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# Columns

## Short Columns (Axial load + Moment )

Usually moment is represented by axial load
times eccentricity, i.e.

Axial Loads

## Interaction Diagram Between Axial Load and

Moment ( Failure Envelope )

Concrete
crushes before
steel yields
Steel yields
before concrete
crushes

frame

Stability index

Q
u

Vu lc

## Q 0.05 Non - sway (braced)

Q 0.05 Sway (unbraced)

## = unsupported length of member, defined

l
inuACI Code 10.11.3 as clear distance between
floor slabs, beams, or other members capable
of providing lateral support, as shown
= radius of gyration associated with
r
axis about which bending is occurring. For
rectangular cross sections r = 0.30 h, and
for circular sections, r = 0.25 h as specified
by ACI Code 10.11.2.

M1/M2 =

## Ratio of moments at two

column ends,
where M2 > M1 (-1 to 1 range)

M1
M2

singular
curvature

M1

M2

double
curvature

K Factor

## Slenderness Ratio for columns in

frames

K Factor calculatoin

EI / l of columns

EI / l of beams
c

I 0.35 I g

for Beam

I 0.7 I g

for Column

I 0.7 I g

I 0.35 I g

## For a Braced Frame:(Non-sway)

k 0.7 0.05 A B 1.0

## k 0.85 0.05 min 1.0

For a Sway
Frame:at both ends
a) Restrained
k

20 m
20

1 m

k 0.9 1 m

## b) One hinged end

k 2.0 0.3
Non-sway frames:
Sway frames:

Example
1
The frame shown in Figure is consisting of members
with rectangular cross sections, made of the same
strength concrete. Considering buckling in the plane of
the figure, categorize column FE as long or short if the
: frame is
Nonsway
270KN.m
Sway

400KN.m

Example 2

## Design reinforcement for a 400 mm x 500 mm tied

column. The column, which is part of a braced
frame, has an unsupported length of 3.0 m. It is
subjected to a factored axial load of 2400 kN in
.addition to a factored bending moment as shown
f y 420 Mpa
f c 30 Mpa
500KN.m

250KN.m

1.71ksi
0.71ksi

f c 30Mpa

f y 420Mpa

By 7.0

Mn
and A h
g

Long Columns

## Moment Magnification in Nonsway Frames

If the slenderness effects need to be
considered. The non-sway magnification
factor, ns, will cause an increase in the
magnitude of the design moment.
M max ns M 2

where
ns

ns M 2, min

Cm

Pu
1
0.75 Pcr

1.0

## Moment Magnification in Nonsway Frames

The components of the equation for an
Euler bucking load for pin-end
column
2
EI
Pc

klu

## and the stiffness, EI is taken as

EI

0.2 Ec I g Es I se
1 d

EI

conservatively

0.4 Ec I g
1 d
Max. factored Sustain Load
Max. factored Axial Load

## Moment Magnification in Nonsway Frames

A coefficient factor relating the actual
moment diagram to the equivalent
uniform moment diagram. For members
without transverse loads
M 1
Cm 0.6 0.4
0.4
M 2
For other conditions, such as members
with transverse loads between supports,
Cm = 1.0

## Moment Magnification in Nonsway Frames

The minimum allowable value of M2 is
M 2, min Pu 15.0 0.03 h

In mm

## The sway frame uses a similar technique,

see the text on the components.

Example 1
Design a 7.0 m-tall column that carries a service dead
load of 500 kN, and a service live load of 400 kN,
shown in Figure below
140KN.m

80KN.m

Moment Magnification in
sway Frames
M 1max M 1ns s M 1s
M 2 max M 2 ns s M 2 s

1
0.75 P
u

cr

Example 2

D +1.6 L 1.2

D +1.3 W 0.9

case 1
1.2 D 1.6 L
wu 136 KN
M u 847 KN .m
x 0

case 2
1.2 D 1.0 L 1.6W
wu 112 KN
M u 818 KN .m
x 17.5mm

case 3
0.9 D 1.3W
wu 54 KN
M u 434 KN .m
x 14.1mm

Lu=500-30=470cm

Hinged end

1.2 60
0.52
1.2 60 1.6 40

13
EI
3.6 10 N .mm 2
12 1 0.52
3

2 3.6 10
Pcr
1570.7 kN
2
3.2 4700 1000
1
s
1.91
2 * 560
1
0.75 2 *1570.7
13

## Case (1): 1.2 D +1.6 L

M max 847 kN .m
Pu 680 kN
Case (2): 1.2 D + 1.0 L +1.6 W

M max M ns s M s
698 (1.91)120 927.2kN .m

Pu 560 kN
Case (3) : 0.9 D +
1.3 W

M max 434kN .m
Pu 270kN

60 2 4 2 1 2.0

0.80
60

Case 1

Pn Pu 560 1000

3.11Mpa 0.44ksi
Ag
Ag 300 600

Mn
Mu
927.2 10

8.6Mpa 1.22ksi
Ag h Ag h 300 600 600
6

0.07
AS 0.07 * 300 * 600 12600mm 2 126cm 2

Case 2

Pn Pu 680 1000

3.78Mpa 0.54ksi
Ag
Ag 300 600

Mn
Mu
847 10

## 7.84 Mpa 1.12ksi

Ag h Ag h 300 600 600
6

0.08
Re design