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TELNET is an abbreviation for TErminal


It is the standard TCP/IP protocol for virtual

terminal service as proposed by ISO.

TELNET enables the establishment of a

connection to a remote system in such a
way that the local terminal appears to be a
terminal at the remote system.

TELNET vs. telnet

TELNET is a protocol that provides a
general, bi-directional, eight-bit byte
oriented communications facility.
telnet is a program that supports the
TELNET protocol over TCP.
Many application protocols are built
upon the TELNET protocol.

TELNET Protocol
Telnet allows a user to log into a
computer across an internet.
Telnet establishes a TCP connection
and then passes keystrokes from the
users keyboard directly to the remote
computer .
The client software asks the user to
specify domain name or IP address
of the remote machine to be

TELNET Operation

Pseudo terminal
Pseudo terminal describe the OS
entry point that allows a running
program like the TELNET server to
transfer characters to the operating
system as if they came from a
Each slave server connects a TCP
stream from one client to a particular
pseudo terminal.

TELNET Services
Telnet offers three basic services .
1. It defines a network virtual
terminal that provides a standard
interface to remote systems.
2. Telnet includes a mechanism that
allows the client and server to
negotiate options .
3. Telnet treats both ends of the
connection symmetrically.

Network Virtual Terminal

TELNET defines how data and command sequences are sent across the
internet known as network virtual terminal (NVT).

Network Virtual Terminal

An imaginary device from which both ends
of the connection, the client and the
server, map their real terminal to and from.
The Client Software translates keystrokes
and command sequences from the users
terminal to NVT and sends them to the
Server software translates incoming data
and commands from NVT format into the
format the remote system requires.

Network Virtual Terminal

All communication involves 8-bit
At startup, NVT uses the standard 7bit USASCII representation for data
Each 7 bit character is sent as an 8bit byte with the high-order bit set to

NVT Control Characters

Control Functions
TELNET cannot rely on the conventional
data stream alone to carry control
sequences between client and server.
TELNET uses an out of band signal to
solve this problem.
TCP implements out of band signaling
with the urgent data mechanism.
TELNET appends a reserved octet
called data mark.

Forcing The Server To Read A

Control Function
TELNET causes TCP to signal the
server by sending a segment with
URGENT DATA bit set.
Segments carrying urgent data
bypass flow control and reach the
server immediately.
The server reads and discards all
data until if finds the data mark.
The server returns to normal
processing when it encounters the

Out-of-band signaling

TELNET options
In TELNET , options are negotiable,
the client and server can reconfigure
their connection.

Option Negotiation


Pros And Cons Of TELNET Server As

An Application Program
It makes modification and control of
the server easier than if the code
were embedded in the operating


Another popular remote login

application program is Secure Shell
(SSH). SSH, like TELNET, uses TCP as
the underlying transport protocol.
SSH is more secure and provides
more services than TELNET.

SSH- Authentication

Thank You!