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Foundations of

Curriculum
Development
Prepared by:
Ma. Ronavie
D. Mantes

Major Foundations of
Curriculum
Philosophical
Historical
Psychological
Social

Philosophical
Foundations

Philosophical Foundations of Curriculum


Essentialism

Aim of Education To promote the intellectual


growth of the individual and educate a competent
person.
Role of Education The teacher is the sole authority
in his or her subject area or field of specialization.
Focus in the Curriculum Essential skills of the 3 Rs
and essential subjects.
Curriculum Trends Excellence in education, back to
basics and cultural literacy.

Philosophical Foundations of Curriculum


Progressivism

Aim of Education To promote democratic and social


living.
Role of Education Knowledge leads to growth and
development of lifelong learners who actively learn by
doing.
Focus
in
the
Curriculum

Subjects are
interdisciplinary,
integrative
and
interactive.
Curriculum is focused on students interest, human
problems and affairs.
Curriculum Trends School reforms, relevant and
contextualized curriculum, humanistic education.

Philosophical Foundations of Curriculum

Reconstructionism

Aim of Education To improve and reconstruct


society. Education for change.
Role of Education Teachers act as agents of change
and reform in various educational projects including
research.
Focus in the Curriculum Focus on present and
future trends and issues of national and international
interest.
Curriculum Trends Equality of educational
opportunities in education, access to global education.

Historical
Foundations

Historical Foundations of Curriculum


Curriculum Theorists
Franklin Bobbit
Werret Charters
William Kilpatrick
Harold Rugg
Hollis Caswell
Ralph Tyler
Hilda Taba
Peter Oliva

Historical Foundations of Curriculum

Franklin Bobbit
presented curriculum
as a science that
emphasizes on
students' need.
1876 - 1956

Historical Foundations of Curriculum

Werret Charters

1875 - 1952

considered
curriculum also as a
science which is
based on students'
need, and the
teachers plan and
activities.

Historical Foundations of Curriculum

William Kilpatrick
viewed curriculum as
purposeful activities
which are childcentered.
1871 - 1965

Historical Foundations of Curriculum

Harold Rugg
emphasized social
studies in the
curriculum and the
teacher plans the
lesson in advance.
1886 - 1960

Historical Foundations of Curriculum

Hollis Caswell
sees curriculum as
organized around
social functions of
themes, organized
knowledge and
learner's interests.

1901 - 1989

Historical Foundations of Curriculum

Ralph Tyler

1902- 1994

believes that
curriculum is a
science and an
extension of
school's philosophy.
Based on students'
need and interests.

Historical Foundations of Curriculum

Hilda Taba
Contributed to the
theoretical and
pedagogical foundations
of concepts development
and critical thinking in
social studies curriculum
1902-1967

Helped lay the


foundation for diverse
students

Historical Foundations of Curriculum

Peter Oliva

1992-2012

Describe how
curriculum change is a
cooperative endeavour
Teachers and
curriculum specialist
constitute the
professional core of
planners
Significant improvement
through group activity

Psychological
Foundation of
Curriculum

Psychological Foundations of Curriculum


Cognitive Theorists
Ivan Pavlov
Edward Thorndike
Robert Gagne
Jean Piaget
Lev Vgotsky
Howard Gardner
Daniel Goleman
Gestalt
Abraham Maslow
Carl Rogers

Psychological Foundations of Curriculum

Ivan Pavlov

1849-1936

Father of the Classical


Conditioning Theory the
S-R Theory
The key to learning is
eraly years of life is to
train them what you want
them to become.
S- R theory is a
foundation of learning
practice called
indoctrination.

Psychological Foundations of Curriculum


Edward Thorndike

Championed the
Connectionism Theory
Proposed the three (3)
law of learning:
Law of readiness
Law of exercise
Law of effect
Specific stimulus has
specific response.

1874-1949

Psychological Foundations of Curriculum

Robert Gagne

1916-2002

Proposed the
Hierarchy Learning
Theory
Behaviour is based on
prerequisite
conditions
Introduced tasking on
the formulation of
objectives.

Psychological Foundations of Curriculum


Jean Piglet

Theories
Describe cognitive development
in terms of stages from birth
to maturity
Key of Learning
a. Assimilation
b. Accommodation
c. Equilibration

1896-1980

Psychological Foundations of Curriculum

Lev Vygotsky

1.
2.
3.
.
1.

1896-1934

2.

Theories
Cultural transmission and
development
Interaction to arriving
developmental stage
Sociocultural development
theory
Key of Learning
Pedagogy creates learning
processes that lead to
development
Child is an active agent in his
or her educational processes.

Psychological Foundations of Curriculum


Howard Gardner

Psychological Foundations of Curriculum

Daniel Goleman

Emotions
contains the
power to
affect action

Psychological Foundations of Curriculum

Gestalt
Theories
Wholeness

Key Learning
a.
Learning is complex or
abstract
b.
Analyze the problem
c.
Learners perceive
something in relation
to the whole

Psychological Foundations of Curriculum


Abraham Maslow

1908-1970

Psychological Foundations of Curriculum

Carl Rogers
Nondirective and
Therapeutic Learning

- Established counselling
procedures.
Key Learning
- Curriculum concerned with
process not product; personal
needs not the subject
matter, psychological meaning
not the cognitive scores.

Humanistic
Foundation of
Curriculum

Social Foundations of Curriculum


School and Society
John Dewey
Alvin Toffer

Social Foundations of Curriculum


Contribution
Society as a
source of change
School as agent
of change
Knowledge as an
agent of change.

Social Foundations of Curriculum


John Dewey
Considered two
fundamental elements;
1. School
2. Civil Society

1859-1952

Social Foundations of Curriculum


Alvin Toffler
Believed that
knowledge should
prepare students
for the future.

Thank You!!!