
Plural Noun + along with + Singular / Plural
Noun takes Plural Verb
Example:
1. The minister along with the bodyguards was killed.
2. The ministers along with the bodyguards were
killed.

PRACTICE TEST 3.1

Tenses
Present Indefinite
Present Tense:

Tense

or

Simple

Subject + Base Form of Verb +s / es +


Object
The above structure is used to express the following:
1. The actions that are done as habits in everyday life.
2. General facts.
3. Universal truths or facts.

PRACTICE TEST 3.4

Tenses
Present
Continuous
Progressive Tense:

or

Present

Subject + is / are / am + (Base Form of


Verb + ing) + Object

PRACTICE TEST 3.5 & 3.6

Tenses
Present
Continuous
Progressive Tense:

or

Present

Subject + is / are / am + (Base Form of


Verb + ing) + Object

Tenses
Present Prefect or Simple Past Tense:
Subject + past form of verb + Object

Tenses
Simple past or Past Perfect Tense:
Actions happen in the past time but one
action takes place earlier than the other.
Subject + had + Past Participle of Verb
+ Object/Complement/Adjunct

Tenses
Simple Future or Future Progressive
Tense:
Action or a situation that will occur in the
future.
Subject + will/shall + Base form of Verb
+ Object/Complement/Adjunct

Tenses
Simple Future or Future Progressive
Tense:
Action or a situation that will occur in the
Subject
+
will/shall
+
Base
form
of
Verb
future.
+ Object/Complement/Adjunct

Tenses
Past continuous or Past Progressive
Tense:
To represent a progressive action in the
past.
Subject + was/were + Base form of Verb
+ Ing + Object/Complement/Adjunct

Tenses
Future Progressive Tense:
To express actions that will take place in
future.
Subject +will be/shall be + Base form of
Verb + Ing +
Object/Complement/Adjunct

Tenses
Future Perfect Tense:
To express actions that will occur in
future before some other action.
Subject +will have/shall have + Past
Participle of Verb +
Object/Complement/Adjunct

Tenses
Present Perfect Continuous Tense:
Actions start sometime in the past and
they continue in the present.
Subject + has been/have been + Base
form of Verb + Ing +
Object/Complement/Adjunct

Tenses
Past Perfect Continuous Tense:
To express actions that started and
continued over a period of time the past
with some sort of action having been
completed.
Subject + had been + Base form of Verb
+ Ing + Object/Complement/Adjunct

Tenses
Future Perfect Continuous Tense:
To emphasize on an action that will
continue to happen up to a certain time
in future.
Subject + will/shall + have been + Base
form of Verb + Ing +
Object/Complement/Adjunct

Moods of Verbs
Indicative Mood: The verb chooses to be in this
mood to make a statement of facts, ask a question, or
express a supposition which is taken for granted.
Example:
1. The movie was quite impressive. (Statement)
2. Am I audible? (Question)
3. If it rains, I shall stay back. ( Supposition taken for
granted)

Moods of Verbs
Imperative Mood: The verb chooses to be in this
mood to express a command, request, order, caution,
prayer, etc.
Whenever the verb acquires this mood, the
subject of verb (you) is omitted.
Example:
1. Please listen to me.
2. Avoid chewing tobacco.
3. Dont park your vehicle here.
4. Come here.

Moods of Verbs
Subjunctive Mood: The verb chooses to be in this
mood to express itself in a peculiar grammatical
structures..
Example:
1. We recommend that the director be removed.
2. I wish I knew her name.
3. It is high time we did something about corruption.